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that may be necessary to keep an army of 1,000,000 men up to the full strength of 1,000,000 men.
The CHAIRMAN. How many men is it based upon?
Secretary BAKER. Two million thirty-three thousand men.
The CHAIRMAN. It is based upon calling into the service between now and the 30th of January, 2,033,000 men?
Secretary BAKER. Yes, sir.
Mr. SHERLEY. Is that inclusive or exclusive of officers? Secretary BAKER. It is exclusive of officers. There are 55,042 officers in addition. Two million thirty-three thousand three hundred and forty-five is the exact number of men. I can give you the components of those figures if you care to have them.
The CHAIRMAN. Yes.
Secretary BAKER. The National Army, so called; that is, the selected men, 17,432 officers and 656,360 men; the Regular Army, 18.033 officers and 470,185 men; National Guard, 13,377 officers and 456,800 men; replacement units for all force, 6,200 officers and 450,000 men; making exact totals of 55,042 officers and 2,033,345 men.
The CHAIRMAN. Now, do I understand that it is believed that this number of men will be taken in between now and the 30th of June, 1918?
Secretary BAKER. Yes.
The CHAIRMAN. And for what period are the pay and subsistence charges for 2,000,000 men based?
Secretary BAKER. It is based upon an average period. An attempt has been made to ascertain an average period.
The CHAIRMAN. Of how long?
Secretary BAKER. You had better perhaps get that from Col. Pierce, but an attempt has been made to average that, realizing there will not be so many at the beginning but all at the end, so there will be reached an average period for all of them.
The CHAIRMAN. That is what I want to find out.
Secretary BAKER. That you had better get from these other gentlement who have gone over the figures in that detail. I have not. Col. PIERCE. I think the Quartermaster General used one year as the basis on the supposition that there would be such great wastage in all these various supplies that would be necessary.
The CHAIRMAN. If you have based your estimates for subsistence upon a year's basis for 2,000,000 men, of course you are going to have an excess of supplies that you could not even waste, because you will not have 1,000,000 men by the 1st of December equipped and trained, and it would only be seven months from December to the 1st of July.
Secretary BAKER. These estimates are based, so far as subsistence is concerned, on the theory that enormous accumulations, beyond the present consumptive capacity of the troops, must be accumulated in France, so there can in no event be any interruption in the subsistence, no matter what the progress of the difficulty of transportation may be.
The CHAIRMAN. Upon what is the item of pay based?
Secretary BAKER. I would rather you get that from Col. Pierce My thought about it is that it was based upon an average number men in the service for the period, but I may be in error about
Col. PIERCE. I understood from the Quartermaster General it was based on one year.
The CHAIRMAN. Then you have asked here for a year's pay for 2,000,000 men?
Col. PIERCE. Exactly.
The CHAIRMAN. Of course, there will not be any wastage in pay. and you can not possibly spend that by the 30th of June, 1918.
Maj. WELLS. That point was brought up. I brought it up myself with the Quartermaster General, with reference to reducing the items you have just mentioned-pay, subsistence, and possibly transportation on the ground we could at least see now that the first quarter of the fiscal year would have passed before we had any such number of men in the service.
The CHAIRMAN. You will practically not have any for the first quarter.
Maj. WELLS. Yes; we will have about 700,000 by the 1st of September in the National Guard and Regular Army, and 500.000 more on the 1st of September.
The CHAIRMAN. But the original estimates were based on the theory that you were going to have half a million men under this draft system by the 1st of July, and then keep on increasing the number by degrees.
Maj. WELLS. By the end of September we will have in the Regular Army and the National Guard and in this first draft 1.200,000 men. The CHAIRMAN. Are you sure about that?
Maj. WELLS. That is what we are planning.
The CHAIRMAN. I understand that, but is not a proposition under discussion now to call these men out in various quotas because their equipment will be unavailable?
Secretary BAKER. Yes; that suggestion has been made, but it does not lead to any very long delay. It is a very brief delay.
The CHAIRMAN. As a result of not being able to equip the men to be taken in, is not the advisability or the necessity being considered now of simply taking the men in in quotas?
Secretary BAKER. I can answer that better than anybody else. That suggestion has been made. It was made by the Quartermaster General and is now being investigated by the General Staff and the General Munitions Board, and the last report I had from them was to the effect that they did not think that would be necessary; that they could all be called out on the 1st of September or approximately that date as originally planned.
The CHAIRMAN. They can not all be provided with rifles by the 1st of September.
Secretary BAKER. I am not sure about that. They can not all be provided with Springfields, but they can probably all be provided with rifles.
The CHAIRMAN. Not according to the statement of Gen. Crozier when he was last here on his estimates.
Secretary BAKER. They would not all have to have rifles. Some of these troops will be artillery troops, and so on.
The CHAIRMAN. How about uniforms? Have you any information as to when they will be ready?
Col. PIERCE. We think they will be ready by the 1st of September. but, as the Secretary has just said
The CHAIRMAN (interposing). Do you mean, Colonel, that the arrangements which have been made for deliveries are such that there will be uniforms for 1,000,000 men ready by the 1st of September? Col. PIERCE. The arrangements that have been made and will be made.
The CHAIRMAN. I mean based upon your present deliveries and on information that anyone now has, is it expected that the uniforms will be furnished the 1st of September?
Col. PIERCE. I think so; but that subject is being looked into carefully this morning at the General Munitions Board, where they have their supply committee who are investigating the deliveries and the quantities on hand, and will be able to report, we hope, by to-morrow morning as to the status of the matter. Mr. Rosenwald indicated to me this morning that he thought we would be able to equip the men. Secretary BAKER. That may not be complete equipment and there might be a shortage in some particular items of the uniform.
The CHAIRMAN. I am asking these questions because it is common talk that I have happened to hear that conditions are such that the department will not be in position to equip 1,000,000 men by the 1st of December in these camps, and therefore the matter has been broached of deferring the calling of the men to the colors, even after they are drafted. Now, we ought to have accurate information about that, because we are bound to be questioned about it.
Secretary BAKER. And yet we can not give you any more accurate information than we have, which is this: That with certain items the deliveries are not as rapid as it was expected they would be. I refer particularly to one item which was brought to my attention especially-the item of blankets. Apparently, the weavers of blankets have not been able to weave as many blankets as we expected to be woven. The suggestion has been made, however, that by adopting a blanket nearly like the regulation Army blanket it might be possible to supply the blankets necessary for all the men; and that question is now being investigated by a search of the market to find out whether substitute blankets sufficiently good can be procured, and it is thought they can. Now, that is true of other items of uniform and supply.
Mr. SISSON. Mr. Secretary, I do not know the attitude of the other Members of Congress and of this committee, but up until a day or two ago we were proceeding upon the theory it would be utterly impossible before about the 1st of February to get equipment for more than 1,000,000 men, and from the hearings we have had my understanding was that if we could get the equipment necessary in the way of small arms, rifles, etc., for 1,000,000 men by the 1st of February we were meeting the plans and demands of the General Staff.
Secretary BAKER. Of course, this explanation is necessary. We are doing vastly more than our most optimistic estimates permitted us or justified us in predicting we would be able to do when we were here before. The industry of the country had responded in a splendid way, and by various devices of one kind and another vastly more has been found possible to be done than we then thought in the slightest degree possible.
Mr. SISSON. My question is not even in the nature of a criticism. Secretary BAKER. I perfectly understand that.
Mr. SISSON. It may perhaps be in the nature of commendation, because you are doing more, but it is necessary, as suggested by the chairman in his question a moment ago, that we have such accurate and as near as possible detailed information, as to be able to remove any different idea or opinion from the Congress or from the country generally.
The CHAIRMAN. These figures are based upon the pay, subsistence, equipment, and maintenance of two million and some odd thousand men?
Maj. WELLS. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. Was there deducted the money already appropriated on account of the first 1,000,000 men?
Maj. WELLS. Yes, sir. The appropriations for those items we asked will carry us up to the 30th of December.
The CHAIRMAN. They were to carry you up to the 30th of June, and they were based on an army of 1,000,000 men.
Mr. SHERLEY. They carry you to the 1st of January on the basis of 2,000,000 men, and to the first of July on the basis of 1,000,000 men, do they not, roughly? We were figuring on, or we were appropriating for, 1,000,000 men, or, rather, such average of 1,000,000 men as would be in the service up to July 1, 1918.
Maj. WELLS. I inquired of the Quartermaster General particularly with reference to that point, and I was assured by him that the appropriations already made for pay and subsistence had been deducted from these estimates for these 2,000,000 men.
The CHAIRMAN. We appropriated, upon the estimates of the department, $2,355,000,000 to supply, equip, pay, and subsist an army of 1,000,000 men in the field for a year. We reduced the pay and subsistence by about 33 per cent, but we put back the item of transportation. We reduced pay and subsistence one-third. Now, then, while you are only estimating for this additional million men for a year, you are asking for double the sum provided for the first million men. Are you prepared to explain why the estimates are
Secretary BAKER. Are you figuring on the total?
The CHAIRMAN. They are doubled, because you are asking for over $5,000,000,000.
Secretary BAKER. But you are dealing with the quartermaster's items for subsistence and pay in one item, but in the $5,000,000,000 you are dealing with a large ordnance program and a lot of other things.
The CHAIRMAN. We appropriated for the ordnance estimated in the other bill.
Secretary BAKER. But it was not included in the $2,000,000,000. The CHAIRMAN. Yes. You had $609,000,000 for ordnance.
Secretary BAKER. This item for ordnance here is over $2,000,
The CHAIRMAN. So far, under the law, you are only authorized to call out 1,500,000 men?
Secretary BAKER. I am not sure of that. I think we are authorized to call the Regular Army, the National Guard, and the National Army at war strength, with the necessary recruiting units and reserves to keep them at war strength.
The CHAIRMAN. Has the law been construed in that way, or is additional legislation necessary?
Secretary BAKER. That is the Judge Advocate General's construction of the law.
The CHAIRMAN. So that, under the law as it stands, you can call from time to time the men required to make up this army of 2,033,000 men?
Col. PIERCE. Yes, sir. The 2,033,000 enlisted men include line of communication troops and replacement troops.
Mr. SISSON. Of course, as to the number of replacement troops required, that is based upon experience?
Col. PIERCE. That is based upon experience in the field. We have to have 90 men behind the line for every 400 men in the line, and even more than that during active operations. We must be ready to shove men right into the line to replace men who are lost.
Mr. SISSON. But it is problematical, of course, as to when they will go into the line?
Secretary BAKER. It is an estimate.
Mr. SISSON. It all depends upon the exigencies of war as to whether a large or small number of extra men must be provided.
The CHAIRMAN. The first call issued, Mr. Secretary, was for how many men?
Secretary BAKER. Five hundred thousand. The CHAIRMAN. That would bring up the 1,000,000 men?
force of the Army to
Secretary BAKER. Much more than that. We fill the Regular Army and National Guard to war strength. We have the National Army of 500,000 men, and then 187,000 men were added to that to fill the Regular Army and National Guard to war strength.
The CHAIRMAN. What is the strength of the Regular Army and of the National Guard?
Secretary BAKER. The Regular Army will be 313,000 men.
Secretary BAKER. Now, to that are to be added miscellaneous troops, engineers, forestry troops, dock builders, railroad forces, etc., aggregating 146,000 men. That makes a total of 470,000 men in the Regular Army. The National Guard, leaving out the miscellaneous troops, will be 417,800 men.
The CHAIRMAN. Are you in a position to state just what is contemplated?
Secretary BAKER. The emergency military legislation directs the President to use the Army, consisting of the Regular Army and National Guard increased to and maintained at war strength, which will be, respectively, with the various miscellaneous special units, for the Regular Army, 470,185 men, and for the National Guard 456,800 men, and the National Army of selected men of 500,000, increased by certain reserves, line of communication troops, etc., to 656,360 men, these also to be maintained at war strength, and for the purpose of maintaining those troops, replacement units for all forces are contemplated by the military legislation, and the number of men necessary to be drawn for such replacement purposes for these three branches of the Army aggregate 450,000 men. The total of these amounts to 2,033,345 men. In addition to these, the emergency