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a single letter, that, while in reality the one expression was completely inductive of the notion of the other, still with the generality the discrepancy between them was held to be considerable, and the ideas conveyed by them to be clearly in diametric opposition, and exclusive of each other; whereas 'he who confesses Christ in two natures, clearly affirms Him to be from two'; inasmuch as by confessing Christ at once in Godhead and manhood, he asserts His consistence from Godhead and manhood ; and, on the other hand, the position of one who affirms His origin from two natures, is completely inclusive of His existence in two, inasmuch as he who affirms Christ to be from Godhead and manhood, confesses His existence in Godhead and manhood, since there is no conversion of the flesh into Godhead, nor a transition of the Godhead into flesh, from which substances arises the ineffable union. So that in this case by the expression, “ from two natures, is aptly suggested the thought of the expression, "in two, and conversely; nor can there be a severance of the terms, this being an instance where a representation of the whole is afforded, not merely by its origin from component parts, but, as a further and distinct means, by its existence in them. Yet, nevertheless, persons have so taken up the idea of the marked distinction of the terms, either from a habit of thought respecting the glory of God, or by the inclination forestalling the judgment, as to be reckless of death in any shape, rather than acknowledge the real state of the case ; and hence arose the occurrences which I have described. Such then was the state of these matters.

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CHAP. VI.-DROUGHT, FAMINE, AND PESTILENCE IN ASIA MINOR.

ABOUT the same time there was also a drought in Phrygia, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Cilicia ; and, from want of ordinary necessaries, the inhabitants had recourse to unwholesome food, which further gave rise to pestilence. The change of food

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Evagrius means the prepositions év and ék, that is, 'in' and of,' which differ one from the other in one letter. The Catholics confessed Christ in two natures. The heretics asserted, that He consisted of two natures, but, which had grown together and were become one nature. For, after the union of the Word, they affirmed, that the nature of Christ was one, and hence they were termed Monophysites.

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caused disease; excessive inflammation produced a swelling of the body, followed by loss of sight, and attended with a cough, and death took place on the third day. For a time no relief could be devised for the pestilence ; but all-preserving Providence vouchsafed to the survivors a remedy for the famine, by raining down food in the unproductive year, in the same way as what was termed manna upon the Israelites ; and, during the succeeding year, by willing that the fruits of the earth should be matured spontaneously. The spread of these calamities included also Palestine and innumerable other districts, making, as it were, a circuit of the earth.

CHAP. VII.-Death Of The EMPEROR VALENTINIAN.-ROME

TAKEN.-SUCCESSORS OF VALENTINIAN.

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DURING the progress of these events in the East, Aetius meets with a miserable end at Old Rome, and Valentinian, the emperor of the West, is slain, together with Heraclius, by some of the guards of Aetius, at the instigation of Maximus, who afterwards assumed the sovereignty, and who conspired against them because Valentinian had violated his wife. This Maximus forces Eudoxia, the wife of Valentinian, into a marriage with himself ; and she, justly regarding the transaction as an outrage and altogether monstrous, determined to set, as the saying is, all upon a cast, on account of the wrong she had suffered both in the person of her husband and the infringement of her liberty : for a woman, jealous of her chastity, is unscrupulous and implacable if she has suffered defilement, especially by one through whose means she has been deprived of her husband. Accordingly, she sends to Genseric, in Africa, and by considerable presents, as well as by holding out confident expectations of the future, induces him to make a sudden descent upon the Roman empire, with a promise of betraying everything into his hands. This was accordingly done, and Rome captured. But Genseric, barbarian-like and fickle, did not maintain his fidelity even to her ; but, after firing the city and making an indiscriminate pillage, he retired, taking with him Eudoxia and her two daughters, and returned to Africa. The elder daughter, Eudocia, he espouses to his own son, Huneric; but the younger, Placidia, he subsequently sends, together with her mother Eudoxia, with a royal escort to By

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zantium, with the view of pacifying Marcian, who was exasperated both by the burning of Rome and the outrage upon the royal ladies. Placidia, in obedience to Marcian, consents to marry Olybrius, a distinguished member of the senate, who had come to Constantinople on the capture of Rome. After Maximus, Avitusl was emperor of the Romans for eight months ; and on his decease by starvation, Majoriana for more than a year : and after he had been treacherously murdered by Ricimer, master of the Roman armies, Severus for three years.

CHAP. VIII.-DEATH OF THE EMPEROR MARCIAN.-MURDER OF

PROTERIUS, BISHOP OF ALEXANDRIA.-ELÈCTION OF TIMOTHY, SURNAMED ÆLURUS (THE CAT).

DURING the reign of Severus at Rome, Marcian3 exchanges his earthly sovereignty by a removal to a happier state, having reigned only seven years, but leaving behind him a truly royal monument 4 in the memories of mankind. On learning this event, the people of Alexandria renewed their feud against

" After the death of Valentinian, and the murder of Maximus, Avitus was proclaimed emperor at Toulouse, June, A. D. 455. On the year following he was deposed at Placentia ; so that, if what Evagrius relates here be true, (viz. that Avitus reigned eight months,) his deposition must necessarily fall on the month of March in the year 456. Avitus reigned seven or eight months only, which months were part of two consulates. For which reason it is affirmed by some writers that he reigned two years. Vales.

? Majorian governed the Roman empire four years and as many months. Severus, who succeeded him, reigned almost the same space of years, as the same writers relate. But these things happened after the death of the emperor Marcian, during Leo Augustus’s government of the Eastern empire. Vales.

3 Evagrius is mistaken here, as Marcian died in the consulate of Constantinus and Rufus, A. D. 457, in the month February. Majorian was proclaimed emperor at Ravenna in the same year, on the calends of April, that is, almost two months after Marcian's death. To him succeeded Severus, A. D. 461, in the consulate of Severinus and Dagalaisus, almost five years after the emperor Marcian's death. Vales.

4 The monument can be nothing else than either his own life religiously spent, or rather the synod of Chalcedon, which he had ordered to be convened, to take away the dissensions of the church, and at which he himself was present, agreeably to the example of Constantine the Great. That synod, therefore, having been convened and perfected by his labour and diligence, may deservedly be styled the work and monument of the emperor Marcian.

(Evagrius.]

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Proterius with still greater exasperation and excessive heat : for the populace in general are an inflammable material, and allow

very trivial pretexts to foment the flame of commotion, and not in the least degree that of Alexandria, which presumes on its numbers, chiefly an obscure and promiscuous rabble, and vaunts forth its impulses with excessive audacity. Accordingly, it is said that every one who is so disposed may, by employing any casual circumstance as a means of excitement, inspire the city with a frenzy of sedition, and hurry the populace in whatever direction and against whomsoever he chooses. Their general humour, however, is even of a sportive kind, as Herodotus records to have been the case with Amasis. Such, then, is the character of this people; who were, however, in all other respects by no means contemptible.

The people of Alexandria, accordingly, taking advantage of the prolonged absence of Dionysius, commander of the legions in Upper Egypt, decree the elevation to the highest priestly grade, of Timotheus, surnamed Ælurus, who had formerly followed the monastic life, but had subsequently been admitted among the presbyters of the church of Alexandria ; and, conducting him to the great church, styled that of Cæsar,2 elect him their bishop, though Proterius was still alive and discharged the functions of his office. There were present at the election, Eusebius, president of the church of Pelusium, and Peter the Iberian, bishop of the town of Majumas, according to the account given of the transaction by the writer of the life of Peter, who also says that Proterius was not killed by the populace, but by one of the soldiers. When Dionysius, on account of the urgency of these disorders, had occupied the city with the utmost despatch, and was taking prompt measures to quench the towering conflagration of the sedition, some of the Alexandrians, at the instigation of Timotheus, according to the written report made to Leo, despatch Proterius when he appeared, by thrusting a sword through his bowels, after he had fled for refuge to the holy baptistery. Suspending the body by a cord, they displayed it to the public

I See Herod. b. ii. ch. 172.

2 The great church of the city Alexandria, was termed Cæsaria, or Cæsarium : see Socrates, b. vii. ch. 15. Athanasius says it was so called because it had been built in a place which formerly was called the Cæsarium, that is, the temple of the Cæsars.

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in the quarter called Tetrapylum, jeering and vociferating that the victim was Proterius ; and, after dragging it through the whole city, committed it to the flames ; not even refraining themselves from tasting his intestines, like beasts of prey, according to the account of the entire transaction contained in the petition addressed by the Egyptian bishops and the whole clergy of Alexandria to Leo, who, as has been said, was invested with the imperial power on the death of Marcian. It was couched in the following terms: "To the pious, Christ-loving and divinely-appointed, the victorious and triumphant Augustus Leo, the petition of all the bishops of your Egyptian diocese, and the clergy of your most dignified and holy church of Alexandria. Having been granted, by Divine grace, a boon to mankind, as such you cease not to exercise, next to God, a daily providence of the common weal, Augustus, most sacred of all emperors." After some other matters, the petition proceeds: “ And while undisturbed peace was prevailing among the orthodox people of our country and Alexandria, Timotheus, immediately after the holy synod at Chalcedon, being at that time a presbyter, severed himself from the Catholic church and faith, together with only four or five bishops and a few monks, of those who, as well as himself, were infected with the heretical errors of Apollinaris and his followers ;' on account of which opinions they were then deposed by Proterius, of divine memory, and the general synod of Egypt, and duly experienced the motion of the imperial will, in the sentence of banishment.” And afterwards it proceeds : “ And having watched the opportunity afforded by the departure from this world to God of the emperor Marcian, of sacred memory, assuming then in blasphemous terms a bold tone of independence, and shamelessly anathematizing the holy and general synod at Chalcedon, while he drew after him a mercenary and disorderly multitude, and assailed the divine canons and ecclesiastical order, the commonwealth and the laws, he intruded himself

upon the holy church of God, which at that time was possessed of a pastor and teacher in the person of our most holy father and archbishop, Proterius, duly performing the ordinary rites, and offering up to Christ, the Saviour of us all, supplications in behalf of your pious sovereignty and your Christ-loving court." And presently it proceeds : “And after

Namely, Eutyches and the Eutychians.

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