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the churches in every quarter neither have held, nor do we or shall we hold, nor are we aware of persons who hold, any other symbol, or lesson, or definition of faith or creed, than the before-mentioned holy symbol of the three hundred and eighteen holy fathers, which the aforesaid hundred and fifty holy fathers confirmed ; and if any person does hold such, we deem him an alien: for we are confident that this symbol alone is, as we said, the preserver of our sovereignty, and on their reception of this alone are all the people baptized when desirous of the saving illumination : which symbol all the holy fathers assembled at Ephesus also followed ; who further passed sentence of deposition on the impious Nestorius and those who subsequently held his sentiments: which Nestorius we also anathematize, together with Eutyches and all who entertain opinions contrary to those above mentioned, receiving at the same time the twelve chapters of Cyril, of holy memory, formerly archbishop of the holy Catholic church of the Alexandrians. We moreover confess, that the only begotten Son of God, himself God who truly assumed manhood, namely, our Lord Jesus Christ, who is con-substantial with the Father in respect of the Godhead, and con-substantial with ourselves as respects the manhood; that He, having descended, and become incarnate of the Holy Spirit and Mary, the Virgin and Mother of God, is one and not two; for we affirm that both his miracles, and the sufferings which he voluntarily endured in the flesh, are those of a single person: for we do in no degree admit those who either make a division or a confusion, or introduce a phantom ;) inasmuch as his truly sinless incarnation from the Mother of God did not produce an addition of a son, because the Trinity continued a Trinity even when one member of the Trinity, the God-Word, became incarnate. Knowing, then, that neither the holy orthodox churches of God in all parts, nor the priests, highly beloved of God, who are at their head, nor our own sovereignty, have allowed or do allow any other symbol or definition of faith than the before-mentioned holy lesson, we have united ourselves thereto without hesitation. And these things we write not as setting forth a new form of faith, but for your assurance: and every one who has held or holds any other opinion, either at the present or another time, whether

· See above, ch. v., and note in loco. [EVAGRIUS.]

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at Chalcedon or in any synod whatever, we anathematize; and specially the before-mentioned Nestorius and Eutyches, and those who maintain their doctrines. Link yourselves, therefore, to the spiritual mother, the church, and in her enjoy the same communion with us, according to the aforesaid one and only definition of the faith, namely, that of the three hundred and eighteen holy fathers. For your all holy mother, the church, waits to embrace you as true children, and longs to hear your loved voice, so long withheld. Speed yourselves, therefore, for by so doing you will both draw towards yourselves the favour of our Master and Saviour and God, Jesus Christ, and be commended by our sovereignty.”

When this had been read, all the Alexandrians united themselves to the holy catholic and apostolic church.

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CHAP. XV.-CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN SIMPLICIUS AND ZENO.

John, however, of whom we have made mention before, having fled from Alexandria, arrives at the ancient Rome, and there causes great stir, by saying that he had been banished from his rightful see for upholding the doctrines of Leo and the council at Chalcedon, and had been superseded by another person, who was their opponent.? Upon this Simplicius, bishop of the elder Rome, writes in alarm to Zeno; who in reply charges John with perjury, and alleges that for this reason and no other he had been ejected from his bishopric.

CHAP. XVI.-DEPOSITION OF CALANDION AND RESTORATION

OF PETER THE FULLER. CALANDION, president of Antioch, writing to the emperor Zeno, and to Acacius, president of Constantinople, terms Peter an adulterer,3 saying that, when he was at Alexandria,

See above, ch. xii. ? A similar appeal in an instance of flagrant injustice had been made by the great Athanasius to the an see : comp. Socrat. Eccl. Hist. b. ii. ch. 23.

3 So also Pope Simplicius, in his epistle to Acacius, terms Petrus Mongus, (as Liberatus states in his Breviary, ch. 18,) because he had invaded the Alexandrian church, whilst Timotheus Salophaciolus, who had been legally ordained, was still alive. Vales.

he had anathematized the council at Chalcedon. He is afterwards condemned to exile at Oasis, on a supposition of having supported Illus,' Leontius, and Pamprepius, in their usurpation against Zeno; and Peter the Fuller, the predecessor of Calandion and Stephen, as I have mentioned, recovered his own see. The latter also subscribed the Henoticon of Zeno, and addressed synodical letters to Peter, bishop of Alexandria. Acacius, president of Constantinople, also entered into communion with him. Martyrius, too, bishop of Jerusalem, addressed synodical letters to Peter. Subsequently, certain persons withdrew from communion 4 with Peter, who in consequence thenceforward openly anathematized the synod at Chalcedon. The news of this circumstance greatly troubled

1 This was a pretext. The true cause of his being condemned and deposed, was because he would not defend the Chalcedon synod, or acquiesce in Zeno's edict. Gelasius also, in his thirteenth epistle to the Dardani, says, that Calandion was ejected by Zeno, because he had erased his name out of the Dyptichs, and put in that of Leontius instead.

9 Peter was ejected out of the see of Antioch a little after the return of Zeno Augustus. One John, whom Peter had ordained bishop of Apamia, invaded his see. (See above, note on ch. 10.) John having been ejected, an Oriental synod ordained Stephen. This Stephen, when he had governed the see of Antioch about a year, was most barbarously murdered by heretics in the church, A. D. 479. Zeno, being highly incensed on account of this murder, sent some persons to Antioch, to revenge this deed, and punish the authors of the sedition. Moreover, to avoid tumults, he commanded Acacius, bishop of Constantinople, to ordain a bishop of Antioch in the imperial city. And this thing, done on account of preserving the ecclesiastical peace, as well the emperor as Acacius excused to Pope Simplicius, promising that in future the ordination of the prelate of Antioch should be made by the comprovincial bishops, according to the prescripts of the canons. Stephanus junior therefore was ordained by Acacius, and after he had sat three years, Calandion was created bishop in his stead by an Oriental synod, A. D. 482.

2 Evagrius alludes to Petrus Mongus; for Acacius never held communion with Petrus Fullo : and was even wont to boast that he had never been joined in communion with him.

· Evagrius gives no reason why these men separated themselves from the communion of Peter Mongus. Valesius explains the story thus: Peter Mongus, after he had been restored to the Alexandrian see upon John's ejection, at first used dissimulation, and sent synodical letters to Acacius and Simplicius, in which he affirmed that he held communion with the synod of Chalcedon. He also admitted those to communion who were of Timotheus Salophaciolus's party. But afterwards, when he had been vexed by the Eutychian monks on account of this dissimulation, he anathematized the Chalcedon synod publicly in the church.

Acacius, and induced him to send persons to gain information on the subject; when Peter, to convince them that he had not so acted, drew up memorials, in which certain persons said, from their own knowledge, that Peter had not done anything of the kind.

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CHAP. XVII.- LETTER FROM PETER TO ACACIUS. This Peter never abided by one opinion, being a doubledealer, a waverer, and a time-server, now anathematizing the synod at Chalcedon, at another time recanting, and admitting it with entire assent. Accordingly, the same Peter wrote an epistle to Acacius, president of Constantinople, in the following words : “ The most high God will repay your Holiness for the many labours and toils wherewith, during the lapse of time, you have guarded the form of faith of the holy fathers, which you have confirmed by unceasingly proclaiming it; in which form when we found the symbol of the three hundred and eighteen holy fathers to be embraced, we were disposed to accord with it; that symbol in which we believed at baptism, and still believe; which also the hundred and fifty holy fathers, who assembled at Constantinople, confirmed. Accordingly, while increasing in your endeavours to guide all aright, you have united the holy church of God, by convincing us by the most powerful proofs that nothing at variance with this was enacted in the holy and general synod held at Chalcedon, but that it accorded with the acts of the holy fathers at Nicæa, and confirmed them. Thus, having discovered no novelty therein, we have of our own free motion accorded our assent and belief. But we are informed that certain monks, envying our brotherly union, have conveyed certain slanders to your holy ears, which have with some difficulty succeeded in embittering the feelings of your Holiness. And, in the first place, it is alleged that we have removed to another place the remains of our sainted father, the blessed archbishop Timotheus, a thing abhorrent to religion and law : and they have

1 Mongus says this crime was objected against him, that he had removed the relics of Timotheus Salophaciolus to another place. But he neither excuses that fact nor denies it; resting satisfied only in saying this, that that fact was impious in the presence of God and men. For human laws severely punish the disturbers of sepulchres.

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further shifted their ground to another charge, in itself incoherent and worse than the former; for how could we possibly have anathematized the synod at Chalcedon, which we had previously confirmed by according to it our belief ? But the malignant temper and fickleness of our people are notorious, and cannot but be known to your piety, as well as of those monks who are disposed to innovation; who, in conspiracy with certain ill-designing persons that have broken loose from the church, are endeavouring to draw away the people. Through your prayers we have also devised a discourse of a directly healing tendency, and in no way impugning the synod at Chalcedon, well knowing that its transactions contain no novelty; and, further, for the satisfaction of guileless persons, we have procured those who had united themselves to us, to affirm this point. This mischief,' then, by much exertion, I have readily checked: but I make known to your Holiness, that even still the monks who are ever sowing the tares, are not at rest, associating also with themselves, as instruments, persons who were never the inmates of monasteries ; but they travel about disseminating various rumours to our disadvantage, and, while they do not allow that we act canonically and in a manner suitable to the holy catholic church of God, but are habituating our people to govern rather than obey us, they are bent on doing whatever is unbecoming the service of God. We doubt not, however, that your Holiness will inform the most sacred master of the world of all these circumstances, and provide that a formulary shall be put forth by his serenity, embracing the necessary matters relating to such a peace of the church as becomes both God and the emperor; so as to lead all to repose on its provisions.”

CHAP. XVIII.-FELIX ISSUES A SENTENCE OF DEPOSITION

AGAINST ACACIUS.

JOHN, who had fled to Rome, was urgent on Felix, the successor of Simplicius in that see, respecting the proceedings of Peter, and recommends, according to Zacharias, that an instrument of deposition should be sent to Acacius from Felix,

| That is, that crime which was objected against him by some illminded persons, namely, that he had rejected and condemned the Chalce. don synod.

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