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votary of thy orgies, who bequeathed to the commonwealth injuries so serious. Whether, however, he has either already received a foretaste of the things which have been foretold concerning the end of the world, or will even receive their full measure, is a question relating to an economy too high for thy comprehension.
Let us, at all events, consider under what circumstances heathen and Christian emperors have respectively closed their reigns. Did not Caius Julius Cæsar, the first sole sovereign, close his life by assassination ? In the next place, did not some of his own officers despatch with their swords Caius, the grandson of Tiberius ? Was not Nero slain by one of his domestics ? Did not Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, who reigned in all only sixteen months, suffer a similar fate? Was not Titus, on his attaining the empire, taken off by poison by his own brother Domitian? Was not Domitian himself miserably despatched by Stephanus ? What too dost thou say about Commodus? Was not he killed by Narcissus ? Pertinax and Julian, did they not meet with the same treatment ? Antoninus, the son of Severus, did he not murder his brother Geta, and was himself murdered by Martial ? Macrinus too, was he not dragged about Byzantium, like a captive, and then butchered by his own soldiers ? And Aurelius Antoninus, the Emesene, was he not slaughtered together with his mother? And his successor Alexander, was he not, together with his mother, involved in a similar catastrophe ? What should I say, too, concerning Maximin, who was slain by his own troops ? or Gordian, brought to a similar end by the designs of Philip ? Tell me whether Philip and his successor Decius did not perish by the hands of their enemies ? And Gallus and Volusian by their own armies ? Æmilian, was he not involved in the same fate? And Valerian, was he not made prisoner and carried about as a show by the Persians ? After the assassination of Gallienus and the murder of Carinus, the sovereignty came into the hands of Diocletian and those whom he chose as his partners in the empire. Of these, Herculius, Maximian, and Maxentius his son, and Licinius utterly perished. But from the time that the renowned
Or rather, nephew. “Germanicus C. Cæsaris pater, Drusi et Minoris Antoniæ filius, à Tiberio patruo adoptatus,” &c. So speaks Suetonius in the Life of Caius Caligula.
Constantine succeeded to the empire, and had dedicated to Christ the city which bears his name, mark me, whether any of those who have reigned there, except Julian thy hierophant and monarch, have perished by the hands of either domestic or foreign foes, and whether a rival has overthrown any of them ; except that Basiliscus expelled Zeno, by whom, however, he was afterwards overthrown and killed. I also agree with thee in what thou sayest about Valens, who had inflicted so many evils upon the Christians: for of any other case not even thou thyself makest mention.
Let no one think that these matters are foreign to an ecclesiastical history; since they are, in fact, altogether useful, and essential, on account of wilful desertion of the cause of truth on the part of heathen writers. Let me now proceed to the rest of the acts of Anastasius.
CHAP. XLII.—THE GOLD-RATE. THE before-mentioned measures Anastasius successfully carried out in a truly royal spirit; but he adopted others by no means worthy of them ; both by devising what is called the
A gold-rate, and farming out the supplies for the army on terms most burdensome to the provincials. He also took the levying of imposts out of the hands of the councils of the respective cities, and appointed what are called Vindices, at the suggestion, as is said, of Marinus the Syrian, who held the highest prefecture, termed in former times the Prefect of the Prætorium. The result was that the revenue fell off to a great extent, and the local dignitaries sunk into abeyance: for persons of high families formerly had their names inscribed in the album of
Chrysotelia. Evagrius, contenting himself in setting down the bare name, has omitted to explain the nature of this tribute; nor has any other of the ancient writers made mention of it. Valesius conjectures that the Chrysotelia was a payment in gold, which Anastasius first ordered to be exacted from the provincials instead of the tributary function. For the old Romans were wont to bring in the tributes in the very species themselves, as for instance, wheat, barley, wine, and oil; out of which the military and civil annona was distributed. Until the time of Anastasius, by the emperor it had been forbidden that the collectors should exact gold of the provincials instead of the species.
OUVTeles. The provincials who paid tribute are so termed. So Evagrius (b. v. ch. 13) calls the tributaries toÙS OVVTEROūvtas. Vales,
each city; which regarded those who were members of its council, as a kind of senate.
CHAP. XLIII.-INSURRECTION OF VITALIAN. VITALIAN, a Thracian by birth, disputes the empire with Anastasius, and having devastated Thrace and Mysia as far as Odessus and Anchialus, was advancing rapidly upon the imperial city, at the head of an innumerable force of Huns. The emperor despatched Hypatius to encounter this force; and, after he had been captured through the treachery of his own troops, and liberated at a large ransom, the conduct of the war was intrusted to Cyril.
The battle which followed was at first indecisive, with several subsequent alternations of success; but, notwithstanding the advantage was on the side of Cyril, the enemy rallied, and he was ultimately routed through the wilful desertion of his own soldiers. In consequence, Vitalian captured Cyril in Odessus, and advanced as far as the place called Sycæ, laying the whole country waste with fire and sword; meditating nothing less than the capture of the city itself and the seizure of the sovereignty. When he had encamped at Sycæ, Marinus the Syrian, whom we have mentioned before, is despatched by the emperor to attack him by sea. The two armaments, accordingly, encountered, the one having Sycæ astern, the other Constantinople. For a time the fleets remained inactive: but, after the skirmishings and discharge of missiles had been followed by a fierce conflict in the place called Bytharia, Vitalian withdraws from the line of battle and takes to flight, with the loss of the greater portion of his fleet. The remainder then fly with such precipitation, that the next day not a single enemy was found in the channel or in the neighbourhood of the city. It is said that Vitalian then continued inactive for some time at Anchialus. There was also another inroad of Huns, who had passed the defiles of Cappadocia.
About the same time Rhodes suffered by a violent earthquake at the dead of night ; this being the thir time it had been visited by that calamity.
| The Huns, having passed the narrow passes near the Caspian Sea, made an irruption into Armenia, Cappadocia, and Pontus, in the consulate of Anthemius and Florentius, A. D. 515. [EVAGRIUS.]
CHAP. XLIV.-SEDITION AT CONSTANTINOPLE. A VERY great sedition occurred at Byzantium, arising from a wish of the emperor to add to the Trisagion the clause, “ Who was crucified for our sakes : ” which was regarded as subversive of the Christian religion. Its prime mover and chief was Macedonius, aided by his subject clergy, as Severus says in a letter to Sotericus, which he wrote before his elevation to the episcopal throne, while residing at the imperial city, at the time when, with several others, he had been expelled from his monastery, as I have already mentioned. It was on account of this imputation, in addition to the causes before mentioned, that, in my opinion, Macedonius was ejected from his see.
Amid the uncontrollable excitement of the populace wich followed, persons of rank and station were brought into extreme danger, and many principal parts of the city were set on fire. The populace, having found in the house of Marinus the Syrian, a monk from the country, cut off his head, saying that the clause had been added at his instigation; and having fixed it upon a pole, jeeringly exclaimed: "See the plotter against the Trinity!”
Such was the violence of the tumult, filling every quarter with devastation, and surpassing every means of control, that
| This Sothericus, or Soterichus, had been ordained bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia by Macedonius, bishop of Constantinople. Going over afterwards to the Eutychian party, he joined himself to the impious Xenaïas. It is no wonder, therefore, that Severus, a ringleader of the Eutychians, should have written letters to Soterichus, a person like himself, and should in them have accused Macedonius, a catholic bishop, as being the author of the sedition. Severus himself was rather the occasion of this sedition, in that he had persuaded the emperor Anastasius, that to the hymn termed the Trisagium, he should add this clause, “Who hast been crucified for us, have mercy upon us.” It is said that Proclus, bishop of Constantinople, had been taught this hymn, termed the Trisagium, by angels. Which, as soon as the priest had approached the altar, the chanter out of the pulpit began to sing, in this manner, άγιος ο θεός άγιος ισχυρός άγιος αθάvaros, “Holy God; Holy Mighty; Holy Immortal.” Ôn account of this hymn most violent tumults arose afterwards in the church, when the Easterns would add this clause to it, ó oravpwbsis di juās, “Who hast been crucified for us,” referring it to Jesus Christ. But the Constantinopolitans and the Western church rejected that addition, lest any passion should be attributed to the consubstantial Trinity: and in place thereof sang these words, áyia toids edénoov ňuãs, “Holy Trinity have mercy upon us.” Macedonius did right therefore in retaining the usage delivered by Proclus, and refusing to make that addition.
the emperor was driven to appear at the Hippodrome in pitiable guise, without his crown, and despatched heralds to proclaim to the assembled people, that he was most ready to resign his sovereignty; at the same time reminding them, that it was impossible that all should be elevated to that dignity, which admitted not of a plurality of occupants, and that one individual only could be his successor.
At this the temper of the people was suddenly changed, as by some divine impulse ; and they begged Anastasius to resume his crown; with a promise of peaceable conduct in future.
Anastasius survived this event a very short time, and departed to the other world after a reign of twenty-seven years, three months, and three days.
CHAP. 1.-ACCESSION OF JUSTIN.
AFTER Anastasius had, as I have said, departed for the better lot, Justin, a Thracian by birth, assumes the purple, in the five hundred and sixty-sixth year of the Era of Antioch, on the ninth day of the month Panemus, which the Romans call July. He was proclaimed emperor by the imperial bodyguards, of which he was also the commander, having been appointed prefect of the household troops. His elevation was, however, contrary to all expectation, since there were many most distinguished and flourishing members of the family of Anastasius, possessed also of sufficient influence to have secured for themselves the supreme power.
CHAP. II.-DESIGNS AND DEATH OF AMANTIUS AND
THEOCRITUS. AMANTIUS was the imperial chamberlain, and a man of very great influence; but as it was not lawful for any emasculated person to attain the sovereignty of the Romans, he was de1 Another account is that he was Comes of the guards.