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ized to create the necessary divisions of the department according to his judgment. The following four divisions have been created, viz., Pridge and Ferry, Highway, Sewer and Sanitary, Water, each in charge of a Division Engineer.

The Commissioner of Public Works, who must be a civil engineer of recognized standing in his profession, has control over the construction of all streets and sewers; the care and management of all bridges used as highways; of the ferries owned and operated by the City, and of the street lamps maintained by the City; the cleaning, repairing and sprinkling of streets and the removal of house offal and refuse; the maintenance and operation of all fixtures and appliances held by the City for purposes of water supply; and over the granting of permits to open, occupy, obstruct and use portions of streets.

By authority of Chapter 571, Acts of 1910, the mmission of Public Works charges for permits issued, as per the following revised schedule in effect from April 1, 1920:

1. Openings in streets or sidewalks, 50 cents each. Limited to 100 linear feet on one permit.

2. Emergency permits, Class A (for the above purpose), 50 cents each.

3. Advertising by man wearing hat and coat lettered (annual permit), $5 (or $1 per month).

4. Cleaning snow from roofs (occupation of sidewalk and street while so doing), annual permit, $1 each.

5. Driving cattle through the streets (annual permit to driver), $5.
6. Erecting and repairing awnings (annual permit), $1 each.
7. Moving buildings in streets, $5 per day; minimum charge, $10.

8. Erecting, altering or repairing buildings (occupation of street or sidewalk), 5 cents per square foot per month in the City Proper, bounded on the south by and including Berkeley and Dover streets; 3 cents per square foot per month in that part of the City south of limits above stated to and including Massachusetts are.; and 2 cents per square foot per month in all other localities.

9. Painting or minor repairs, $1 each.
10. Feeding horses on streets (annual permit), $1 each.
11. Placing and removing signs flat on buildings, $1 each.
12. Projecting signs or lamps from buildings, $1 each.
13. Raising or lowering safes, machinery, etc., $1 each.
14. Emergency permits, Class B, $1 each.

15. Special permits for periods and rates other than those in the preceding classes according to the discretion of the Commissioner.

BRIDGE AND FERRY DIVISION.

Office, 602 City Hall Annex, sixth floor.
John E. CARTY, Division Engineer.
L. B. REILLY, Engineer of Construction.
R. D. GARDNER, Designing Engineer.
THOMAS H. SEXTON, Supervisor of Bridges.
JOHN F. SULLIVAN, General Foreman of Ferries.

The Division Engineer has charge of the design, construction and maintenance of the highway bridges within the limits of the City, the care and management of the municipal ferries, the abolishment of grade crossings, also the special engineering work for other City departments. All drawtenders are appointed by and subject to the control of the Commissioner of Public Works.

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SUMMARY OF HIGHWAY BRIDGES, ETC.
1. Number maintained wholly by Boston
II. Number of which Boston maintains the part within its limits
III. Number of those whose cost of maintenance is partly paid

by Boston
IV. Number maintained by railroad corporations:

1. Boston & Albany
2. Boston & Maine and Boston & Albany
3. Boston & Maine, Eastern Division .
4. Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn
5. New York, N. H. & H., Midland Div.
6. New York, N. H. & H., Old Colony Div.

7. New York, N. H. & H., Providence Div.
V. Number maintained by Metropolitan District Commission,
VI. Number maintained by U. S. Government

4 1 1 1 13

4 16

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HIGHWAY DIVISION.

Main Office, 501 City Hall Annex, fifth floor.
James H. SULLIVAN, Division Engineer.
JOSHUA ATWOOD, Chief Engineer, Paving Service.

BENJAMIN F. BATES, Assistant Engineer, Paving Service. The Division Engineer has charge of the construction and maintenance of all public streets, the issuing of permits to open, occupy and obstruct portions of streets, the care and upkeep of the electric and gas lamps in the public streets, alleys, parks and public grounds, and the placing of glass street signs and numbers therein, the numbering of buildings and the placing of all street signs.

MILES OF ACCEPTED STREETS, FEBRUARY 1, 1925, BY DISTRICTS.

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NOTE.— Total area of the 615.35 miles of accepted streets, 11,637,188 square yards, or 2,404.4 acres, which area is 8.58 per cent of City's entire land area. In addition to the above total, there are accepted footways with total length of 1.35 miles. The total number of accepted public streets and alleys is 2,514. Besides these, there are about 3,020 private streets and alleys.

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Main Office, 510 City Hall Annex. EDWARD F. MURPHY, Division Engineer. Tuomas F. Bowes, Engineer in Charge of Sewer Service. John M. Shea, Construction Engineer, Sewer Service. William V. P. HOAR, Office Engineer, Sewer Service. DANIEL H. GILLESPIE, Supervisor of Sanitary, Street Cleaning and Oiling

Service.

The Commissioner of Public Works in 1918 merged the Sewer Service, Sanitary Service and Street Cleaning and Oiling Service, designating these three former branches of the Highway Division as the Sewer and Sanitary Division.

The Division Engineer has charge of all sewer work; of the cleaning and oiling of streets, also the removal of house offal and refuse in the various districts of the City.

The total length of common and intercepting sewers on February 1, 1925, was 1,012.22 miles; total number of catch-basins in charge of Sewer Service 16,843.

Assessments upon the estates benefited by new sewers are not levied by the Public Works Department but by the Board of Street Commissioners (see Street Laying-Out Department), who also award damages to real estate owners having approved claims for such. The assessment upon an estate for a new sewer is limited to $4.00 per linear foot and it is a lien upon the property until paid, the law allowing payment in annual instalments of 10 per cent of total assessment with interest.

In 1889 as provided by Chap. 439 of the Acts, the Metropolitan Sewerage Commission of three members undertook the construction of the North Metropolitan and South Metropolitan systems of trunk and intercepting sewers, the former to discharge into the sea at Deer Island and the latter at Moon Island. The City of Boston had already constructed, at a cost of $4,250,000, pumping works and a trunk sewer from Huntington avenue and Gainsborough street to Moon Island. The South system was completed and put into operation in 1892, the State paying the City for pumping and discharging the sewage received from the territory west of Huntington avenue. The North Metropolitan system, with four pumping plants and 41 miles of sewers, went into operation in 1896, costing $5,116,696. A third system, the Neponset Valley, with a total length of 11.3 miles, was completed in 1898. In 1906 the High-level sewer was completed and into its 17 miles of tunnel, extending from Roxbury to Quincy, thence to outlets off Nut Island, nearly all the sewage of the South District was diverted. On January 1, 1925, there were 68.51 miles of Metropolitan sewer in the North District, of which 10.4 miles were in Boston, and 51.85 miles in the South District, 23.98 miles being in Boston. Tributary to the two Metropolitan systems there were 1,581 miles of local sewers in the 28 cities and towns belonging.

REMOVAL OF STORE REFUSE.

The removal of refuse from shops, stores and warehouses, involving much extra labor, is attended to by the Sanitary Service and charged for at 15 cents a barrel or bundle (not larger than a flour barrel). No removals are made except on delivery of tickets obtainable at 504 City Hall Annex.

WATER DIVISION.

Main Office, 606 City Hall Annex. CHRISTOPHER J. CARVEN, Division Engineer. JAMES A. MCMURRY, Engineer in Charge, Income and Meter Branch. GEORGE H. FINNERAN, Superintendent, Distribution Branch.

• Under the control of the Division Engineer are the care and maintenance of all pipes and other fixtures and appliances for the purposes of the City's water supply, also the assessing of water rates and issuing of the bills therefor.

The total length of supply and distributing water mains on February 1, 1925, was 901.01 miles; number of services actually in use, 90,430, of which 94 per cent were metered; number of public fire hydrants, 10,144; number of public drinking fountains, 151, of which 83 are fitted with hygienic bubble fixtures and 68 are for animals only.

The first water document published by the City of Boston appeared in 1825. In addition to the annual reports on the Cochituate supply, from 1850, and of the Mystic supply, from 1866, there are numerous special reports. By chapter 449, Acts of 1895, the Boston Water Board, the Water Income Department and the Water Registrar were abolished and

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