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ing from godly doctrine, as Theodulus writes in an epistle upon this subject—this Anastasius, in discoursing to the Christ-loving people in the church of Constantinople, dared to say, without any reserve, "Let no one style Mary the Mother of God; for Mary was human, and it is impossible for God to be born of a human being." When the Christloving people were disgusted, and with reason regarded his discourse as blasphemous, Nestorius, the real teacher of the blasphemy, so far from restraining him and upholding the true doctrine, on the contrary imparted to the teaching of Anastasius the impulse it acquired, by urging on the question with more than ordinary pugnacity. And further, by mingling with it notions of his own, and thus vomiting forth the venom of his soul, he endeavoured to inculcate opinions still more blasphemous, proceeding so far as thus to avouch, upon his own peril, "I could never be induced to call that God which admitted of being two months old or three months old." These circumstances rest on the distinct authority of Socrates, and the former synod at Ephesus.
CHAP. III.-LETTER FROM CYRIL TO NESTORIUS.-COUNCIL
WHEN Cyril, the renowned bishop of the church of the Alexandrians, had communicated to Nestorius his reprobation of these transactions, and he, in rejoinder, paid no regard to what was addressed to him by Cyril, and by Celestine, bishop of the elder Rome, but was irreverently pouring forth his own vomit over the whole church, there was just occasion for the convening of the first synod of Ephesus, at the injunction of the younger Theodosius, sovereign of the Eastern empire, by the issuing of imperial letters to Cyril and the presidents of the holy churches in every quarter, naming, at the same time, as the day of meeting, the sacred Pentecost, on which the lifegiving Spirit descended upon us,2 Nestorius, on account of
Valesius thinks that Theodulus was a presbyter in Cole-Syria, who wrote several works in the reign of Zeno Augustus; but none of his writings are now extant.
2 The term uiv, "upon us," is put for the church of God, which at the great day of Pentecost resided in the apostles. Indeed, the Holy Spirit had descended on Mary before, at such time as she conceived the
the short distance of Ephesus from Constantinople, arrives early; and Cyril too, with his company, came before the appointed day; but John, the president of the church of Antioch, with his associate bishops, was behind the appointed time; not intentionally, as his defence has been thought by many to have sufficiently proved, but because he could not muster his associates with sufficient despatch, who were at a distance of what would be a twelve days' journey to an expeditious traveller from the city formerly named from Antiochus, but now the City of God, and in some cases more; and Ephesus was then just thirty days' journey from Antioch. He stoutly defended himself on the ground, that the observance of what is called the New Lord's Day by his bishops in their respective sees, was an insuperable impediment to his arriving before the stated day.
CHAP. IV.-DEPOSITION OF NESTORIUS.
WHEN fifteen days had elapsed from the prescribed period, the bishops who had assembled for this business, considering that the Orientals would not join them at all, or, at least, after a considerable delay, hold a conclave, under the presidency of the divine Cyril, occupying the post of Celestine, who, as has been before mentioned, was bishop of the elder Rome.2 They
Son of God; and afterwards upon Jesus Christ, when he had been baptized in Jordan. But the Holy Spirit descended first on the day of Pentecost upon the church of God by the apostles; for the apostles delivered the same Spirit, which they then received, afterwards to their successors, by imposition of hands.
1 The Greeks termed the first Sunday after Easter τὴν νέαν, or καινὴν Kupaкnν, "The New Sunday.' So Gregory Nazianzen calls it in his nineteenth Oration, spoken at the funeral of his own father Gregory. There is extant an Oration of the same Gregory upon this New Sunday, in which he gives a reason why this day should be called New Sunday. Further, the synod in Trullo, Can. 66, terms this Sunday, which is now commonly called Dominica in Albis, (the Sunday in the Albs,) by the same name. Smith, in his Account of the Greek Church, (page 32, edit. Lond. 1680,) tells us that the Greeks still term this Sunday The New Sunday, and that it is also called кvρiakỳ diakaivoiμos, that is, The Sunday of Regeneration.
2 Barrow remarks, in his Treat. of the Pope's Suprem. p. 289, that a word seems to have fallen out in this passage. Zonaras (on the first Can. Synod. Ephes. tom. i. edit. Bever. p. 100) expresses the meaning more plainly: "The holy Cyril, pope of Alexandria, presiding over the orthodox
accordingly summon Nestorius, with an exhortation that he would defend himself against the allegations. When, however, notwithstanding a promise given on the preceding day, that he would present himself if there were occasion, he did not appear, though thrice summoned, the assembly proceeded. to the investigation of the matter. Memnon, the president of the Ephesian church, recounted the days which had elapsed, fifteen in number: then were read the letters addressed to Nestorius by the divine Cyril, and his rejoinders; there being also inserted the sacred epistle of the illustrious Celestine to Nestorius himself. Theodotus, bishop of Ancyra, and Acacius, of Melitene, also detailed the blasphemous language to which Nestorius had unreservedly given utterance at Ephesus. With these were combined many statements in which holy fathers had purely set forth the true faith, having side by side with them various blasphemies which the frenzy of the impious Nestorius had vented. When all this had been done, the holy synod declared its judgment precisely in the following terms: "Since, in addition to the other matters, the most reverend Nestorius has refused to submit to our summons, or yet to admit the most holy and godly bishops who were sent by us, we have of necessity proceeded to the investigation of his impieties: and having convicted him of
fathers, and also holding the place of Celestine."
And Photius adds that
Cyril supplied the seat and the person of Celestine, bishop of Rome. From this it is plain that Cyril had the disposal of Celestine's single suffrage, and that pope's legal concurrence with him in his acts in that synod. But Valesius adds that Cyril had no authoritative presidency from Celestine, because the pope could by no delegation impart that to which he had no title, warranted by any law or precedent; for the presidency depended on the will of the emperors, who disposed of it according as they saw reason. (See Socrates, Eccl. Hist. pref. to b. v.) A notable instance of this we meet with in the next Ephesine synod, which in design was a general synod, legally convened, though by some miscarriages it proved abortive, (see below, ch. x.,) where though Julius, (or rather Julian,) the legate of Pope Leo, was present, yet by the emperor's order, (see the words of his Letter, Syn. Chalced. Act i. p. 59,) Dioscorus, bishop of Alexandria, presided. Nicephorus, however, (book xiv. chap. 34,) tells us that Celestine, bishop of Rome, could not be present at this synod, by reason of the dangers of such a voyage, and therefore made Cyril his deputy; and that from this time Cyril and the succeeding bishops of Alexandria challenged the name of Pope. See Euseb. Eccl. Hist. b. vii. ch. 7, where Dionysius applies the term Papa, or Pope, to his predecessor in that see. See note in loco (Bohn's edition).
entertaining and avowing impious sentiments, on the evidence both of his letters and writings which have been read, and also of words uttered by him lately in this metropolitan city, and established by sufficient testimony, at length, compelled by the canons, and in accordance with the epistle of our most holy father and fellow-minister, Celestine, bishop of the church of Rome, we have, with many tears, proceeded to this sad sentence. The Lord Jesus Christ, who has been blasphemed by him, has, through the agency of this holy synod, decreed, that the same Nestorius is alien from the episcopal dignity, and from every sacerdotal assembly."
CHAP. V.-DEPOSITION OF CYRIL AND OF JOHN.-THEIR、
AFTER the delivery of this most legitimate and just sentence, John, the bishop of Antioch, arrives with his associate priests, five days after the act of deposition; and having convened all his company, he deposes Cyril and Memnon. On account, however, of libels put forth by Cyril and Memnon to the synod which had been assembled in company with themselves, (although Socrates, in ignorance, has given a different account,) John is summoned to justify the deposition which he had pronounced; and, on his not appearing after a thrice-repeated summons, Cyril and Memnon are released from their sentence, and John and his associate priests are cut off from the holy communion and all sacerdotal authority. When, however, Theodosius, notwithstanding his refusal at first to sanction the deposition of Nestorius, had subsequently, on being fully informed of his blasphemy, addressed pious letters both to Cyril and John, they are reconciled to each other, and ratify the act of deposition.
CHAP. VI.--CYRIL'S EULOGY OF A LETTER FROM JOHN OF
ON occasion of the arrival of Paul, bishop of Emesa, at Alexandria, and his delivery before the church of that discourse which is extant on this subject, Cyril also, after highly
1 See below, b. vii. ch. 34.
commending the epistle of John, wrote to him in these words: "Let the heavens rejoice and the earth be glad, for the middle wall of partition is broken down, exasperation is stilled, and all occasion for dissension utterly removed, through the bestowal of peace upon his churches by Christ, the Saviour of us all; at the call, too, of our most religious and divinely favoured sovereigns, who, in excellent imitation of ancestral piety, preserve in their own souls a well-founded and unshaken maintenance of the true faith, and a singular care for the holy churches, that they may acquire an everlasting renown, and render their reign most glorious. On them the Lord of hosts himself bestows blessings with a bountiful hand, and grants them victory over their adversaries. Victory He does bestow: for never can he lie who says, As I live, saith the Lord, those that glorify me, I glorify. On the arrival, then, of my most pious brother and fellow-minister, my lord Paul, at Alexandria, I was filled with delight, and with great reason, at the mediation of such a man, and his voluntary engagement in labours beyond his strength, in order that he might subdue the malice of the devil, close our breaches, and, by the removal of the stumbling-blocks that lay between us, might crown both our churches and yours with unanimity and peace." And pre
sently he proceeds thus: "That the dissension of the church has been altogether unnecessary, and without sufficient ground, I am fully convinced, now that my lord the most pious bishop Paul has brought a paper presenting an unexceptionable confession of the faith, and has assured me that it was drawn up by your Holiness and the most pious bishops of your country.' And such is the writing thus drawn up, and inserted verbatim in the epistle; which, with reference to the Mother of God, speaks as follows: "When we read these your sacred words, and were conscious that our own sentiments were correspondent for there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism-we glorified God, the Preserver of all things, with a feeling of mutual joy, that both your churches and ours maintain a faith in agreement with the divinely inspired Scriptures and the tradition of our holy fathers." Of these matters any one may be assured, who is disposed to investigate diligently the transactions of those times.