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If none of these methods arrest the bleeding the nostril must be plugged. A piece of clean cotton cloth, about five inches square, should be pushed gently but firmly into the nostril with a slender cylinder of wood about as large as a slate pencil and blunt on the end. This substitute for a probe is pressed against the center of the cloth, which folds about the stick like a closed umbrella, and the cotton is pressed into the nostril in a backward and slightly downward direction, for two or three inches, while the head is held erect. Then pledgets of cotton wool are packed into the bag formed by the cotton cloth after the stick is withdrawn. The mouth of the bag is left projecting slightly from the nostril, so that the whole can be withdrawn in twenty-four hours.

The bleeding nostril may be more readily plugged by simply pressing into it little pledgets of cotton with a slender stick, but it would be impossible for an unskilled person to get them out again, and a physician should withdraw them inside of forty-eight hours.

FOREIGN BODIES IN THE NOSE.-Children often put foreign bodies in their nose, as shoe buttons, beans, and pebbles. They may not tell of it, and the most conspicuous symptoms are the appearance of a thick discharge from one nostril, having a bad odor, and some obstruction to breathing on the same side. If the foreign body can be seen, the nostril on the unobstructed side should be closed and the child made to blow out of the other one. If blowing does not re

[Text continued on page 55.]

Plate III


In the illustration on the opposite page, the Red Portion indicates the Septum of the nose, the partition which separates the nostrils.

Inflammation of the membrane lining the nasal cavity is the condition peculiar to catarrh or "cold in the head." Deformity of the septum may obstruct the entrance of air into the nose and create suction on the walls of the nasal cavity, causing an overfilling of the blood vessels, or "congestion," with subsequent thickening of the mucous membrane.

Polypi, small growths which form in the nose, or enlargement of the glands in the upper part of the throat (just beyond dotted line at inner edge of red portion) also block the air passages and give rise to mouth-breathing and its attendant disorders.

Another cause of mouth-breathing is extreme swelling of the membrane which covers the turbinated bones of the nose.

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move the body it is best to secure medical aid very speedily.


COLD IN THE HEAD FROM OVERHEATING. Chilling of the surface of the body favors the occurrence of colds, in which lowered bodily vitality allows the growth of certain germs always present upon the mucous membrane lining the cavities of the Dust and irritating vapors also predispose to colds. Overwarm clothing makes a person susceptible to colds, while the daily use of cold baths is an effective preventive. There is no sufficient reason for dressing more warmly in a heated house in winter than one would dress in summer. It is, moreover, unwise to cover the chest more heavily than the rest of the body. Some one has wisely said: "The best place for a chest protector is on the soles of the feet." The rule should always be to keep the feet dry and warm, and adapt the clothing to the surrounding temperature. Among the germs which cause colds in the head, that of pneumonia is the one commonly found in the discharge from the nose. When pneumonia is epidemic it is therefore wise to take extra precautions to avoid colds, and care for them when they occur.

The presence of chronic trouble in the throat and nose, such as described under Mouth-Breathing, Adenoids, etc. (p. 60), is perhaps the most frequent cause of colds, because the natural resistance of the healthy mucous membrane to the attack of germs is diminished thereby, and the catarrhal secretions form a source of

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