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years, and not able to carry on my back the ass's load. You must therefore carry it, though contrary to your nature, if you wish Zosimas to get out of this place and yourself to be a wild beast again.” All at once the lion, forgetting his ferocity, fawned on him, and by his gestures plainly manifested obedi

Zosimas then put the ass's load upon him, and led him to the gates of Cæsarea, showing the power of God, and how all things are subservient to man if we live to Him and do not pervert the grace given to us. But that I may not render my history prolix by more circumstances of the kind, I will return to the point whence I digressed.


CHAP. VIII.-GENERAL CALAMITIES. DURING the reign of Justin, Dyrrachium, formerly called Epidamnus, suffered from an earthquake ; as did also Corinth in Greece, and afterwards, for the fourth time, Anazarbus, the capital of Cilicia Minor. These cities Justin restored at great expense. About the same time Edessa, a large and flourishing city of Osroene, was inundated by the waters of the Skirtus, which runs close by it; so that most of the buildings were swept away, and countless multitudes that were carried down by the stream, perished. Accordingly, the names of Edessa and Anazarbus were changed by Justin, and each of them was called, after himself, Justinopolis.


EMPIRE. WHEN Justin had reigned eight years, nine months, and three days, he associated in the government Justinian, his nephew, who was proclaimed on the first of the month Xanthicus, or April, in the five hundred and seventy-fifth year of the era of Antioch. After these transactions, Justin departs his earthly sovereignty, closing his life on the first of the month Lous, or August, having had Justinian for his associate in the empire four months, and reigned in all nine years and three days. Now that Justinian was sole sovereign of the Roman empire, and the synod at Chalcedon was being proclaimed in the most holy churches by the commands of Justin, as stated before; the state of the church was disturbed in some of the provinces, but chiefly at Constantinople and Alexandria, Anthimus being bishop of the former, and Theodosius of the latter; for both held the doctrine of the single nature of Christ.



JUSTINIAN very resolutely upheld the synod at Chalcedon and what was put forth by it; and Theodora, his consort, those who maintained the single nature; either because such were their real sentiments—for when the faith is a matter of dispute, fathers are divided against their children, children against the authors of their birth, a wife against her own husband, and again a husband against his own wife-or by mutual understanding,' that he should uphold those who maintained the two natures in Christ our God after the union; and she those who alleged the single nature. Neither conceded to the other: but he strenuously supported the acts at Chalcedon, and she, ranging with the opposite party, exercised the greatest care towards those who maintained the single nature. Our people2 she treated with the warmest kindness, and others too with great munificence. She also persuades Justinian to send for Severus.



THERE are letters extant from Severus to Justinian and Theodora, from which we may gather that at first he put off his journey to the imperial city on leaving his see of Antioch. Nevertheless he afterwards arrived there; and has written to the effect that when he came thither and had conversed with Anthimus, and found him holding the same sentiments with himself, and the same opinions with respect to the Godhead, he persuaded him to withdraw from his see. He wrote concerning these matters to Theodosius, bishop of Alexandria, and greatly gloried in having persuaded Anthimus, as stated before, to prefer such doctrines to earthly glory and the possession of his see. Letters are also extant on this subject from Anthimus to Theodosius, and from Theodosius to Severus and Anthimus; which I pass over, leaving them to those who choose to consult them, that I may not include in the present work too great a mass of materials. Nevertheless, both were ejected from their sees, as opposing the imperial mandates and the decrees of Chalcedon. Zoilus' succeeded to that of Alexandria, and Epiphanius to that of the imperial city: so that from that time forward the synod at Chalcedon was openly proclaimed in all the churches ;2 and no one dared to anathematize it ; while those who dissented, were urged by innumerable methods to assent to it. Accordingly, a constitution 3 was drawn up by Justinian in which he anathematized Severus, Anthimus, and others, and subjected those who held their doctrines to the highest penalties: the effect of which was, that thenceforward no schism remained in any of the churches, but the patriarchs of the several dioceses agreed with each other, and the bishops of the cities followed their respective primates. * Four synods were thus proclaimed

1 Kar' pivovouiav. Literally, by a certain dispensation, opposed to truth, rñ ålndeią. Some therefore were of opinion, that by fraud and under a colour it had been agreed on between Justinian and Theodora, that the one should adhere to the Catholics, the other to the Acephali.

? That is, not the Catholics, as Nicephorus has taken the words, but the Orientals. Vales.

? In the place of Theodosius, bishop of Alexandria, Paul was substituted, but being soon ejected, Zoilus was put into his see.

Concerning this peace and union of the churches which happened after the ordination of Paul bishop of Alexandria, Liberatus says that all the patriarchs at that time embraced and admitted of the Chalcedon synod; that is, in the year of Christ 537. Namely, the bishop of Rome, whose legate, Pelagius, was at Constantinople ; Paul, bishop of Alexandria ; Ephræmius of Antioch, and Peter of Jerusalem. Paul having at first pretended to assert the true faith, afterwards revolted to the Eutychian heresy. This preaching was usually made in the ambo, or pulpit of the church, by the bishop, or another person deputed by him, whilst the public prayers were performed. We have this information from the letters of the orthodox bishops presented at Constantinople to Pope Agapetus, which states that the emperor made a constitution that the four sacred and holy synods should be preached by the divine preachers in the divine prayers wheresoever performed.

* Evagrius means Justinian's forty-second Novel, promulgated in the year after Belisarius's consulate. Vales.

* The primates or patriarchs of each diocese were called exarchs, as Evagrius has said a little before. Christophorson renders the word archbishops. Primates were often termed archbishops, as Isidorus informs us in the seventh book of his Origines, in these words: “The order of bishops is divided into four parts, into patriarchs, archbishops, metropolitans, and bishops. A patriarch in the Greek tongue imports the highest

throughout the churches ; first, that held at Nicæa ; secondly,

; that at Constantinople; thirdly, the former one at Ephesus ; and fourthly, that at Chalcedon. A fifth also took place by order of Justinian, concerning which I shall say what is suitable in its proper place, while I weave into my present narrative the several events of the same period which are worthy of notice.


The history of Belisarius has been written by Procopius the Rhetorician. He says that Cabades, king of the Persians, wishing to invest his youngest son Chosroes with the sovereignty, was desirous to have him adopted by the Roman emperor, so that by that means his succession might be secured. But when this was refused, at the suggestion of Proclus, who advised Justinian as his quæstor, they conceived a still greater hatred against the Romans. This same Procopius has, with diligence, elegance, and ability, set forth the events of the war between the Romans and Persians while Belisarius was commander of the forces of the East. The first victory on the side of the Romans which he records, was in the neighbourhood of Daras and Nisibis, under the command of Belisarius and Hermogenes. He subjoins an account of the occurrences in Armenia, and the mischief inflicted on the Romans by Alamundarus, the chieftain of the Scenite! barbarians, who captured Timostratus, the brother of Rufinus, together with his troops, and afterwards liberated him for a considerable ransom.



CONSTANTINOPLE, He also feelingly details the incursion of the before-named Alamundarus and Azarethus into the Roman territory ; and how Belisarius, compelled by his own troops, engaged them in their retreat by the Euphrates, on the eve of Easter day ; father, because he holds the first, that is, the apostolic place; as the Roman, the Antiochian, the Alexandrian. Archbishop in Greek is termed the highest of bishops; for he holds the apostolic place, and presides as well over metropolitans as over bishops.” Vales.

I Or, who dwelt in tents. He means the Saracens.

and how the Roman army was destroyed through their repugnance to the measures of Belisarius ; and how Rufinus and Hermogenes made with the Persians the peace called the perpetual peace.

He subjoins an account of the insurrection of the people at Byzantium, which derived its name from the watchword of the populace : for they entitled it “Nica,” because on their assembling they chose this term as the watchword, to know each other. On this occasion Hypatius and Pompeius were compelled by the people to assume the sovereignty. But on the defeat of the populace, both were beheaded by the soldiers at the command of Justinian, and the insurrection was quelled. Procopius states that thirty thousand persons were killed in this disturbance.

CHAP. XIV.- PERSECUTION BY HUNERIC. The same writer, when treating of the affairs of the Vandals, has recorded most important occurrences and worthy of perpetual memory, which I now proceed to mention. Huneric, the successor of Genseric, and a professor of the creed of Arius, entertained most cruel intentions against the African Christians, in the endeavour to convert by force the maintainers of the orthodox doctrines to the opinions of the Arians. Those who refused compliance, he destroyed both by fire and various modes of death, and some he deprived of their tongues. The latter, Procopius says that he himself saw, when they had taken refuge at the imperial city, and that he maintained a conversation with them in the same manner as with unmutilated persons: that their tongues were cut out from the root; nevertheless their speech was articulate, and they conversed distinctly;' a new and strange marvel, of which also a constitution of Justinian makes mention. Two of these

persons lapsed, as Procopius himself writes. For on their desiring commerce with women, they were deprived of their

| Mention is made concerning these African confessors, whose tongues Hunericus king of the Vandals had commanded to be cut out, and who afterwards desisted not from speaking, by Marcellinus Comes in his Chronicon, who says that some of them were seen by him. The same is recorded in Victor Thunonensis. See more in Baronius, at the year of Christ 484, Vales.

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