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in battle I feigned to have seen such things, the Protector of my empire revealed the same to him also, that he might bear witness to the truth of my assertion ; for it was to me that the Lord of all first gave the vision. Let us then throw off all fear, and follow our military leaders, and let us not estimate the chances of victory by the number of combatants, but let us take into account the power of our leaders.”

After he had said these things to the soldiers, and had by his words filled them with alacrity, he led them down from the top of the mountain. The usurper seeing from afar the hostile army ranged in order of battle, armed his troops also, and prepared for combat. He addressed them from a rising ground, and stated that the emperor was only preparing for battle from despair and the desire of death, and he commanded his generals to capture him alive, to bind him, and to bring him before him. When the two armies approached each other, the hostile troops appeared extremely numerous, while those commanded by the emperor

seemed

few in number. But when the combat commenced, the truth of the promises of the protectors of the emperor was soon manifested. A. violent wind prevented the action of the enemy's shafts, and blew back their arrows upon themselves. Neither the heavyarmed men nor the archers could wound one of the emperor's army. The wind blew such a quantity of dust into their faces, that they were compelled to close their eyes. In the mean time the emperor's troops, who did not receive the least injury from the hurricane, boldly cut the enemy to pieces. The latter, perceiving that God was against them, laid down their arms, and entreated the emperor to give them quarter. He granted their petition, and desired that the usurper should be immediately brought before him. They ran to the place where the usurper, ignorant of what had occurred, was waiting to hear the issue of the battle. When he saw them running swiftly, and perceived that they were out of breath, he thought that they came to announce that victory had been gained, and asked them whether they had brought Theodosius bound, according to his commands. “ We do not bring him to you,” said they, “but we have to take you to him!” When they had said this, they loaded him with chains, and dragged him as a captive before him against whom he had, but a short time previously, so proudly boasted. The emperor

very

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reminded him of the guilt of his conduct against Valentinian, of the illegality of his usurpation, and of his revolt against the lawful emperor. He also ridiculed the image of Hercules, and the folly of those who trusted in it. He then justly pronounced the sentence of death against him. Such was the conduct of Theodosius in peace and in war: he always implored the assistance of God, and invariably received it.

CHAP. XXV.-Death OF THE EMPEROR THEODOSIUS. He was taken ill some time after the victory, and divided the empire between his sons. He gave to the elder that part of the empire which he had governed, and bestowed upon the younger the sceptre of Europe, and exhorted them both to piety,—“for it is by piety," said he, “that peace is preserved, that war is terminated, that trophies are upreared, and that victories are decided.” After he had thus exhorted his sons, he died, and left behind him eternal fame.

CHAP. XXVI.-HONORIUS THE EMPEROR, AND THE MONK

TELEMACHUS, The successors to the empire inherited the piety of their father. Honorius, who had received the empire of Europe, abolished the ancient exhibitions of gladiators' in Rome on the following occasion. A certain man named Telemachus, who had embraced a monastical life, came from the East to Rome at a time when these cruel spectacles were being exhibited. After gazing upon the combat from the amphitheatre, he descended into the arena, and tried to separate the gladiators. The sanguinary spectators, possessed by the demon who delights in the effusion of blood, were irritated at the interruption of their cruel sports, and stoned him who had occasioned the cessation. On being apprized of this circumstance, the admirable emperor numbered him with the victorious martyrs, and abolished these iniquitous spectacles.

| Honorius published two edicts with respect to the gladiatorial shows ; one A. D. 397, extant in the Theodosian Code, Leg. 3, tit.“ De Gladiatoribus," and the other in A. D. 404, which is now lost, and to which allusion is here made.

CHAP. XXVII.- PIETY OF THE EMPEROR ARCADIUS.-ORDIN

ATION OF ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM. On the death of Nectarius, the bishop of Constantinople, Arcadius,' who governed that part of the empire, hearing that John, the great luminary of the world, had been ordained a presbyter in Antioch, sent for him, and ordered the bishops to instal him as the pastor of the great city. This action alone is sufficient to evince the zeal of the emperor for religion. At this time Flavian was the bishop of Antioch. Elpidius, who had been the companion of the great Melitius, and who more closely resembled him in life and conversation than the wax resembles the impression of the seal, had succeeded to the government of the church of Laodicea, upon the death of Pelagius. The holy Marcellus was succeeded by the celebrated Agapetus, who had led a life of retirement during the time that the storms of persecution were raging. Maximus, a friend of John, was the bishop of Seleucia, a city situated near Mount Taurus ; and Theodore was the bishop of Mopsuestia. They were both eminent as preachers. Acacius, celebrated for great prudence and sanctity of life, governed the church of Bercea, and Leontius, wbo was renowned for many virtues, ruled the church of Galatia.

He gave

CHAP. XXVIII.-BOLDNESS OF THE BISHOP JOHN IN THE

CAUSE OF GOD. John had no sooner received the helm of the church, than he began to rebuke crime with much boldness. many useful counsels to the emperor and the empress ; he obliged the priests to observe the canons of the church ; and prohibited those who violated them from approaching the altar, saying, “ That it was not right that those should enjoy the sacerdotal dignity who did not imitate the sanctity of those who were true priests.” But he did not confine his zeal to the city : its effects were felt throughout all Thrace, which is divided into six provinces;2 throughout the whole

1

2

Compare Socrates, Eccl. Hist. v. 10, and vi. 2, and Sozomen, viii. 2.

Christophorson translated the word vyeuovias by dioceses, but there were many more than six dioceses in Thrace.

of Asia, in which there are eleven governments; and throughout Pontus, which comprises the same number of governments as Asia.

CHAP. XXIX.-IDOLATROUS TEMPLES DESTROYED BY JOHN,

IN PHNICIA.

HEARING that some of the inhabitants of Phoenicia were addicted to the worship of demons, John selected some ascetics who were filled with fervent zeal, and sent them to destroy the idolatrous temples, furnishing them with imperial edicts to authorize the act. He did not take the money, requisite to pay the labourers appointed to destroy the temples, from the royal treasury, but induced some ladies of great opulence, who were eminent on account of their faith, to defray this expense; and the temples of the demons were then thrown down from their very foundations.

CHAP. XXX.—THE CHURCH OF THE GOTHs. PERCEIVING that the Scythian multitudes had been entrapped in the perfidious snares of Arianism, John made every effort to liberate them. He selected some persons who were acquainted with their language, and after having had them ordained, some as presbyters, others as deacons, and the rest as readers of the Scriptures, he assigned a church to them, and many were, by their instrumentality, reclaimed from error. He frequently visited this church himself, and addressed the people by the aid of an interpreter : and he exhorted all who were endowed with the requisite powers of mind to engage in the same service. By these means he delivered many of the inhabitants of the city from the snares in which they had been entangled, and convinced them of the apostolical doctrines.

CHAP. XXXI.- THE BENEVOLENCE OF JOHN TOWARDS THE

SCYTHIANS.—ZEAL MANIFESTED BY HIM AGAINST MARCION.

The bishop, on being informed that some nomadic tribes of Scythia, who pitched their tents along the banks of the Ister,

" It is not certain whether the events recorded in this chapter took place A. D. 398, (immediately after the advancement of Chrysostom to the see of Constantinople,) or two years later.

thirsted for the waters of salvation, but had no one to bring the spring to them, sought out men willing to imitate the labours of the apostles, and sent them to these people. I have read some of his letters written to Leontius, the bishop of Ancyra, in which he speaks of the conversion of the Scythians, and begs him to send to them men capable of showing them the way

of salvation. Hearing that there were in our neighbourhood certain villages in which the errors of Marcion were held, he wrote to the pastor of that region, and exhorted him to eradicate the evil, and offered him the aid of the imperial power.

The heart-felt solicitude with which, like the divine apostle, he watched over the welfare of the churches, is clearly evinced by the facts which have been just related.

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CHAP. XXXII.-PETITION OF GAÏNAS AND

CHRYSOSTOM.

The following incidents prove the boldness of the bishop. A certain Scythian, named Gaïnas, who was of a ferocious, proud, and tyrannical disposition, ruled the military at this period, and had many of his own countrymen under him, and also large forces of Roman infantry and cavalry. He was feared by all, and even by the emperor, who suspected him of aspiring to the imperial dignity. As he had imbibed the infatuation of Arianism, he requested the emperor to give up a church for the use of the same persuasion. The emperor replied, that he would endeavour to give him satisfaction. He then sent for John, informed him of the request of Gaïnas, described the greatness of his power, intimated to him the ambitious projects which he was suspected of entertaining, and besought him to allay the fury of the barbarian by granting his request. The noble bishop replied, “Do not make this concession to him, O emperor ; do not bestow the holy things on dogs. Nothing could induce me to eject those who preach the Divinity of the Word, or to surrender the holy churches to those who blaspheme Him.

Do not fear this barbarian, O emperor. Summon us both into your presence : do you remain silent, and listen to what we say, and I will so restrain his tongue, that he will no longer ask that which ought not to be accorded.” The emperor was much pleased with this proposal ; and the next day summoned them both before him. Gaïnas having

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