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with a cold in his head." The internal organs are almost invariably diseased, and sixty to eighty per cent of the cases fortunately die. Those who live to grow up are puny and poorly developed, so that at twenty they look not older than twelve, and are always delicate.

It is to be noted that syphilis is not necessarily a venereal disease, that is, acquired through sexual relations. It may be communicated by kissing, by accidental contact with a sore on a patient's body, by the use of pipes, cups, spoons, or other eating or drinking utensils, or contact with any object upon which the virus of the disease has been deposited.

Any part of the surface of the body or mucous membrane is susceptible of being inoculated with the virus of syphilis, followed by a sore similar to what has been described as occurring upon the genital parts and later the development of constitutional symptoms. The contagiousness of the disease is supposed to last during the first three years of its existence, but there are many authentic cases of contagion occurring after four or five years of syphilis.

Diagnosis. The positive determination of the existence of syphilis at the earliest moment is of the utmost importance in order to set at rest doubt and that treatment may be begun. It is necessary to wait, however, until the appearance of the eruption, sore throat, enlargement of glands, falling out of hair, etc., before it is safe to be positive.

Treatment. The treatment should be begun as soon as the diagnosis is made, and must be continuously and conscientiously pursued for three years or longer. If treatment is instituted before the secondary symptoms, it may prevent their appearance so that the patient may remain in doubt whether he had the disease or not, for it is impossible for the most skilled specialist absolutely to distinguish the disease before the eruption, no matter how probable its existence may seem. This happens because there are several kinds of sores which attack the sexual organs and which may closely simulate syphilis. The treatment is chiefly carried out with various forms of mercury and iodides, but so much knowledge and experience are required in adapting these to the individual needs and peculiarities of the patient that it is impossible to describe their use. Patients should not marry until four or five years have elapsed since the appearance of syphilis in their persons, and at least twelve months after all manifestations of the disease have ceased. If these conditions have been complied with, there is little danger of communicating the disease to their wives or transmitting it to their offspring. They must moreover, have been under the treatment during all this period. Abstinence from alcohol, tobacco, dissipation, and especial care of the teeth are necessary during treatment.

Results. The majority of syphilitics recover wholly under treatment and neither have a return of

the disease nor communicate it to their wives or children. It is, however, possible for a man, who has apparently wholly recovered for five or six years or more, to impart the disease. Without proper treatment or without treatment for the proper time, recurrence of the disease is frequent with the occurrence of the destructive and often serious symptoms characteristic of the third stage of the disease. While syphilis is not so fatal to life as tuberculosis, it is capable of causing more suffering and unhappiness, and is directly transmitted from father to child, which is not the case with consumption. Syphilis is also wholly preventable, which is not true of tuberculosis at present. It is not probable that syphilis is ever transmitted to the third generation directly, but deformities, general debility, small and poor teeth, thin, scanty growth of hair, nervous disorders, and a general miserable physique are seen in children whose parents were the victims of inherited syphilis. In married life syphilis may be communicated to the wife directly from the primary sore on the penis of the husband during sexual intercourse, but contamination of the wife more often happens from the later manifestations of the disease in the husband, as from secretion from open sores on the body or from the mouth, when the moist patches exist there.

It is possible for a child to inherit syphilis from the father-when the germs of syphilis are transmitted through the semen of the father at the time of

conception-and yet the mother escape the disease. On the other hand, it is not uncommon for the child to become thus infected and infect its mother while in her womb; or the mother may receive syphilis from the husband after conception, and the child become infected in the womb.

The chief social danger of syphilis comes from its introduction into marriage and its morbid radiations through family and social life. Probably one in every five cases of syphilis in women is communicated by the husband in the marriage relation. There are so many sources and modes of its contagion that it is spread from one person to another in the ordinary relations of family and social life-from husband to wife and child, from child to nurse, and to other members of the family, so that small epidemics of syphilis may be traced to its introduction into a family. Syphilis is the only disease which is transmitted in full virulence to the offspring, and its effect is simply murderous. As seen above, from sixty to eighty per cent of all children die before or soon after birth. Onethird of those born alive die within the next six months, and those that finally survive are blighted in their development, both physical and mental, and affected with various organic defects and deformities which unfit them for the battle of life. Syphilis has come to be recognized as one of the most powerful factors in the depopulation and degeneration of the


INVOLUNTARY PASSAGE OF URINEBED-WETTING IN CHILDREN.—(Incontinence of Urine). This refers to an escape of urine from the bladder uncontrolled by the will. It naturally occurs in infants under thirty months, or thereabouts, and in the very old, and in connection with various diseases. It may be due to disease of the brain, as in idiocy or insanity, apoplexy, or unconscious states. Injuries. or disorders of the spinal cord, which controls the action of the bladder (subject to the brain), also cause incontinence. Local disorders of the urinary organs are more frequent causes of the trouble, as inflammation of any part of the urinary tract, diabetes, nephritis, stone in the bladder, tumors, and malformations.. The involuntary passage of urine may arise from irritability of bladder-the most frequent cause-or from weakness of the muscles which restrain the escape of urine, or from obstruction to flow of urine from the bladder, with overflow when it becomes distended.

It is a very common disorder of children and young persons, and in some cases no cause can be found; but in many instances it is due to masturbation (p. 193), to a narrow foreskin and small aperture at the exit of the urinary passage, to worms in the bowels or disease of the lower end of the bowels, such as fissure or eczema, to digestive disorders, to retaining the urine overlong, to fright, to dream impressions (dreaming of the act of urination), and to great weakness brought on by fevers or other diseases. In old men it is often

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