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cil, had been admitted to penitence, not only received them under their protection, but also participated in their evil deeds. Hence I came to the determination of banishing these ungrateful persons to some far distant region. It is now your duty to look unto God with the eyes of faith, even as you have already done, and as it is right that you should do ; and let us rejoice that orthodox and philanthropic bishops have been now appointed. If any one should make mention of those destroyers, or presume to speak in their praise, let him know that his audacity will be repressed by the authority which has been committed to me as the servant of God. May God preserve you, beloved brethren!”
The bishops above-mentioned were deposed and banished. Amphio was intrusted with the church of Nicomedia, and Chrestus with that of Nice. But the exiled bishops, with their usual artfulness, abused the benevolence of the emperor, renewed the previous contests, and regained their
CHAP. XXI. THE ARTFUL MACHINATIONS OF EUSEBIUS AND
HIS PARTISANS AGAINST THE HOLY EUSTATHIUS, BISHOP OF ANTIOCH,
EUSEBIUS, as I have already stated, seized the diocese of Constantinople by force. He acquired great power in that city: he visited, and often familiarly entertained, the emperor ; and hence he prepared to injure by his artifices those who were foremost in the support of truth. He at first feigned a desire of going to Jerusalem, to see the celebrated edifices there erected : and the emperor, who was deceived by him, allowed him to set out with the utmost honour, granting him the use of the royal carriages, and other privileges. Theognis, bishop of Nice, who, as we have before said, was his accomplice in his evil designs, travelled with him. When they arrived at Antioch, they put on the appearance of friendship, and were received with much honour. Eustathius, the great defender of the faith, treated them with fraternal kindness. When they arrived at the holy city, they had an interview with those who were of the same opinions as themselves, namely, Eusebius, bishop of Cæarea, Patrophilius, bishop of Scythopolitamus, Actium, bishop of Lydda, Theodotus, bishop
of Laodicea, and others who had imbibed the Arian sentiments; they made known their designs to them, and went with them to Antioch. Their pretext for thus journeying together was, that due honour might be rendered to Eusebius ; but their real motive was to attack the truth. They bribed a woman who was a professed prostitute, to say whatever they might desire : they then repaired to the council, and when all the members were assembled, they introduced the wretched woman. She held a babe in her arms, of which she loudly and impudently affirmed that Eustathius was the father. Eustathius, conscious of his innocence, asked her whether she could bring forward any witness to prove what she had advanced. She replied, that she could not: yet these equitable judges received her testimony, although it is said in the law, that by two or three witnesses every word must be established ; and although the apostle says, that an accusation is not to be received against an elder unless there be two or three wit
But they despised these Divine laws, and admitted the accusation against this great man without any witnesses. When the woman had again declared upon oath that Eustathius was the father of the babe, the judges condemned him as an adulterer. The other bishops, who upheld the apostolical doctrines, were ignorant of all these intrigues. They openly opposed the sentence, and advised Eustathius not to submit to it. The originators of the plot promptly repaired to the emperor, and endeavoured to persuade him that the accusation was true, and the sentence just ; and they succeeded in obtaining the banishment of a man of rigid piety, and of great wisdom, as an adulterer and a tyrant. He was conducted across Thebes to a city of Illyria.
CHAP. XXII.-BISHOPS OF HERETICAL OPINIONS ORDAINED
IN ANTIOCH AFTER THE BANISHMENT OF ST. EUSTATHIUS.
EULALIUS was first ordained in place of Eustathius. But Eulalius surviving his elevation only a short period, it was much desired that Eusebius, bishop of Palestine, should be translated to this bishopric. Eusebius, however, refused the
1 Valesius shows by a reference to Eusebius, Life of Constantine, b. iii., that Theodoret is mistaken here, and that Eusebius was advanced to the see of Antioch immediately on the deposition of Eustathius.
appointment, and the emperor forbad its being conferred on him : the dignity, therefore, fell upon Euphonius, who died after the lapse of only one year and a few months, and was succeeded by Flacillus. All these bishops secretly clung to the Arian opinions. Hence it was, that most of those individuals, whether of the clergy or of the laity, who valued religion, left the churches and formed assemblies among themselves. They were called Eustathians, although it was after the banishment of Eustathius that they held their meetings. The wretched woman above mentioned was soon after attacked by a severe and protracted illness; and she then avowed the imposture in which she had been engaged, and made known the whole affair, not only to two or three, but to almost all the priests. She confessed that the accusation itself was untrue, but yet that her oath was not altogether false, as Eustathius the coppersmith was the father of the babe. Such were some of the crimes perpetrated in Antioch by that faction.
CHAP. XXIII.-THE CONVERSION OF THE INDIANS.
At this period, the light of faith was for the first time shed
The courage and the piety of the emperor had become celebrated throughout the world ; and all the barbarians had learnt, that to be at peace with him was more desirable for them than to carry on war against him. Being thus able to undertake other enterprises, many persons set out on long journeys; some for the desire of making discoveries, others from a spirit of commercial enterprise. A philosopher of Tyre about this period, desiring to penetrate into the interior of India, set off for this purpose with his two nephews. When he had accomplished the object of his wishes, he embarked on board a ship to return to his own country.
This ship being compelled, by scarcity of water, to touch at a port to obtain a fresh supply, the barbarians fell upon her, drowned some of the crew, and took the others prisoners. The philosopher was among the number of those who were killed. His nephews were conducted to the king. The name of the one was Edesius, and of the other Frumentius. The king of the country perceiving, in course of time, that they possessed ta
· This name is indifferently written Placitus, Placentius, and Flacitus. lent and sagacity, promoted them to the superintendence of his household. If any one should doubt the truth of this account, let him recall to mind the promotion of Joseph in the kingdom of Egypt, and also the history of Daniel, and of the three godly young men, who became princes of Babylon, after having been its captives.
The king died, and was succeeded by his son'; and these young men were advanced to still greater power. As they had been brought up in the true religion, some merchants who frequented the country proposed to them to assemble, according to the custom of the Roman Church, to perform the divine service. A long time afterwards they solicited the king to reward their services, by permitting them to return to their own country. They obtained his permission, and safely reached the Roman empire, Edesius directing his course towards Tyre. But Frumentius, whose religious zeal was greater than the natural feeling of filial affection, proceeded to Alexandria, and informed the bishop of that city, that the Indians were deeply anxious to obtain spiritual light. Athanasius, who then held the reins of this church, replied by saying, 6 Who could remove better than you could the gross ignorance of this people, and introduce among them the light of Divine truth?” After having said this, he conferred upon him the sacerdotal dignity, and sent him to preach to those nations. The newly-ordained priest left his country, crossed without fear the intervening sea, and returned to the uncivilized nation, among whom, through the grace of God, he cheerfully and successfully laboured. He confirmed the truth of his doctrine by extraordinary signs, and convinced all gainsayers, performing miracles similar to those of the apostles ; and by his instrumentality many were daily enlightened.
CHAP. XXIV.-CONVERSION OF THE IBERIANS. FRUMENTIUS was the means of communicating the knowledge of God to India. Iberia, about the same time, was taught the way of truth by a captive woman. She devoted herself to prayer; she allowed herself no better bed than a sack spread upon the ground, and accounted fasting her highest enjoyment. This austerity was rewarded by gifts similar to those of the apostles. The barbarians, who were ignorant of medicine, were accustomed, when attacked by disease, to visit each other, in order to ask those who had suffered in a similar way by what means they had been cured ; in accordance with this custom, a native woman who had a sick child repaired to this admirable female, to inquire if she knew of any cure for the disease. The latter took the child, placed it upon her bed, and prayed that it might be healed. Her supplication was heard, and the disease was removed. This extraordinary woman hence obtained great celebrity; and the queen, who was suffering from a severe disease, hearing of her by report, sent for her. The captive held herself in very low estimation, and would not accept the invitation of the queen. But her Majesty, in her anxiety to obtain relief from suffering, threw aside her royal dignity, and went herself to seek the captive
The latter made the queen lie down upon her bed, and applied to her disease the efficacious remedy of prayer. The queen was healed, and offered as rewards for so important a service, gold, silver, garments, mantles, and such gifts as royal munificence could bestow. The holy woman told her, that she did not want any of these recompences, and that the greatest reward she desired was to lead her to the knowledge of religion. She then meekly explained the Divine doctrines, and exhorted her to erect a church in honour of Christ, who had healed her. The queen then returned to the palace, and excited the admiration of her consort, by relating to him the miraculous mode of her cure; and led him to acknowledge the power of that God whom the captive adored. She besought him not only to seek the knowledge of God, but to erect a church, that all the nation might serve Him. The king praised the miracle which had been performed upon the queen, but he would not consent to erect a church. A short time after he went out hunting, and, by the mercy of God, was converted in the same way as Paul: for a sudden storm arose, and enveloped him in darkness, which did not extend beyond him, for those with him were not deprived of light. He, however, found means to dispel the darkness, for his perplexity led him to the knowledge of the Saviour. His mind reverted to his former unbelief, he implored the help of the God of the captive woman, and immediately the darkness was removed. He then went to the extraordinary captive, and asked her in what way a church ought to be built. He who