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been made. Their idea is to employ a few people who have had large experience in managing retail business of that kind, in buying wisely and selling wisely, so as to operate the different post exchanges for the benefit of the men, simply paying whatever small profits there may be into the regimental funds or company funds.

The CHAIRMAN. What is the importance of providing for these continuous performances, as I suppose they are, at these training camps?

Secretary BAKER. It is very important. I have had some personal experience with that. There are two or three regiments in camp around Washington at this time, and the effort has been made to supply them with amusements, such as singing and more or less amateur performances, and some volunteers from the professional stage have given entertainments for the young men, and it has proved to be an exceedingly valuable thing. It is valuable in preventing homesickness and in wearing away the tedium of unoccupied leisure, which is something that destroys the spirit and morale of troops.

The CHAIRMAN. Is it the purpose to have in these camps sufficient entertainment and amusement to make it less imperative for the men to go on leave?

Secretary BAKER. Yes, sir; the purpose is to make camp life more satisfying.

The CHAIRMAN. And it is in the interest of morale and discipline?

Secretary BAKER. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Fosdick is at the head of the committee? Secretary BAKER. Yes, sir; he is at the head of that committee. Col. Pierce, who is here, is a member of it, and he may be able to recall additional items that they have in mind.

Col. PIERCE. There are moving-picture shows and all sorts of entertainments of that kind. just as they have on the western front in France to-day. They have it in order to keep up the spirits and morale of the men.

Secretary BAKER. There is one very interesting thing that ought to be stated: The early British experiments at recreation and entertainment in the camps were of a very light variety, but gradually, at the instance of the men themselves, the recreational activities became more and more serious and more and more valuable to the men. That is to say, where they would start out by supplying minstrel shows, the men after a little while grew tired of the minstrel shows and wanted more serious things and more helpful things brought to them. Consequently we believe that the activities of this committee will lead to a constant improvement in the character of the enertainments and in their helpfulness to the men, both while in the Army and after they leave the Army.

The CHAIRMAN. Is there any other special matter that you have?

TRANSFER OF FUNDS FROM ONE APPROPRIATION TO ANOTHER.

Secretary BAKER. No, sir: I think not. I would be very glad if you would put in a little latitude of about 10 per cent in transferring funds from one appropriation to another.

The CHAIRMAN. You have not been embarrassed yet?
Secretary BAKER. We are constantly embarrassed.
The CHAIRMAN. In what respect?

Secretary BAKER. You can see the situation: We have got to come down here and ask you to make appropriations which we would not have to ask on some of these items if we had been able to switch funds from one to another.

OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF, INFORMATION SECTION.

The CHAIRMAN. There are two items here for the office of the Chief of Staff-one for the information section, and there is an increase of clerks.

Col. PIERCE. As to the information section, the original amount asked for was $1,000,000, and this gives that $1,000,000. They have established a comparatively large section down there.

The CHAIRMAN. How is this money used-in this country?
Col. PIERCE. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Is the army building up a large secret-service force in the United States in addition to the other secret-service forces?

Col. PIERCE. I would not say that it was such a big secret-service force, but they find that it is necessary to have some secret-service force. You see we have all sorts of people in our Army, and we have to know something about their history. In fact, our allies insist on something of that kind being done.

The CHAIRMAN. Is that done by the War Department, or by some other service?

Col. PIERCE. It is being done by the War Department in conjunction with the Department of Justice, wherever coordination is possible.

The CHAIRMAN. Do you know how much has been expended out of the $500,000 so far?

Col. PIERCE. No, sir; I do not know.

ADDITIONAL CLERKS.

(See p. 382.)

The CHAIRMAN. You are asking for nine additional clerks for the Office of the Chief of Staff.

Col. PIERCE. We have greatly increased the amount of work at the War College due to the war, and these additional clerks are in part for that work, and also in part for work in the War Department in the office of the Chief of Staff.

The CHAIRMAN. Are you allotted any clerks out of the lump sum appropriation?

Col. PIERCE. Twenty-four clerks were authorized as an addition to the clerical force of the General Staff in the urgent deficiency bill, commonly known as the $3,000,000,000 bill. Of these clerks all have been appointed and sworn in, with the exception of two; one of these, Mr. Greer, is due to report for duty on August 1, and a recommendation to fill the other vacancy will be made shortly.

TUESDAY, AUGUST 7, 1917.

SIGNAL SERVICE OF THE ARMY.

STATEMENT OF BRIG. GEN. GEORGE O. SQUIER, CHIEF SIGNAL * OFFICER.

Mr. SHERLEY. General, on page 58 of the bill, under the head of "Office of the Chief Signal Officer," there is the following item:

For expenses of the Signal Service of the Army, as follows: Purchase, equip ment, and repair of field electric telegraph, radio installations, signal equipments and stores, binocular glasses, telescopes, heliostats, and other necessary instruments, including necessary meteorological intruments for use on target ranges; motorcycles and motor-driven vehicles used for technical and official purposes; professional and scientific books of reference, pamphlets, periodicals, newspapers, and maps, for use in the office of the Chief Signal Officer; war balloons and airships and accessories, including their maintenance and repair; telephone apparatus ([exclusive of] including exchange service at mobile army posts) and maintenance of the same; electrical installations and maintenance at military posts; fire-control and direction apparatus and material for Field Artillery; maintenance and repair of military lines and cables, including salaries of civilian employees, supplies, general repairs, reserved supplies, and other expenses connected with the duty of collecting and transmitting information for the Army by telegraph or otherwise, $3,000,000.

You had $1,000,000 in the Army bill and a deficiency of $3,817,766 in the June 15 bill.

Gen. SQUIER. Yes, sir.

Mr. SHERLEY. You are now asking $3,000,000 additional. What is the reason for requesting this additional money?

Gen. SQUIER. The reasons may be classified first under certain totally unpremeditated demands which have been and are now being made upon the Signal Service due to the war, and other lesser reasons may be classified as they are here, the motorization of our telegraph battalions instead of using horses, due to the roads in Europe, the supplying of an adequate depot in France, and the extra cost of machines in the organization of the Infantry. We are going to model our Infantry over to fit Europe, which calls for certain extra things, notably machine-gun companies, which will require a lot of glasses, and so on. That is a small item. The large item which alone more than meets this consists of certain unprecedented things. The demand for lines of information connecting our Army with Washington on a scale commensurate with the force we hope to put in France, and the absolute lack of any sort of material that we could get from France to do this, confronted the Signal Corps with the problem of creating and building in France a large number of lines of information which we had supposed would be furnished by France, and which it developed could not be furnished.

Mr. SHERLEY. General, Congress recently appropriated $640,000,000 in connection with the Aviation Service.

Gen. SQUIER. Yes, sir.

Mr. SHERLEY. Were any of the funds available for this purpose, or, to put my question in another way, was it not contemplated that a large part of this expense which you have generally designated would be borne out of the funds thus made available?

Gen. SQUIER. I suppose, strictly speaking, by law I would have authority to do that if they would agree to it in the Treasury, although that was an aviation measure, and if I started to build telegraph lines it would not be in conformity with the estimate furnished at that time, although I suppose I could do it.

Mr. SHERLEY. This expense, then, is exclusive of the expenses incident to aviation?

Gen. SQUIER. Yes, sir; this has nothing to do with aviation at all. Mr. SHERLEY. And relates to your regular Signal Service?

Gen. SQUIER. Yes, sir. It has nothing to do whatever with aviation. It is to provide Gen. Pershing's army with the absolutely reliable and necessary lines of information that he needs. We have also learned. to our surprise, that there are certain new highly scientific branches of war being developed in Europe, which are not infantry, cavalry, or artillery, which must be immediately developed, and we are inheriting those in the Signal Corps, because they are more or less assigned to that branch. There is no law for it. In the first place, there is the meteorological service. Suddenly Gen. Pershing has determined that he must have with him somebody to forecast the weather. For that purpose there is needed special equipment, which the French and English have. The experts sent must be soldiers. They can not be civilians. The General Staff immediately said that the Signal Corps would develop that staff and train them and send them over. No one could have foretold that. We did not know. We simply must do it.

Mr. SHERLEY. I notice, General, that you want to strike out the words "exclusive of" and insert the word "including," so that the paragraph will read "including exchange service at mobile Army posts." What is the reason for that?

Gen. SQUIER. For years this strange anomaly has occurred. The Quartermaster's Department has paid for the telephone service connecting all posts to the cities. The Signal Service has built all the post systems and why it should not provide everything I do not know. For many years that is one of the anomalies which has existed. In my judgment, the Signal Service should provide the entire service, including the connecting of the posts with the towns, because the Quartermaster's Department has no means of knowing whether the price is proper.

Mr. CANNON. Who keeps it in repair?

Gen. SQUIER. We do everything, except this item, which has been in the Quartermaster's Department. The Quartermaster General is very anxious to get rid of it. We think that it should be with us. Mr. SHERLEY. What does it amount to in money?

Gen. SQUIER. As I remember, last year about $36,000-a small affair. They keep an account over in another place that does not know anything about it. They do not want it. It is illogical. We build the line, maintain the telephone, and run the service connected with the town. How this started I do not know. It does not amount to much; it is a small item.

Mr. BYRNS. Does this include the services of the men?
Gen. SQUIER. No; this is a toll line.

Mr. SHERLEY. This has nothing to do with the personnel?

Gen. SQUIER. No, sir. We have to connect ourselves with the Bell system and pay so much for the trunk line. That operation should

be done by the Signal Corps, otherwise there has to be an account kept in the Quartermaster's Department.

Mr. SHERLEY. This fund is available for the payment of salaries of civilian employees generally?

Gen. SQUIER. I think it is.

Mr. SHERLEY. It says so in express language.

Gen. SQUIER. Yes, sir; "exchange service and maintenance of the

same."

Mr. SHERLEY. Not only that, but further on when it speaks of "maintenance and repair of military lines and cables, including salaries of civilian employees"?

Gen. SQUIER. Yes, sir. That means this, that at some of the larger posts the commander prefers to have civilians at the exchange instead of soldiers. That is gradually being displaced and will soon disappear. We are rather against that. We think the whole thing should be military at the posts. It is a comparatively small business. There have been, at certain posts, civilians employed.

Mr. BYRNS. That is the reason I asked the question, whether this was personal service rendered by the enlisted men or civilians? Gen. SQUIER. It is both.

Mr. CANNON. For instance, you connect up with Chicago?
Gen. SQUIER. That is a soldier.

Mr. CANNON. You can not have a soldier to receive the message; you may have soldiers at Fort Sheridan?

Gen. SQUIER. That is what I mean. The staff at Fort Sheridan is a soldier staff. That connects with the civilian staff at the towns, with which we have nothing to do.

Mr. BYRNS. It is contemplated to use this fund to replace the enlisted men who are now serving?

Gen. SQUIER. The older policy was to have a certain number of civilians. Now, under the new order of things, they are disappearing, with the exception of five or six, and they will be eliminated as fast as possible. In the old days we used to build the lines and sell them. There are, perhaps, two or three left still, but the present plan is to make everything military, as it ought to be.

PAY OF OFFICERS OF THE SIGNAL CORPS.

(See p. 380.)

Mr. SHERLEY. On page 62 there is the item "Signal Corps ": For Pay of officers of the Signal Corps, $21,870,833. There was appropriated in the Army bill $500,000, and in the deficiency bill of June 15, $1.629.167?

Gen. SQUIER. Yes, sir.

Mr. SHERLEY. The Quartermaster General, in his testimony touching the pay of the various departments, stated that you would be prepared to explain this item?

Gen. SQUIER. I think the only explanation is this: When the aviation bill for this large program was brought down here it was an entirely new thing, involving $640,000,000, and that estimate included the new activities and for the organization of something like 110,000 men into different sorts of flying organizations, and it

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