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A. D. 478.] INSURRECTION AND DEATH OF THEODORIC. 363 death of Palladius, and the succession of Flavian to the see of Antioch, Solomon, a presbyter of that church, is sent to Alexandria, as the bearer of synodical letters, with the request of an answer from John to Flavian. John is succeeded in the see of Alexandria by another of the same name. Such was the progress of these events down to a certain period of the reign of Anastasius ; who had himself ejected Euphemius. I have been compelled thus to detail them continuously, for the sake of perspicuity and a ready comprehension of the whole.
CHAP. XXIV.-DEATH OF ARMATUS. Zeno, at the instigation of Illus, puts to death Armatus, a kinsman of the empress Verina. When Armatus had been sent against him by Basiliscus, Zeno had succeeded, by bribes, in converting him from a foe into an ally, and had bestowed on his son Basiliscus the rank of Cæsar at Nicæa: but on his return to Constantinople, he procures the assassination of Armatus, and makes his son a priest instead of Cæsar. The latter was afterwards raised to the episcopal dignity.
CHAP. XXV.-INSURRECTION AND DEATH OF THEODORIC.
THEODORIC also, a Scythian, raised an insurrection, and having collected his forces in Thrace, marched against Zeno. After ravaging every place in his march as far as the mouth of the Pontus, he was near taking the imperial city, when some of his most intimate companions were secretly induced to enter into a plot against his life. When, however, he had learnt the disaffection of his followers, he commenced a retreat, and was very soon afterwards numbered with the departed, by a kind of death which I will mention, and which happened thus. A spear, with its thong prepared for immediate use, had been suspended before his tent in barbaric fashion. He had ordered a horse to be brought to him for the purpose of exercise, and being in the habit of not having any one to assist him in mounting, vaulted into his seat. The horse, a mettlesome and ungovernable animal, reared before Theodoric was fairly mounted, so that, in the contest, neither daring to rein back the horse, lest it should come down upon
him, nor yet having gained a firm seat, he was whirled round in all directions, and dashed against the point of the spear, which thus struck him obliquely, and wounded his side. He was then conveyed to his couch, and after surviving a few days, died of the wound.
CHAP. XXVI.-INSURRECTION OF MARCIAN. SUBSEQUENTLY Marcian had a rupture with Zeno, and attempted to dispute the empire with him. He was the son of Anthemius, who had formerly reigned at Rome, and was allied to Leo, the preceding emperor, having married his younger daughter Leontia. After a severe battle around the palace, in which many fell on both sides, Marcian repulsed his opponents, and would have become master of the palace, had he not let slip the critical moment, by putting off the operation to the morrow.
For the critical season is swift of flight : when it is close upon one, it may be secured ; but should it once have escaped the
grasp, it soars aloft and laughs at his pursuers, not deigning to place itself again within their reach. And hence no doubt it is, that statuaries and painters, while they figure it with a lock hanging down in front, represent the head as closely shaven behind; thus skilfully symbolizing, that when it comes up from behind one it may perhaps be held fast by the flowing forelock, but fairly escapes when it has once got the start, from the absence of anything by which the pursuer might grasp it.
And this was what befell Marcian, when he had lost the moment favourable to his success, and was unable to find it afterwards. For the next day he was betrayed by his own followers, and being completely deserted, fled to the sacred precinct of the divine apostles ; whence he was dragged away by force, and transported to Cæsarea in Cappadocia. Having there joined the society of certain monks, he was afterwards detected in meditating an escape; and being removed by the eniperor to Tarsus in Cilicia, he was shorn, and ordained a presbyter : of all which particulars an elegant narrative has been given by Eustathius the Syrian.
CHAP. XXVII.-INSURRECTION OF ILLUS AND LEONTIUS.
The same writer states that Zeno also devised innumerable machinations against his mother-in-law Verina, and afterwards sent her away to Cilicia ; and that subsequently, on the assumption of sovereign power by Illus, she removed to what is called the castle of Papirius ; where she died.
Eustathius also narrates with great ability the story of Illus : how he escaped Zeno's plots against him, and how Zeno gave up to capital punishment the man who had been commissioned to murder Illus, rewarding him with the loss of his head for his failure in the attempt. He also appointed Illus commander of the forces of the East, thinking thus to conceal his real designs: but having gained over as partisans Leontius, Marsus, a man of reputation, and Pamprepius, he proceeded to the East.
The same Eustathius then mentions the proclamation of Leontius as emperor, which took place at Tarsus in Cilicia ; and how these persons reaped the fruits of their assumption of power, when Theodoric, a man of Gothic extraction, but illustrious
among the Romans, had been sent out against them, with a force composed both of native and foreign troops.
The same author ably depicts the fate of those who were miserably put to death by Zeno in return for their loyalty to him ; and how Theodoric, becoming aware of the evil designs of Zeno, withdrew to the elder Rome. Some, however, say that this was done at the suggestion of Zeno. Having there defeated Odoacer, he made himself master of Rome, and assumed the title of king.
CHAP. XXVIII.-ACCOUNT OF MAMMIANUS AND HIS
STRUCTURES. JOHN the rhetorician writes, that in the time of Zeno, Mammianus from an artisan became a person of note and a member of the senate ; and that he built in the suburb of Daphne what is called the Antiphorus, on a site previously planted with vines and suitable for cultivation, directly opposite the public baths ; where there is also the brazen statue inscribed, “ Mammianus the friend of the city.” He also states that he built within the city two basilicas, singularly beautiful in their design, and embellished with brilliant stonework; and that, as an intervening structure to the two, he raised a Tetrapylum, exquisitely finished both in its columns and its brazen work. The basilicas I have identified, retaining, together with their name, some trace of their former beauty, in the stones from Proconnesus, which form the pavement, but nothing remarkable in their architecture : for, in consequence of the calamities which had befallen them, they had lately been rebuilt, without receiving anything in the way of ornament. Of the Tetrapylum I was not able to detect the slightest vestige.
CHAP. XXIX.-DEATH OF ZENO.—SUCCESSION OF ANASTASIUS.
On the decease of Zeno, by epilepsy, without issue, after a reign of seventeen years, Longinus his brother, having raised himself to considerable power, hoped to secure the sovereignty, but was, notwithstanding, disappointed of his expectation. For Ariadne bestows the diadem on Anastasius, a person who had not yet attained senatorian rank, but belonged to the corps of the Silentiaries.
Eustathius writes, that two hundred and seven years elapsed from the beginning of the reign of Diocletian to the death of Zeno and the nomination of Anastasius; five hundred and fifty-two years and seven months from the time that Augustus obtained the supreme power ; eight hundred and thirty-two years and seven months from the reign of Alexander the Macedonian ; one thousand and fifty-two years and seven months
; from the reign of Romulus; one thousand six hundred and eighty-six years and seven months from the taking of Troy.
This Anastasius, being a native of Epidamus, now called Dyrrachium, both succeeds to the sovereignty of Zeno and espouses his wife Ariadne. In the first place, he dismisses to his native country Longinus, the brother of Zeno, who held the post of Master of the Offices, formerly termed commander of the household troops ; and afterwards, many other Isaurians at their own request.
CHAP. XXX.-DivisionS IN THE CHURCH. This Anastasius, being of a peaceful disposition, was altogether averse to the introduction of changes, especially in the state of the church, but endeavoured by every means, that the most holy churches should continue undisturbed, and the whole body of his subjects enjoy profound tranquillity, by the removal of all strife and contention from matters both ecclesiastical and civil. During these times, accordingly, the synod of Chalcedon was neither openly proclaimed in the most holy churches, nor yet was repudiated by all ; but the bishops acted
. each according to his individual opinion. Thus, some very resolutely maintained what had been put forth by that synod, and would not yield to the extent of one word of its determinations, nor admit even the change of a single letter, but firmly declined all contact and communion with those who refused to admit the matters there set forth. Others, again, not only did not submit to the synod of Chalcedon and its determinations, but even anathematized both it and the tome of Leo. Others, however, firmly adhered to the Henoticon of Zeno, and that too although mutually at variance on the point of the single and double nature; some being caught by the artful composition of that document; and others influenced by an inclination for peace. Thus the churches in general were divided into distinct factions, and their presidents did not even admit each other to communion.
Numerous divisions, hence arising, existed in the East, in the West, and in Africa ; while the Eastern bishops had no friendly intercourse with those of the West and Africa, nor the latter with those of the East. The evil too became still more monstrous, for neither did the presidents of the Eastern churches allow communion among themselves, nor yet those who held the sees of Europe and Africa, much less with those of remote parts.
In consideration of these circumstances, the emperor Anastasius removed those bishops who were promoters of change, wherever he detected any one either proclaiming or anathematizing the synod of Chalcedon in opposition to the practice of the neighbourhood. Accordingly, he rejected from the see of the imperial city, first, Euphemius, as has been already mentioned, and afterwards Macedonius, who was succeeded by Timotheus ; and Flavian from the see of Antioch.
" See above, ch. 23.