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in so doing, first recount who and whence he was, and by what means he won the imperial power: and having done this, let me record the occurrences of his reign in the order of time. Marcian, as has been recorded by many other writers, and in particular by Priscus, the rhetorician, was by birth a Thracian, and the son of a military man. In his desire to follow his father's mode of life, he had set out for Philippopolis, where he could be enrolled in the legions, and on the road sees the body of a person recently slain, lying exposed upon the ground. On going up to it-for, besides the excellence of his other virtues, he was singularly compassionatehe commiserated the occurrence, and suspended his journey for some time, from a desire to discharge the due offices to the dead. Some persons, observing the circumstance, reported it to the authorities at Philippopolis, and they proceeded to apprehend Marcian, and interrogated him respecting the murder; and when, through the prevalence of conjecture and mere probability over truth and asseveration of innocence, he was upon the point of suffering the punishment of guilt, a providential interposition suddenly brings into their hands the real criminal, who, by forfeiting his own head as the penalty of the deed, procures an acquittance of the head of Marcian. After this unexpected escape, he presents himself to one of the military bodies stationed in the place, with the intention of enlistment." Struck with the singularity of his fortunes, and with reason concluding that he would arrive at power and pre-eminent distinction, they gladly admitted him, and that too without placing him, according to military rule, lowest on the roll; but they assigned to him the grade of a lately-deceased soldier, named Augustus, by inscribing in the list Marcian, called also Augustus. Thus did his name anticipate the style of our sovereigns, who assume the title of Augustus on attaining the purple. It was as if the name refused to abide on him without its appropriate rank, and, on the other hand, the rank was not ambitious of another name for the augmentation of its style: and thus arose an identity of his personal and titular appellations, since his dignity and his name found an expression

mapayyéllev. This word literally signifies, to desire or sue for an office. Lower down in this chapter the derived substantive zapayyelia is used to signify the muster-roll in which the soldiers' names were entered before they took the sacramentum or military oath.

in the same term. Another circumstance also occurred, which might serve as a prognostic of the imperial power being destined to Marcian. When serving under Aspar against the Vandals, he was one of many who fell into their hands on the total defeat of that general; and, on the demand of Genseric to see the prisoners, was dragged with the rest along the plain. When the whole body was collected, Genseric sat in an upper chamber, surveying with delight the numbers that had been taken. As the time wore on, they pursued each his own inclination, for the guard had, at the order of Genseric, released them from their bonds; and while they accordingly disposed of themselves each in his several way, Marcian laid himself down

upon the ground to sleep in the sun, which was shining with unusual heat for the season of the year. An eagle, however, poising his fight above him, and directly intercepting the sun as with a cloud, thus produced a shade and its consequent refreshment, to the amazement of Genseric, who, rightly presaging the future, sent for Marcian, and liberated him, having previously bound him by solemn oaths, that on attaining the imperial power he would maintain faithfully the rights of treaty towards the Vandals, and not commence hostilities against them; and Procopius records, that Marcian observed these conditions. But let us leave this digression, and return to my subject. Marcian was pious towards God, and just towards those under his rule ; regarding as wealth neither treasured stores nor the revenue of imposts, but only the means of providing relief to the needy, and to the wealthy the security of their possessions. He was dreaded, not in the infliction of punishment, but only by its anticipation. On this account he received the sovereignty not as an inheritance, but as the prize of virtue, conferred by the unanimous voice both of the senate and men of all ranks, at the suggestion of Pulcheria, whom he also espoused as his partner in the imperial dignity, though she still remained a virgin to old age. These transactions took place without the previous ratification of the choice by Valentinian, the emperor of Rome, who, however, accorded his approval to the virtues of the person elected. It was further the desire of Marcian, that an un

· The words of Procopius to which Evagrius here alludes, were formerly extant in the first book of his Vandalics. But they are omitted in the Augustan edition, page 96.



divided service should be offered up by all to God, by uniting in pious concord the tongues which the arts of impiety had confounded, and that the Deity should be honoured by one and the same doxology.


While entertaining these intentions, the emperor is addressed both by the legates of Leo, bishop of the elder Rome, who alleged that Dioscorus had, during the second council of Ephesus, refused to receive the epistle of Leo, containing a formula of the true doctrine ; and also by those who had been contumeliously treated by Dioscorus, entreating that their case might be submitted to the decision of a synod. But Eusebius, who had been president of the church of Dorylæum, was especially urgent, and affirmed that both himself and Flavian had been deposed by the intrigues of Chrysaphius, the minister? of Theodosius, because, in reply to his demand of an offering in gold, Flavian had, in acknowledgment of his own appointment, sent the sacred vessels to shame him ; 2 and also that Chrysaphius made a near approach to Eutyches in erroneous doctrine. He also said that Flavian had even been brought to a miserable end by being thrust and trampled on by Dioscorus himself. These circumstances caused the synod at Chalcedon to be assembled ; for which purpose the bearers of missives

l were despatched, and the prelates in all quarters were summoned by pious letters. The place named was, in the first instance, Nicæa; and, accordingly, Leo, the president of Rome, on writing an epistle respecting Paschasianus, Lucentius, and others, whom he had sent as his representatives, inscribed it to the council assembled at Nicæa. It was, however, subsequent1 ÚTAOTLOTOŨ. Minister, or perhaps the defender of the emperor's per

Such is the sense of this word according to Valesius. ? Theophanes relates that Theodosius at the suggestion of Chrysaphius, commanded Flavian, the newly ordained bishop of Constantinople, that for his ordination he should send him the Eulogiæ, that is, the loaves of benediction, or, pieces of the blessed bread. See Socrat. b. vii. chap. 12. And when Flavian had sent white loaves of bread, Chrysaphius made answer, that the emperor demanded golden Eulogiæ. In answer to which Flavian wrote back, that he had no money which he could send, unless instead of money he should present him with the sacred vessels of the church. This, as Theophanes says, raised a deadly grudge between Chrysaphius and Flavian. Vales.


ly convened at Chalcedon in Bithynia. Zacharias,' the rhetorician, influenced by partiality, says that Nestorius was also fetched from his place of exile : but this is disproved by the circumstance, that Nestorius was generally anathematized by the members of the synod. And Eustathius, bishop of Berytus, clearly establishes the point, when writing in the following terms to John, a bishop, and another John, a presbyter, respecting the matters agitated in the assembly." Those who were in quest of the remains of Nestorius, again presenting themselves, clamorously demanded of the synod, why the saints are anathematized; so that the emperor indignantly ordered the guards to drive them far from the place.” How then Nestorius was sumn

mmoned, when he had departed from the world, I am unable to say.

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The place of meeting was the sacred precinct of Euphemia, the martyr, situated in the district of Chalcedon in Bithynia, and distant not more than two stadia from the Bosphorus. - The site is a beautiful spot, of so gentle an ascent, that those who are on their way to the temple are not aware of their immediate approach, but suddenly find themselves within the sanctuary on elevated ground; so that, extending their gaze from a commanding position, they can survey the level surface of the plain spread out beneath them, green with herbage, waving with corn, and beautified with every kind of tree; at the same time including within their range woody mountains, towering gracefully or boldly swelling, as well as parts of the sea under various aspects : here, where the winds do not reach them, the still waters, with their dark blue tint, sweetly playing with gentle ripple on the beach ; there wildly surging, and sweeping

back the sea-weeds and the lighter shell-fish with the recoil of its waves. Directly opposite is Constantinople : and thus the beauty of the site is enhanced by the view of so vast a city. The holy place consists of three immense build

1 Zacharias Rhetor wrote an Ecclesiastical History from the beginning of the emperor Marcian's reign down to the reign of Anastasius. But his history was corrupted with party spirit. See below, b. iii. chap. 7. And in chap. 18 of his third book, Evagrius accuses Zacharias of carelessness.



ings. One is open to the sky, including a court of great extent, and embellished on all sides with columns; and next to it another, nearly resembling it in its length, breadth, and columns, and differing from it only in being roofed. On the north side of this, facing the East, is a round building, skilfully terminated in a dome,' and surrounded in the interior with columns of uniform materials and size. These support a gallery under the same roof, so contrived, that those who are disposed, may thence both supplicate the martyr and be present at the mysteries. Within the domed building, towards the Eastern part, is a splendid enclosure, where are preserved the sacred remains of the martyr in a long coffin (it is distinguished by some persons by the term “long”3) of silver, skilfully worked. The wonders which have at certain times been wrought by the holy martyr, are manifest to all Christians. For frequently she has appeared in a dream to the bishops of the city from time to time, and even to certain persons whose lives have been otherwise distinguished, and has bid them visit her and gather a vintage 4 at her sanctuary. When such an occurrence had been ascertained by the sovereigns, the patriarch, and the city, they visit the temple, both those who sway the sceptre, and those who are invested with sacred and civil offices, as well as the whole multitude, desirous to partake in the mysteries. Accordingly, the president of the church of Constantinople, with his attendant priests, enters, in sight of the public, the sanctuary where the already-mentioned sacred body is deposited.


'Es gólov, that is, in form of a cupola or dome as the Italian's now term it. The place where the Prytanes at Athens sat was termed Tholus.

? By onkòs is meant a place fenced in with bars made lattice-wise, in shape like what is now called a shrine. In the niidst of this tomb or shrine was a silver chest wherein the relics of the holy martyr Euphemia were deposited. Vales.

Instead of μακράν, Macra, Valesius suggests that we should read άρκάν, " the ark.”

* Evagrius speaks here of the miraculous blood flowing out of the tomb of the holy martyr. We have followed the ordinary reading, (Tpvyąv,) in the simple and obvious sense concerning the making of a vintage ; which agrees exactly with the following words: for the blood which in a most plentiful manner was pressed out of the blessed martyr's relics, was not unlike wine which is squeezed out of grapes. Besides, the festival of the holy Euphemia fell in the time of vintage, viz. on the sixteenth of September, as we are informed from the Greek calendar. Vales.

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