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it were in some way communicated from one to another. The common situations of cancer are the breast and womb in women, and the lip and stomach of men. The neighboring glands become enlarged, as are shown by the lumps which form under the jaw in cancer of the lip, and which may be felt sometimes in the armpit in cancer of the breast; these are, however, late signs, and the growth should never be permitted to remain long enough for them to develop. Paleness, weakness, and loss of strength often attend the development of cancer, but many do not exhibit these symptoms.

Sarcoma is often seen in the young and well nourished; it grows very rapidly; the skin is usually not adherent to the tumor; there is generally no pain; heredity has no relation to its development; paleness is absent in many cases; the favorite seats are the muscle, bone, glands of neck, brain, and many other localities; it is not nearly so common as cancer.

Cancer of the breast begins as a lump, occurring more often to the outside of the nipple, but may develop in any part. It may or may not be painful at first, but the skin becomes attached to it; and sooner or later the nipple is drawn in. It is seen in women over forty, as a rule. Lumps in the breast, occurring during the nursing period, are often due to inflammation, but these generally have no relation to cancer unless they persist for a long time. Any lump which appears in the breast without apparent cause, or which persists for a considerable time after inflam

mation ceases, should be promptly removed by the surgeon, as without microscopic examination the most skilled practitioners will be unable absolutely to distinguish between a harmless and malignant tumor. As even so-called benign tumors often become cancerous (e. g., inflammatory lumps in the breast, warts, and moles), an eminent surgeon (Dr. Maurice Richardson) has recently formulated the rule that all tumors, wherever situated, should if possible be removed, whatever their apparent nature. Cancer of the womb may be suspected in middle-aged women if flowing is more profuse than is usual, or occurs at irregular times; if there is a discharge (often of offensive odor) from the front passage; and sometimes pain, as backache, and perhaps paleness. Early examination should be sought at the hands of a physician; it is suicidal to delay.

Cancer of the stomach is observed more often in men over forty, and begins with loss of appetite; nausea or vomiting; vomiting of blood; pain in the stomach; loss of weight, and paleness. Some of these symptoms may be absent. Improved methods of surgery have rendered early operation for cancer of the stomach a hopeful measure, and if cure does not result, the life will be prolonged and much suffering saved.

Cancer of the lip arises as a small lump, like a wart generally, on the lower lip in men from forty to seventy. Sometimes it appears at first simply as a slight sore or crack which repeatedly scabs over but does not heal. Its growth is very slow and it may seem like

a trivial matter, but any sore on the lower lip in a man of middle age or over, which persists, should demand the immediate attention of a surgeon, because early removal is more successful in cancer of the lip than in any other form.

There are, of course, many comparatively harmless or benign forms of tumors which will not return if removed and do not endanger life unless they grow to a large size. Among these are the soft, flattened, fatty tumors of the shoulders, back, buttocks, and other parts, and the wen. This is often seen on the head and occurs frequently on the scalp, from the size of a pea to an egg, in groups. Wens are elastic lumps, painless and of slow growth, and most readily removed. Space does not permit us to recount the other forms of benign tumors and it would be impossible to describe how they could be distinguished from malignant growths.

Causes. The causes of tumors are almost wholly unknown. There is no other branch of medicine which is receiving more scientific study the world over than cancer, and some definite and helpful knowledge may soon be expected. A cancer can be communicated by introduction of cancerous material into healthy tissues. This and other reasons have led many to believe that the disease was caused by a special germ; a chemical cause is thought to be the origin of cancer by other authorities. Neither of these theories has been substantiated and we are still completely at sea in the matter. Cancer appears to be excited sometimes by local

irritation, as in the lip by the constant irritation of the hard, hot stem of a clay pipe; cancer of the tongue by the irritation of a rough, sharp tooth. Blows and injuries are also occasional agencies in the development of cancer. Malignant growths not rarely arise from moles and warts.

Treatment. Early removal by the knife is the only form of treatment which is to be considered in most cases, Delay and neglect are suicidal in malignant disease. Cure is successful in just so far as the operation is done early. If dread of surgical operation were not so prevalent, the results of removal of cancer would be immeasurably better. The common, bad results of operation—that is, return of the disease-are chiefly due to the late stage in which surgeons are compelled to operate through the reluctance of the patient and, strangely enough, often of his family medical man. Cancer should be removed in so early a stage that its true nature can often not be recognized, except by microscopical examination after its removal. If Maurice Richardson's rule were followed, many cancers would never occur, or would be removed before they had developed sufficiently to show their nature.

All treatment by chemical pastes and special remedies is simply courting fatal results. Most special cures advertised to be performed in sanitoriums are moneygetting humbugs. Even the X-ray has proved useless except in the case of most superficial growths limited

to the skin or when directed against the scar left by removal of a cancer; and while the growth may disappear during treatment, in a large proportion of cases there is a recurrence. But when tumors are so far advanced that removal by the knife is inoperable, then other means will often secure great relief from suffering and will prolong life for a very considerable period in many cases.

RUPTURE.-Hernia or rupture consists in a protrusion of a portion of the contents of the abdomen (a part of the bowel or its covering, or both) through the belly wall. The common seats of rupture are at the navel and in the groin. Rupture at the navel is called umbilical hernia; that in the groin either inguinal or femoral, according to slight differences in site. Umbilical hernia is common in babies and occurs as a whole in only five per cent of all ruptures, whereas rupture in the groin is seen to the extent of ninetyfour per cent of all ruptures. There is still another variety of hernia happening in the scars of wounds of the belly after injuries or surgical operations, and this may arise at almost any point.

Causes. Rupture is sometimes present at birth. In other cases it is acquired as a result of various causes, of which natural weakness of the part is the chief. Twenty-five per cent of persons with rupture give a history of the same trouble in their parents. Rupture is three times more frequent in men than in women, and is favored by severe muscular work, fat

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