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unfinished. Nor were they disappointed in their expectation: for his epistles, written after his accession to the priesthood, and composed with elegance and learning, as well as his discoursel addressed to Theodosius himself, and whatever is extant of his valuable writings, sufficiently show how excellent and great a man he was. CHAP. XVI.—TRANSLATION OF THE REMAINS OF IGNATIUS.
XVI.At the same period also took place the translation of the divine Ignatius, as is recorded, with other matters, by John the rhetorician :? who having found a tomb, as he himself desired, in the bowels of the wild beasts, in the amphitheatre of Rome, had, nevertheless, through the preservation of the more solid bones, which were conveyed to Antioch, long reposed in what is called the cemetery :3 the good God having moved Theodosius to dignify the bearer of the name Theophorus 4 with increased honours, and to dedicate a temple, long ago devoted to the de
| He maens the Oratio de Regno. This, however, was not spoken to Theodosins junior, but to Arcadius, A. D. 400, that is, ten years before Synesius had undertaken the bishopric.
? Evagrius frequently quotes the History of this Johannes the Rhetorician in his following books. For instance, in b. ii. chap. 12, b. iii. chap. 10, and 28, and b. iv. chap. 5. But he is a different person from another person of the same name, of whom Evagrius makes mention at the close of the last chapter of his fifth book, terming him his fellow-citizen and kinsman.
3 Nicephorus thought that the relics of Ignatius were brought from Rome to Constantinople in the times of Theodosius junior, and having been carried to Antioch by the same emperor's order, had been deposited there in the cemetery. For long before the reign of Theodosius junior the relics of the martyr Ignatius had been deposited in the cemetery of the city Antioch, as St. Jerome expressly attests in his book de Scriptor. Ecclesiast., where these are his words concerning Ignatius : “ Reliquiæ corporis ejus Antiochiæ jacent extra portam Daphniticam in Cæmeterio." Theodosius junior therefore did not translate the relics of Ignatius from Rome to Constantinople, and after that to Antioch; but he ordered them to be removed out of the cemetery which was without the city Antioch, and carried into the city.
• Tòv geopopov. This seems to have been the surname of the blessed Ignatius. Which is concluded from hence, because we read this title prefixed before all his epistles, 'I yvários ) kai 0ɛopópos, Ignatius, who also [is termed] Theophorus. In the martyrdom of the blessed Ignatius, which Usher has set forth, Ignatius styles himself Theophorus in the presence of the emperor Trajan. And being asked who Theophorus was, he answers, He who bears Christ in his breast. See Socrat. Eccles. Histor. b. vi. chap. 8.
A. D. 371.] REMOVAL OF THE REMAINS OF IGNATIUS. 279 mons, and called by the inhabitants Tychæum,' to the victorious martyr. Thus, what was formerly the shrine of Fortune, became a sanctuary and holy precinct for Ignatius, by depositing there his sacred remains, which were conveyed on a car through the city, attended by a solemn procession. From this event arose the celebration of a public festival, accompanied with rejoicings of the whole population ; which has continued to our times, and received increased magnificence at the hands of the prelate Gregory. Such results were brought about by the conspiring agency of friends and foes, while God was decreeing honour to the holy memories of the saints. For the impious Julian, that heaven-detested power, when the Daphnæan Apollo, whose prophetic voice proceeded from the Castalian ? fount, could give no response to the emperor's consultation, since the holy Babylas,3 from his neighbouring resting-place, restrained his utterance; was goaded on to be an unwilling instrument in honouring that saint by a translation ; on which occasion was also erected to him, outside the city, a spacious temple, which has remained entire to the present day : the object of the removal being that the demons might no longer be overawed in the pursuit of their own practices, the performance of which, as is said, they had previously promised to Julian. Thus were events disposed by the providence of God, in his design that both the power of those who were dignified by martyrdom should be clearly manifested, and the sacred relics of the holy martyr should be transferred to sacred ground, and be honoured with a noble precinct.
| The heathens attributed to all cities their Genii, to whom they built temples, which in Greek were termed τυχαία, οι τυχεία, See Eusebius Pamphilus concerning the martyrs of Palestine, chap. 11. The temple of the public Genius of the city of Antioch, which Julian in his Misopog. terms tò rñs túxns iepóv, is mentioned by Amm. Marcellinus, b. xxiii.
2 He means the Castalian fountain, concerning which Gregory Nazianzen in his second Invective against Julian, (tom. i. p. 127, edit. Paris, 1609,) thus speaks, “ Castalia has been silenced again, and is silent, and it is water, not uttering oracles, but exciting laughter. Apollo is become a dumb statue again. Daphne is a tree again,” &c. Upon this passage the Scholiast remarks, that “ Castalia was a fountain in Antioch, at which Apollo was by the ancients reported to sit, and to give forth oracles at the
And when any persons came thither on account of consulting the oracle, the water (as it is reported) sent forth gentle blasts and puffs of wind; and then the priests, who were about the fountain, declared those things which the will of the demon had brought forth.”
3 Comp. Socrat. Eccl. Hist. b. iii. ch. 18.
CHAP. XVII.--ATTILA KING OF THE HUNS.—EARTHQUAKES.
DURING those times arose the celebrated war of Attila, king of the Scythians : the history of which has been written with great care and distinguished ability by Priscus the rhetorician, who details, in a very elegant narrative, his attacks on the eastern and western parts of the empire, how many and important cities he reduced, and the series of his achievements until he was removed from the world.
It was also in the reign of Theodosius that an extraordinary earthquake occurred, which threw all former ones into the shade, and extended, so to speak, over the whole world. Such was its violence, that many of the towers in different parts of the imperial city were overthrown, and the long wall, as it is termed, of the Chersonese, was laid in ruins; the earth opened and swallowed up many villages; and innumerable other calamities happened both by land and sea. Several fountains became dry, and, on the other hand, large bodies of water were formed on the surface, where none existed before: entire trees were torn up by the roots and hurled aloft, and mountains were suddenly formed by the accumulation of masses thrown up. The sea also cast up dead fish ; many islands were submerged ; and, again, ships were seen stranded by the retreat of the waters. At the same time Bithynia, the Hellespont, and either Phrygia, suffered severely. This calamity prevailed for a considerable time, though the violence with which it commenced did not continue, but abated by degrees until it entirely ceased.
CHAP. XVIII. – Antioch EMBELLISHED BY DIFFERENT
GOVERNORS. In the course of the same period, Memnonius, Zoilus, and Callistus, were sent out by Theodosius to the government of
! This earthquake happened A. D. 447, in the consulate of Ardabures and Callepius.
? That is, to be Consulares of Syria. For the Consularis of Syria governed the city of Antioch, and the other cities of Syria-Cæle. We must not suppose that these three men were sent at one and the same time by Theodosius, to preside over the Antiochian jurisdiction: for this was not the usage of the Romans, but that each of them had been sent out at several times, one after the other, by Theodosius. Libanius says that it was
Antioch, men who made our religion an object of marked hon
Memnonius also rebuilt from the foundation, in a beautiful and elaborate style, the edifice which we name Psephium, leaving an unroofed court in the centre. Zoilus built the basilica, which is situated on the south side of that of Rufinus, and which has continued to bear his name to our times, although the structure itself has undergone changes from various casualties. Callistus, too, erected a noble and striking edifice, called both in former and present times the Basilica of Callistus, in front of the seats of justice, and opposite the forum where stand the splendid buildings which are the quarters of the military commanders. Subsequently, Anatolius, having been sent out as commander of the forces of the East, erects the basilica which bears his name, and embellishes it with every variety of material. The introduction of these matters, though beside my more immediate purpose, will not offend the taste of the curious reader.
CHAP. XIX.-WARS DURING THE REIGN OF THEODOSIUS.
In the times of Theodosius, repeated revolts took place in Europe, during the reign of Valentinian at Rome. These were crushed by Theodosius, who sent out for that purpose large land and naval forces. He also so far quelled the insolence of the Persians, whose sovereign at that time was Isdigerdes, the father of Vararanes, or, as Socrates thinks, Vararanes himself, as to reduce them to solicit peace; which was granted, and lasted till the twelfth year of the reign of Anastasius. These transactions have been recorded by other writers, and have also been very elegantly epitomized by Eustathius of Epiphania, the Syrian, who wrote, besides, an account of the capture of Amida. In that age, too, it is said that the poets usual for the Consulares of Syria to erect some public structure, that they might ingratiate themselves with the people of Antioch.
Probably by the otpatnyoi we are to understand not the military commanders in chief, but the magistrates or duumviri, who in Greek were termed otpatnyol. The same term occurs in this sense in Euseb. Eccles. Hist. b. vii. chap. 11, and b. viii. chap. 1), for the house is said to have been in the forum, over against the palace in which was the court of judicature. Now, such a house as this seems to be more agreeable to a municipal magistrate than to a military officer; and besides, these houses were in Greek termed otparnyia. Such was the Strategium at Constantinople. See Socrates, Eccles. Hist. b. i. chap. 16.
Claudian! and Cyrus 2 flourished ; and that Cyrus was elevated to the seat of highest dignity among the prefects, styled by our ancestors the prefect of the palace, and was also invested with the command of the forces of the West, when the Vandals under Genseric had made themselves masters of Carthage.
CHAP. XX.-THE EMPRESS EUDOCIA. THEODOSIUS also espoused Eudocia, who had previously participated in the saving baptism ; an Athenian by birth, and distinguished by poetic
skill and beauty of person ; through the offices of his sister, the princess Pulcheria. By her he
Claudian the celebrated Latin poet is here meant; he wrote both in Greek and Latin. A two-fold difficulty occurs : 1. How a Latin poet should come to be mentioned here by Evagrius ? 2. Why he is placed on the times of Theodosius junior, whereas that Claudian, whose verses are now extant, flourished in the reigns of Arcadius and Honorius, as his writings inform us? The answer to the first question is easy. For Claudian wrote not only Latin but Greek poems also; and on this account, in the epigram which was inscribed on his statue, he is said to have had the soul of Virgil and Homer also transfused into him. He began to write a Latin poem first A. D. 395, while Olybrius and Probinus were consuls. He wrote an elegant poem on their consulate, which is still extant. When this attempt had succeeded, it encouraged him thenceforth to write Latin verses, whereas he had published only Greek poems before, as himself attests in his Elegy to Probinus, in these words :
Romanos bibimus primùm te consule fontes,
Et Latiæ cessit Graia Thalia togæ.
Fataque debebo posteriora tibi. It is certain that Claudian was by nation a Grecian, born at the city Alexandria, as Suidas informs us at the word klavdiavos. Claudian himself also attests the same, in his poem to Hadrianus Præfectus Prætorio, (who was himself also an Alexandrian). For he writes thus concerning Alexander the Macedonian;
Conditor hic patriæ. Sic hostibus ille pepercit.
Sæviet in miseros cognata potentia cives.
Vales. ? The poet Cyrus was by nation an Ægyptian, born at the town Panopolis. He was on account of his poetic faculty highly acceptable to Eudocia Augustus, wife to Theodosius junior, and so was promoted by the emperor Theodosius to the præfecture of the prætorium, and to that of the city. He was afterwards bishop of Cotyæum.