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We have organizations in 48 States, Hawai, and the District of Columbia, 20,000 local associations, with a paid membership of approximately 1,500,000.
We do not claim to represent any particular interests, since our purpose is child welfare.
I suppose that there may be in our organization capitalists, professional people, laborers, manufacturers, advertisers, and people of all types of occupation. Since our purpose is child welfare, I think it will be conceded that self-interest is not our motive in supporting this bill.
We have had for more than thirty years, a definite health program for children which is carried on both in the home and in the school. We believe that there is just as much need for the protection which this legislation is designed to afford, as there is for the protection of an army and navy for other types of enemies to life. The National Congress of Parents and Teachers indorses general principles with regard to health, schools, etc., at its annual convention; specific bills which are in conformity with these principles are indorsed by its Board of Managers. Š. 1944 was unanimously indorsed by the N. C. P. T. Board of Managers on Sept. 21, 1933. We urge its early enactment into law.
The CHAIRMAN. Thank you, Mrs. Bannerman.
Mrs. Franklin W. Fritchey, of the Maryland Home Makers' Association.
STATEMENT OF MRS. FRANKLIN W. FRITCHEY ON BEHALF OF
THE MARYLAND HOME MAKERS' ASSOCIATION
Mrs. FRITCHEY. Not long ago I was asked if I was any relation to Barbara Frietchie, of Maryland. I said that I was the mother of Barbara Fritchey, and the gentleman said, “You certainly have held your age.”
Dr. Copeland, and members of the Committee, I represent a group of women who have been studying foods. That has been our real work for several years.
We felt that as a home makers' group we would take up consumer problems, and so the first thing in which we became interested was foods.
We had the great pleasure of working with Dr. Wylie, and through our contact with Dr. Wylie we just stayed on foods. We found that it was an unlimited field, and a great work for us to do.
So we have taken up the study of legislation with regard to foods and, of course, that took us into the study of the pure food laws.
We knew that Dr. Wylie had had a tremendous fight, and I believe even a bigger one than Dr. Campbell and all of you are having here today, but he fought bravely, and he had the backing, at that time, of many women and women's organizations.
Necessarily, then, we became interested in the new bill. Last spring I compiled and published a booklet on the origin of the pure food laws and the progress in Federal food control and I have distributed 75,000 copies during the Century of Progress this summer.
I have met thousands of women and talked to them, and I felt that this book would be an education to them along the line of what the pure food laws were; women knew so little about them, and it would prepare them so that they would understand the new law.
I am receiving letters from almost every State asking me for more information on the pure food laws and how to prepare programs before women's clubs on that subject.
We find that women's responsibility as consumers and as the world's largest buyers leads them to realize their power as purchasing agents for their families, and they are beginning to take their jobs more seriously and beginning to make their power felt, as it should be.
We must recognize in these days of the so-called “depression” and the New Deal that the good of the consumer and the good of industry are bound up together.
Right here I might say that I feel as the previous speaker said, that consumers should be represented in the conferences of you men who are preparing foods for us, as to what we would like, what size jars, what quality, and so forth and so on.
I do not think that it would be amiss for us to sit around a table together and then maybe we would not have to have so many pure food laws.
We find, too, that the home is being revitalized; there is a lot of professional skill going into the home. We are getting new techniques into the homes, scientific management, and we are all interested in this institution called the home.
Economically, the world cannot function unless women make some kind of productive return, and so we are necessarily interested in the new food law.
It is a measure that is going a great deal farther than the present law, and we do endorse this bill, with a few reservations.
We do want honest advertising. One man said today he was spending—he was afraid to tell how much, but we know it is in the millions—we know the journals and magazines and newspapers are only for women, outside of the front page.
All of these items, from sauerkraut to fur coats, are for us, and when we know that you are going to be honest advertisers, then we are going to have more confidence in your goods and you.
In other words, if we were all on principle, and principle means honesty, we are all going to be a happy family, we are going to be happy and work with you, and you are going to be happy to have us work
We women have always bravely faced the daily task of providing food for the health and well-being of our families. Not so many years ago the problem was to find the food. Now the problem is to choose from the vast markets of the world, and how is she going to choose unless she has correct labels on her packages and on her cans?
We welcome the McNary-Mapes amendment, because it was a great help to us.
It was sponsored, we found, through the National Canners' Association, and when we found that, we consulted with them to what extent we could believe them, and what faith we could have in their labels, and for that reason we feel that this new law, which suggests Grades A, B, and C, would be a wonderful thing for all of us if it could be enforced.
But, can it be enforced? That is the thing for us to take up and work out to the satisfaction of both the consumer and the producer.
It might leave a loophole where some manufacturer or producer who did not want to put out his good string beans or a good can of peas, might just slip one over on us, and we have had that done long enough.
Let us consider that as one of the measures of the bill to be reconsidered.
We also know that Dr. Wylie worked for years to take out adulteration and poisonous ingredients in foods. We find now with this new bill that canned foods are now sterilized and are being put in airtight containers. They do not use preservatives any longer.
We find that Dr. Wylie was finally considered the best friend the food industry ever had, although they thought at first that he was their worst enemy.
Many of you men will find that this bill is going to be your friend and not your enemy.
The last thing we have to suggest on this bill, as I only have one more minute, I believe, is that we are just in doubt about whether we are giving too much power to one man in this bill.
Let us consider that, how that can be handled.
We had an example of that with the former Secretary, in bringing out a regulatory amendment just a few weeks after Dr. Wylie's death in the case of the corn sugar, where he said it could be used in foods and not put on the labels.
If the secretary could have that power, he could say you could put cottonseed in butter and not put it on the label, and so forth and so on.
So, those are things that we women are anxious to watch and see that that kind of thing does not happen.
I may not have studied the bill correctly, but those are the things I would like to have considered.
I had other things that I would like to speak about, but the home makers are the consumers, and we want the best legislation for all concerned.
The CHAIRMAN. Thank you very much.
I will call now on Mrs. Malcolm McCoy, of the New York Federation of Women's Clubs.
STATEMENT OF MRS. MALCOLM MCCOY, PRESIDENT, NEW YORK
CITY FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S CLUBS Mrs. McCoy. Senator Copeland and members of the Committee, before I speak in my official capacity, I wish to speak as a consumer purely.
I feel that as a consumer certainly the interests of all the consumers who have been represented here today have been met very fairly by the chairman and his committee, and that certainly we have had every consideration as well as have had the various industries which have been represented. [Applause.]
[ I have not the opportunity to speak for myself, but I must speak as my organization has mandated and, therefore, I will read a few remarks that I have to make.
I represent 350 clubs, large and small, which are composed of approximately 30,000 to 40,000 women in New York City.
The New York City Federation of Women's Clubs at the convention held October 27, endorsed the principle and general purpose of the pending Senate bill 1944, and mandated its president to attend the present hearing in order to obtain accurate information on all phases of the bill as presented in the arguments pro and con.
The Federation has learned thta it is unwise to endorse any bill in its entirety or otherwise.
Pending legislation is sometimes difficult to recognize when it is finally adopted, and many bills carry riders which the Federation cannot possibly endorse.
My organization would be the last at a time of such economic stress to wish to be unfair or to interfere with the success of legitimate business of honest manufacturers and dealers in foods, drugs, and cosmetics.
We do insist, however, upon the protection of the consumer, and we have, therefore, endorsed the general purpose and principle of the bill.
I have here the resolution which I will not take your time to read, but I will submit it:
(Resolution adopted unanimously by the New York City Federation of Women's Clubs, Mrs. Malcolm Parker MacCoy, President, on October 27, 1933.)
Whereas the Federal Food and Drugs Act adopted on June 30, 1906, has resulted in a great improvement in the purity of foods and drugs sold in the United States, but experience has shown that there are still products freely sold which constitute a menace to the health of the consumer or user, and are not subject to the provisions of the present act, and furthermore, the truthful labeling of many foods and drugs is nullified by fraudulent advertising not subject to the present law, and
Whereas, a bill now pending in Congress, known as Senate bill 1944, is designed to preserve all the worth-while features of the present law, such as the prevention of adulteration and misbranding of foods and drugs, and will extend the scope of the law so as to include cosmetics, and also contains provisions designed to insure the truthful advertising of foods, drugs, and cosmetics.
Resolved, That the New York City Federation of Women's Clubs in convention assembled endorse the general principle and purpose of Senate bill 1944, introduced by Senator Copeland in the Senate of the United States, which will be under consideration by Congress at its next session; and
Be it further resolved, That a copy of this Resolution be sent to Senator Copeland and to the Congressman of each district in the five boroughs of the city of New York.
Presented by the Home Makers Forum, Inc.
ELENORE F. HAHN,
Mrs. OTTO HAHN, President, Home Makers Forum, 640 Riverside Drive, New York, N.Y. The CHAIRMAN. I have here the names of eight persons, and I shall pass them to the record.
They are persons who asked to speak and who have disappeared.
I do this because I want to make clear that everybody who has asked to speak has been given the opportunity and some others besides.
Kenneth Collins, Washington, D.C., National Retail Dry Goods Association.
General Gillette, Troy, N.Y., William W. Lee Co.
Daniel R. Forbes, National Preserves Association; Eastern Cider Vinegar Manufacturers Association; the American Vinegar Association,
R. M. Allen, president, the Vitamin Food Co. A. M. Loomis, secretary, National Dairy Union. W. F. Jensen, manager, American Association of Creamery Butter Manufacturers.
Stanley Smith, Marinello Co.
We have now 19 minutes before adjournment. I desire, if possible, to leave the last 10 minutes free for one who has had much to do with the preparation of the bill, and I say with regret to the three other gentlemen that the time is limited and if, for any reason, you cannot say all you want to, if you have prepared addresses—I do not know about that-please hand them to the stenographer, and they will appear in the record as if they had actually been delivered here.
The first one is Mr. Edward L. Greene, of New York City, general manager of the Better Business Bureau.
STATEMENT OF EDWARD L. GREENE, GENERAL MANAGER,
NATIONAL BETTER BUSINESS BUREAU, INC.
Mr. GREENE. Mr. Chairman, my name is Edward L. Greene, general manager of the National Better Business Bureau; our purpose is to attempt to correct such practices in advertising, specifically national advertising, as are against public interest.
We are a voluntary regulatory body, and, as such, we are extremely interested in the proposed legislation.
We have in our experience realized that regulation under the best circumstances is not an exact science.
It is very difficult to please everybody, and with matters as controversial as those which this bill seeks to remedy obviously there is going to be plenty of discussion and difference of opinion.
But I am very much convinced, Mr. Chairman, that there is one common ground that appears to reach through this whole group, and that is that you are all firm in your belief and determination that the false advertising practices or those which actually damage the public shall be remedied.
I have great confidence also in the wisdom of this committee in selecting the various suggestions that have been made to you, and from them to prepare a bill which will serve the purpose of all of us.
I am primarily concerned at this time in suggesting a point on the administration of the bill.
Every law is effective to the degree that it is influential.
I am, therefore, suggesting, and will subsequently present, a definite amendment to the bill, that will provide for self-regulation of the industry.
Now, I recognize that at the present time the industry has the right of self-regulation, and I am taking an active part in it myself, but I believe that to add such an amendment would give to any person evidence of the Government inviting industry to cooperate with it and keep its own affairs above criticism and in the public interest.
Therefore, Mr. Chairman, I will submit this in a definite, suggestive form sometime in the very near future.
The CHAIRMAN. We will be very glad to receive it. Thank you very much, Mr. Greene.