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The CHAIRMAN. How was this basis in the neighborhood of 300 cubic feet determined?
Col. LITTELL. The original cantonments were gotten up to take the place of tents on the border. The troops down there were using three sets of tentage per year and it was found that by substituting wood we could save money. These buildings were designed to take the place of the tentage in the camps.
The CHAIRMAN. Were they built?
Col. LITTELL. A lot were built.
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. Did the medical authorities make any objection? Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir; they were all the time complaining that the air space was not enough. In several instances the doctors in making their monthly inspection reports complained that the buildings were not large enough-roomy enough.
The CHAIRMAN. How was it, if those were in existence, estimates were submitted upon construction of that character?
Col. LITTELL. In order to keep the expense down.
The CHAIRMAN. You do not mean to ignore the advice of the Medical Department, merely to keep the expense down. Why do you not continue to ignore their advice now?
Col. LITTELL. We built some buildings of the same type at Fort Myer. The medical people objected to them as not being large enough, and finally after arguing with them they consented to pass those buildings, if we would put in certain changes in the way of ventilation. The medical people had a board, with Gen. Gorgas at the head, and they reported to the Surgeon General that we did not have air space enough.
The CHAIRMAN. Were those reports submitted to the Secretary of War?
Col. LITTELL. The monthly reports?
The CHAIRMAN. Yes, sir.
Col. LITTELL. They come to the Surgeon General.
The CHAIRMAN. How do you get them?
Col. LITTELL. They send them to us.
The CHAIRMAN. When were those reports in; before the estimates were submitted?
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir; some of them were. We had put up a number of these buildings since the estimates were made.
The CHAIRMAN. Before the estimates were submitted to Congress, was the type of building submitted to the Medical Department for its approval?
Col. LITTELL. Not the first ones. We submitted these plans to the medical people after the estimate was submitted to Congress. The CHAIRMAN. Did they approve or disapprove?
Col. LITTELL. They made a number of suggestions as to improvements. They were all along the line of more air space and the need of getting more ventilation. For instance, the Surgeon General wanted the sides on hinges so they could be pushed out. The Surgeon General also recommended that instead of building these buildings we should build huts to accommodate six men. We, on our side, held that that would not do; that it was more like having a camp with
tents; that it would cost more in the end and spread it all over the face of the earth and make heating extremely difficult. Accordingly the plans of the present buildings were submitted to the Surgeon General. They objected to them as being too small.
After having a hearing with the medical board, we proposed one or two different plans to increase the air space, and one of the plans is for an extra building which will have two floors and will accommodate in each apartment about 30 men. They wanted not over 30 men in a room. They want to segregate them as much as possible so as to prevent the transmission of diseases like measles, colds, and things like that. We told them that we would make the plans to allow the air space in the cantonment building and an extra two-story building that would house these men and give them the necessary amount of air space by putting the overflow into these two buildings, giving each man 500 cubic feet of air space.
The CHAIRMAN. Can you prepare and send us a statement showing the location of these camps, the cost of each camp, and the number of men each camp will accommodate, the unit cost?
Col. LITTELL. We can only approximate the cost, because the camps are going to vary in cost. In some places they will cost a little more. We can give you that statement. We will not know what the unit cost is until they are finished, but we can tell you the final cost and come pretty close to the unit cost of some of the buildings.
The CHAIRMAN. And state briefly the conditions under which they are being constructed, the conditions of the contract.
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir; I can prepare a statement of that kind.
HEAT AND LIGHT FOR CANTONMENTS.
The CHAIRMAN. Is the $700,000 for additional heating and lighting?
Gen. SHARPE. Capt. Marshall can explain that. He handles all the heating and lighting.
Capt. MARSHALL. That is for the heating and lighting of new extensions to the barracks buildings, being brought about by the fact that the original estimate was based upon 334 cubic feet of space per man and the Secretary having instructed us to submit estimates on barracks that would have 500 cubic feet per man. These are the extensions to the barracks we are now constructing, which will provide accommodations for 334 cubic feet per man, and we are instructed to submit an estimate to increase the barracks so that they will provide 500 cubic feet per man. The heating and lighting of these extensions will cost $700,000.
The CHAIRMAN. Do those extensions consist of additional buildings?
Capt. MARSHALL. Separate buildings.
HEAT AND LIGHT FOR QUARTERMASTER DEPOTS.
The CHAIRMAN. $60,000 for heating and lighting quartermaster depots. What is the necessity for the additional sum?
Capt. MARSHALL. They are the quartermaster depots to be established at each cantonment. Each depot consists of 10 buildings, 10,000 square feet each, 100.000 square feet for the quartermaster depot at each cantonment.
The CHAIRMAN. Were not they included in the original estimates? Capt. MARSHALL. No, sir.
HEAT AND LIGHT FOR HOSPITALS AT CANTONMENTS.
The CHAIRMAN. Heating and lighting hospital buildings at 16 cantonments, $1,690,000?
Capt. MARSHALL. That is to be used in conjunction with the appropriation for construction and repair of hospitals. This appropriation bears the same relation to hospitals that the barracks and quarters do to barracks. The total cost of the hospitals for the 16 cantonments will be between $8,000,000 and $9,000,000. The estimate recently submitted. if I recollect correctly, was $2,014.000, but the Surgeon General's office has put into these hospitals a thousand beds with all the accessories, at these cantonments, and that runs the price up to almost $9,000,000, including all the appropriations that go into the construction of those hospitals.
The CHAIRMAN. That is, heating and lighting buildings to house about 16,000 patients?
Capt. MARSHALL. Yes, sir. Then there are the operating wards and laundries, the sterilizers, and the whole layout, which is quite complete. modern, and up to date. The representatives from the Surgeon General's office can better explain that. The hospital outfit. my recollection is, covers a space of about 20 acres.
The CHAIRMAN. Is not that a very high price-$100 a bed-to heat a hospital? That is the way it figures.
Capt. MARSHALL. I can give you the cubic contents. Steam heating runs just about two and a half or three times as much as it used to. Radiation is about 40 cents, when it used to be 20 or 22 cents. The same way with boilers and steel piping and other material. Boilers that we used to pay $1,600 for we now pay about $3,000.
ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER PLANTS AT NATIONAL GUARD CAMPS.
The CHAIRMAN. Electric lighting and power plants at camps for the National Guard, $800,000. Is that due to this proposed change? Capt. MARSHALL. No, sir. The National Guard is now going into
The CHAIRMAN. Is that due to this proposed change?
Capt. MARSHALL. No, sir; that is what they are doing now. They are going into camp. After they get into camp, we propose to put one lamp in each tent and to light the streets, mess shelters, kitchens, latrines, and showers. This is for that purpose for the 16 National Guard camps.
The CHAIRMAN. How many men will there be in those camps?
The CHAIRMAN. Does this include heat?
Col. LITTELL. No, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. Is there any provision for heat?
Col. LITTELL. If they stay there during the winter they will have to have tent stoves.
The CHAIRMAN. Have you made any provision for them?
Col. LITTELL. They are provided for under regular supplies by the supply division. We do not estimate for those, and the same is true of tentage. We make no estimate for the tentage.
The CHAIRMAN. They are issued just as necessity requires? Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir; just like tents and any other camp equipage. The CHAIRMAN. At all of these camps is there a power plant built? Capt. MARSHALL. No, sir; that is just the language of the appropriation. You understand, we have to build transmission lines in most cases. No power plants at all are to be constructed.
The CHAIRMAN. The purpose is to purchase the power?
Capt. MARSHALL. Yes; to purchase the power from the towns in each case.
Col. LITTELL. They bring it up to the reservation.
Capt. MARSHALL. We will have to distribute it throughout the reservation.
The CHAIRMAN. Is there sufficient power within reach of all these camps?
Capt. MARSHALL. Yes, sir. The amount of power used at the camps is relatively small.
The CHAIRMAN. I refer to the power for lighting.
Capt. MARSHALL. It will run approximately one-sixth of what it will be at the cantonments.
The CHAIRMAN. I am speaking now generally of the camps and cantonments. Is there within reach of all of them sufficient power from local enterprises?
Capt. MARSHALL. In every case; yes, sir.
COAST ARTILLERY CANTONMENTS-HEATING AND LIGHTING.
The CHAIRMAN. You are asking $325,000 for heat and light at the Coast Artillery cantonments.
Col. LITTELL. They are cantonment buildings built right in the Coast Artillery posts to supplement the barracks.
The CHAIRMAN. How many have we?
Col. LITTELL. Almost every Coast Artillery post will have extra Coast Artillery militia, which we have to provide for.
The CHAIRMAN. The purpose is to put in these localities where we have defenses temporary quarters for the troops called in?
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir; to take care of the National Guard.
WIRING STOREHOUSE AT GOVERNORS ISLAND.
The CHAIRMAN. Then there is an item of $25,000 for wiring at Governors Island quartermaster storehouse.
Col. LITTELL. They are going to build a number of new storehouses at Governors Island for the New York depot.
The CHAIRMAN. Temporary or permanent?
Col. LITTELL. Semipermanent. They are going to put quite a number on that new fill.
CONVERSION OF NATIONAL GUARD CAMPS INTO CANTONMENTS.
(See p. 406.)
The CHAIRMAN. Then there is an item of $18,380,000 to change the National Guard camps to cantonments.
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir; we made our estimates for those camps as we were instructed, and then afterwards we were told to so arrange
these camps that they could be changed into cantonments, and then we got instructions to submit an estimate to convert the camps into cantonments.
The CHAIRMAN. When were those instructions issued?
Col. LITTELL. A few days before the date of these estimates. It was along about the 8th of July.
The CHAIRMAN. The Secretary of War stated yesterday that the National Guard troops were to go into the camps.
Col. LITTELL. They are, Mr. Fitzgerald, and that is what we are preparing now; but we were told to prepare and submit an estimate for converting them later on into cantonments. I suppose the War Department has some idea that they would use these camps for the same purpose, possibly, that they are using the National Army
The CHAIRMAN. The Secretary stated that they would not; that the army would be there a comparatively brief time, and that the National Guard camps would not be used any more.
Col. LITTELL. We certainly had these instructions.
The CHAIRMAN. From whom did your instructions come?
Col. LITTELL. From the Chief of Staff. My memorandum here, Mr. Fitzgerald, refers to a memorandum of the Chief of Staff dated the 13th of July and refers to a particular paragraph.
The CHAIRMAN. Have you got what it says there?
Col. LITTELL. I have not got their memorandum, but my memorandum says, "Referring to memorandum of Chief of Staff dated July 13, 1917, in regard to construction work at National Guard provisional training camps, and referring particularly to paragraph E thereof." Evidently from the context which follows that recommendation is based on something that the War College division submitted.
The CHAIRMAN. Now, these National Guard camps were located, as I recall, so that the climatic conditions would be such that they would be able to get open-air training for the time they would be there, which would not be long, and after that they were not to be required. Now, after they have located them, it is proposed to change the character of the quarters so as to make them of a semipermanent character?
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir; like the others.
The CHAIRMAN. They are working both ways in doing that? Col. LITTELL. We, of course, presumed that they were going to make continuous use of the camps.
The CHAIRMAN. The Secretary stated here yesterday that they
Col. LITTELL. We have the memorandum; that is all we can go by.
The CHAIRMAN. You say you are preparing the camps for these men now?
Col. LITTELL. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. When were they to go into them?
Col. LITTELL. Some of them were to go into them on the 1st of August, which would be to-morrow, but owing to the fact we were told not to do anything to the camps-that is, the department commanders were told not to go on with the leasing of the necessary