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the interval of only one day, while Proterius, beloved of God, was occupying, as usual, the episcopal residence, Timotheus, taking with him the two bishops who had been justly deposed, and the clergy who, as we have said, were condemned to banishment with them, as if he had received rightful ordination at the hands of the two, though not one of the orthodox bishops of the whole Egyptian diocese was present, as is customary on occasion of the ordinations of the bishop of the church of Alexandria-he possesses himself, as he presumed, of the archiepiscopal see, though manifestly guilty of an adulterous outrage on the church, as already having her rightful spouse in one who was performing the divine offices in her, and canonically occupied his proper throne.” And further

“ The blessed man could do nothing else than give place to wrath, according to what is written, and take refuge in the venerable baptistery2 from the assault of those who were pursuing him to death, a place which especially inspires awe even into barbarians and savages, though ignorant of its dignity, and the grace which flows from it. Notwithstanding, however, those who were eager to carry into execution the design which Timotheus had from the first conceived, and who could not endure that his life should be protected by those undefiled precincts, neither reverenced the dignity of the place, nor yet the season, (for it was the solemnity of the saving paschal feast,) nor were awe-struck at the priestly office which mediates between God and man ; but put the blameless man to death, cruelly butchering him with six others. They then drew forth his body covered with wounds, and having dragged it in horrid procession with unfeeling mockery through almost every part of the city, ruthlessly loaded the senseless corpse with indignity, so far as to tear it limb from limb, and not even abstain from tasting, like beasts of prey, the flesh of him whom but just before they were supposed to have as a mediator between God and man.

They then committed what remained of the body to the flames, and scattered the ashes to the winds, exceeding the utmost ferocity of wild beasts. Of all these transactions Timotheus was the guilty cause, and the skilful builder of the scheme of mischief.” Zacharias, however, while treating at length of these events, is of opinion that the greater part of the circumstances thus detailed actually occurred, but through the fault of Proterius, by his instigation of serious disturbances in the city, and that these outrages were committed, not by the populace, but by some of the soldiery ; grounding his opinion on a letter addressed by Timotheus to Leo. In consequence, however, of these proceedings, Stilas is sent out by the emperor to chastise them.

1 In the fourth canon of the Nicene council, it is in express words established, that a bishop is to be ordained by at least three bishops of his own province.

2 The baptistery in early times was placed near the porch of the church, either on the inside, or the outside, and was usually screened off by rails, as apparently was the case here.

CHAP. IX.-LETTER FROM THE EMPEROR LEO.

LEO also addresses circular letters of inquiry to the bishops throughout the empire and the most distinguished monastics, relating to the synod at Chalcedon and the ordination of Timotheus, surnamed Ælurus, accompanying them with copies of the petitions which had been presented to him on the part both of Proterius and Timotheus. The circular letters were couched in the following terms :

A copy of the sacred epistle of the most pious emperor Leo to Anatolius, bishop of Constantinople, to the metropolitans throughout the whole world, and the other bishops.

“ The emperor Cæsar Leo, pious, victorious, triumphant, supreme, ever-worshipful Augustus, to the bishop Anatolius. It has ever been a subject of prayer to my piety, that all the orthodox and most holy churches, and, indeed, the cities throughout the Roman dominion, should enjoy perfect tranquillity, and that nothing should befall them to disturb their settled serenity. The events, however, which have lately happened at Alexandria, we are assured, are known to your Holiness; but that you may be more fully informed respecting the entire transaction, and the cause of so much tumult and confusion, we have forwarded to your sanctity copies of the petitions which the most reverend bishops and clergy of the before-mentioned city, and of the Egyptian diocese, presented to our piety against Timotheus, at the imperial city of Constantine; and, in addition, copies of the petitions presented to our serenity, at our sacred court, by persons from Alexandria on behalf of Timotheus; so that your Holiness will be able

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distinctly to learn what have been the proceedings of the before-mentioned Timotheus, whom the people of Alexandria and their dignitaries,' senators, and ship-masters request for their bishop, and what relates to the other transactions, as intimated by the tenor of the petitions, as well as regarding the synod at Chalcedon, to which these parties by no means assent, according as the matters are set forth by the petitions appended. Your Reverence will accordingly for thwith cause to assemble to you all the orthodox holy bishops who are now resident in the imperial city, as also the most reverend clergy; and, after carefully investigating and testing every circumstance, considering that Alexandria is at present disturbed, and that we are most solicitous for its settlement and tranquillity, declare your opinion respecting the before-mentioned Timotheus and the synod at Chalcedon, without any fear of man, and apart from all favour or dislike ; setting before your eyes only the fear of the Almighty, inasmuch as ye know that ye shall give account of this matter to His pure Godhead. This we enjoin, in order that, being perfectly informed by your letters, we may be able to frame the fitting issue on the entire matter.” The emperor wrote also in similar terms to the other bishops, and, as I have said, to the most distinguished among those who at that period were practising the endurance of the bare and immaterial mode of life. Among these was Simeon, who first conceived the station on the pillar, and of whom I have made mention in the former part of the history : as well as Baradatus and Jacob, the Syrians.

According to Valesius, the 'åčlwuatikoi, or Honorati, were those persons who bore the civil dignities as well in the cities, as in the provinces ; the molitevóuevou probably were the Decuriones. Gregorius Nazianzen joins them both together, in his 49th Epistle to Olympius, and in his 22nd Epistle to the Cæsarienses. The Naucleri, or Navicularii, were a society of sea-faring men ordained for transportation of corn and public provisions in several quarters of the empire; (for there was a body of them in the East, another in Africa, and a third at Alexandria ;) they were a set nunber, and transported the said provisions at their own expense, succeeding by turns in the charge and burden; to which their sons and heirs were liable, as were also those who possessed their estates after them, according to that proportion which they possessed. To the discharge of this function they were always subject, so that scarcely could they be excused by any great honour obtained. They were forced to build ships and vessels of certain burdens; but the materials for them were supplied by the country. Their charge was great, and so were their privileges, as may be seen by various laws extant concerning them in the Theodosian Code.

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CHAP. X.-REPLIES OF THE BISHOPS, AND OF SIMEON.

ACCORDINGLY, in the first instance, Leo, bishop of the elder Rome, both wrote in defence of the synod at Chalcedon, and declared the ordination of Timotheus to be null, as having been irregularly performed. This epistle the emperor Leo despatches to Timotheus, president of the church of Alexandria ; Diomedes, the silentiary, executing the imperial commission; and Timotheus wrote in rejoinder, excepting to the synod at Chalcedon and the epistle of Leo. Of these documents copies are preserved in the collection called the Circulars :? but I have omitted them, to avoid encumbering the matter on hand with too great a number. The bishops too of the other cities expressed their adherence to the determinations framed at Chalcedon, and unanimously condemned the ordination of Timotheus. Amphilochius alone, bishop of Side, wrote an epistle, loudly reprobating the ordination of Timotheus, but also rejecting the synod at Chalcedon. Zacharias the rhetorician has also treated of these transactions, and has inserted the epistle itself of Amphilochius in his work. Simeon, too, of holy memory, wrote two epistles on the occasion; namely, to the emperor Leo, and to Basilius, bishop of Antioch. The latter, as being brief, I insert in this my history, as follows: “ To my lord, the most religious and holy servant of God, the archbishop Basilius, the sinful and humble Simeon wishes health in the Lord. Well may we now say, my lord ; Blessed be God, who has not rejected our prayer, nor

I The Silentiarii, who are sometimes termed Domestici and Protectores, were officers of the greatest honour about the emperor, as they were of the emperor's inmost chamber; on which account they were also termed Cubicularii. The outward chamber, from which there was an immediate passage into the very chamber of the emperor, by reason of the silence there kept in reverence to the emperor, was termed Silentium, the Silence; which the Greeks by a corrupt name called olevtiapixlov ; whence these Cubicularii had the name of Silentiarii. There were two orders of these officers: the first was a meaner sort of office, their business was to command the people to be silent and quiet. The other order of the Silentiarii was far more honourable; they were over the secrets of the emperor, and were reckoned amongst the Clarissimi.

? These Circulars or Encyclic letters were a collection of the answers given by the various bishops in reply to the questions of the emperor addressed to them on matters of ecclesiastical order and discipline.

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withdrawn his mercy from us sinners. For, on the receipt of the letters of your worthiness, I admired the zeal and piety of our sovereign, beloved of God, which he manifested and still manifests towards the holy fathers and their unshaken faith. And this gift is not from ourselves, as says the holy apostle, but from God, who, through your prayers, bestowed on him this readiness of mind.” And presently he proceeds: “ On this account, I also, though mean and worthless, the refuse of the monks," have conveyed to his Majesty my judgment respecting the creed of the six hundred and thirty holy fathers assembled at Chalcedon, firmly resolving to abide by the faith then revealed by the Holy Spirit ; for if, in the midst of two or three who are gathered in His name, the Saviour is present, how could it be otherwise, than that the Holy Spirit should be throughout in the midst of so many and so distinguished holy fathers ?And afterwards he proceeds: “ Wherefore be stout and courageous in the cause of true piety, as was also Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, in behalf of the children of Israel. I beg you to salute from me all the reverend clergy who are under your Holiness, and the blessed and most faithful laity.”

CHAP. XI.-PunishMENT OF TIMOTHY. On these grounds Timotheus is sentenced to banishment, and Gangra is in his case also named as the place of exile. The Alexandrians then elect another Timotheus, variously surnamed Basilicus and Salofacialus. Anatolius dies, and Gennadius succeeds him in the see of the imperial city. cessor is Acacius, who had been master of the Orphan Hospital in that city.

His suc

CHAP. XII.-EARTHQUAKE AT ANTIOCH. DURING the second year of the reign of Leo, an extraordinary shock and concussion of the earth took place at Antioch, preceded by certain excesses of the populace, which reached the extreme of frenzy, and surpassed the ferocity of beasts, forming, as it were, a prelude to such a calamity. This

I See 1 Cor. xv. 8.

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