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and the time of full ripening of fruit when held at 70° F. There was much less acid in fruit ripened at 40° F. than in that ripened at 70° F. and still less in fruit that had been held at 30° F. The acid content of the fruit that was allowed to become well matured on the tree remained nearly constant during storage.

The percentage of total solids is lowest at about the opening of the commercial season. This tends to increase with the accumulation of sugar in the late picked lots.

With proper precautions of picking, handling and storing, Bartlett pears can be held two or three months in storage and then taken out in good condition.


The best varieties of the plum for canning purposes are: Green Gage, Washington Green Gage, Jefferson, Yellow Egg, Lombard and Damson.

"The fruit is gathered just as it is beginning to turn soft, and the preliminary treatment is the same as for apricots. They are washed, and the imperfect or spotted fruit picked out; ordinarily the plum is not peeled. The cans are then filled, some care being necessary in placing the plums so that the fill will be uniform.

The green gage and yellow egg plums behave so nearly alike that they may be considered together. Both leave large spaces in packing and, as a result of softening from processing, settle together. If the plums are slightly green, the cut-out will appear to be somewhat better than if fully ripe, but the loss in flavor more than counterbalances the gain in appearance. The effect of sirup on the fully ripened fruit is essentially the same from water to 30° sirup, the cut-out after draining being about two-thirds full; 40° sirup reduces it to not less than two-thirds, and 50° and 60° sirup about one-half. On fruit that is slightly immature the cut-out from water to 30° sirup is within three-fourths of an inch of the top; 40°, down about 1 inch; and 50° and 60°, about 14 inches. By weight, in 30° sirup, 400 grams give less than one-half a can; 450 grams, more than one-half; 500 grams, two-thirds; and 550 grams, three-fourths. The fruit tested was in prime condition for canning."

In grading the plums the grader is fitted with screens, the

perforations of which are 1%-in., 14-in., 11⁄2-in., 13%-in., 1/4-in., and 1% in.

The sirup used on plums is as follows: Fancy 55%, choice 40%, standard 25%, and seconds 10%. The cut-out of sirup should be fancy 30; choice, 25, standard 18, seconds 12, water 8 per cent.

Plums are exhausted at 160° F. for small cans and 170° F. for No. 10 cans and processed at 212° F. as follows:

Washington, Jefferson and other soft varieties in No. 1 cans exhaust 5 min., and process 3 min.; No. 21⁄2 cans exhaust 6 min., and process 5 min.; No. 10 cans, sirup grades, exhaust 10 min. and process 20 min.; No. 10 pie and baker's grade exhaust 10 min., and process 30 min., the baker's grade as with this grade in other fruits is kettled cooked for 15 minutes before being exhausted.

Yellow Egg, Green Gage and other hard varieties of plums in No. 1 cans, exhaust 5 min., and process 7 min.; No. 21⁄2 cans exhaust 6 min., and process 8 min.; No. 10 cans, sirup grades, exhaust 10 min., and process 25 min.; No. 10 cans pie and baker's grade, exhaust 10 min., and process 30 min.

Plums require very little processing and they can, under certain conditions and with great care being exercised, be exhausted for from 3 to 4 minutes at 200°, closed and sent to the warehouse without cooking, or with a cook of from two to three minutes if the condition of the fruit warrants.

The production of plums in the factory should be 74 cans per 100 pounds of fruit and 62 cases per ton with 16 pounds of fruit required to pack one dozen No. 21⁄2 cans. The waste in packing should not exceed 6%.

The percentages of grades in factory production should run about as follows: Fancy 18%, choice 45%, standard 20%, seconds 5%, water and pie grades 12 %.

The description of the grades for plums as adopted by the Canners' League of California is as follows:

Fancy Grade: Fruit to be of very fine quality, free from blemishes serious for the grade and uniform in size.

Choice Grade: Fruit to be of fine quality, free from blemishes serious for the grade and uniform in size.

Standard Grade: Fruit to be of good quality, reasonably

free from blemishes serious for the grade and reasonably uniform in size.

Second Grade: Fruit to be tolerably free from blemishes serious for the grade and tolerably uniform in size.

Pie Grade: Wholesome fruit unsuited for above grades. A description of the varieties of plums as listed for canning purposes follows:

Green Gage: This variety of plum is known by 35 different names in various parts of the world. In France it is known as the Reine-Claude after Queen Claudia, wife of Francis I.

Fruit is round, rather small and seldom attains medium size; suture faintly marked; skin green, or yellowish green at full maturity, when it is often a little dotted with red; stem half to three-quarters inch long and slender; flesh pale green, exceedingly melting and juicy, and usually separates freely from the pit; flavor sprightly and very luscious. Ripens first of August.

Washington Green Gage: Fruit of the largest size, roundish, oval, with an obscure suture, except near the stem; skin dull yellow with faint markings of green, but when well ripened, a deep yellow with a pale crimson blush, or dots; stem 3/4-inch long, a little downy, set in a shallow, wide hollow; flesh firm and very sweet, separating freely from the pit. Ripens early August.

Jefferson: Fruit large, oval, slightly narrowed on one side toward the stem; skin golden yellow, with a beautiful purplish red cheek and covered with a thin white bloom; stem one inch long, rather thick and very slightly inserted; suture indistinct. Flesh deep orange; parts freely from the stone, which is long and pointed. Very rich, juicy and highly flavored.

Lombard: Fruit of medium size, round, oval, slightly flattened at either end. Suture obscure; stem slender, 34inch long; skin delicate violet red, and dusted thinly with bloom; flesh deep yellow, juicy and pleasant; not rich and adhering to the pit. Ripe in August.

Yellow Egg: Known by sixteen distinct names in various parts of the world; the proper name being white Magnum Bonum. Large and fine appearing fruit. Fairly well flavored but not a dessert plum. Fruit is of largest size, oval, narrowing quite a bit at both ends; suture well marked; stem one

inch long; skin yellow with numerous white dots, covered with thin white bloom; when fully ripe, of a deep golden color; flesh yellow, adhering closely to the stone, rather acid until very ripe, when it becomes sweet though not of good flavor; stem long and pointed at both ends.

Damson: Tree very productive. Fruit is small and oval, about one-inch long; skin purple and covered with thick bloom; fruit is melting and juicy and rather tart, separating from the stone. Used principally for jam, jelly and preserving. Ripens in August and September.


The best varieties of the raspberries for canning purposes are the Cuthbert and the Red Antwerp.

"Raspberries are widely grown for consumption in the fresh state but very few are used for canning purposes. They have distinctly more character than many fruits and it would seem from the ease with which they may be grown that their use could be increased. They are grown and handled in the same manner as blackberries. The red and black varieties are kept separate as the red commands a higher price. The use of a sirup of the right degree is essential in bringing out the rich flavor. The waste in canning is slightly greater than for blackberries. Raspberries should be given a slightly heavier fill, but the same sirup as blackberries, and should give almost the same results on the cut-out. The volume in the can appears somewhat less, as the berries mat together a little closer on draining.'

The sirup used on raspberries is as follows: Fancy 55%, choice 40%, standard 25%, seconds 10%. The sirup cutout will be: Fancy 30, choice 25, standard 16, seconds 12, water grades 9 per cent.

When filled with sirup the cans are exhausted at 180° F. for small cans and 190° F. for No. 10 cans and processed at 212° F. as follows: No. 1 cans exhaust 5 min., and process for 6 min.; No. 21⁄2 cans exhaust for 61⁄2 min., and process for 8 min.; No. 10 cans exhaust for 10 min., and process the sirup grades for 10 min., and the pie grades for 35 min.

The factory production should be 74 cans per 100 pounds of fruit, and 62 cases per ton with 16 pounds of fruit required to pack one dozen No. 21⁄2 cans.

The percentage of grades packed will, as in the case of blackberries and loganberries depend on the market and cost of packing. Very few raspberries are used in making pie and the few berries of this variety used in canning are for dessert purposes and packed in the high grades.

A description of those varieties used for canning purposes follows:

Cuthbert: Fruit large and handsome; in color, crimson; very productive and a good shipping variety; firm and of fine quality. Midseason.

Red Antwerp: Fruit large, nearly globular or obtuse conical; color dark red with large grains and covered with thick bloom; flesh juicy with a brisk, vinous flavor.


The best varieties of strawberries for canning purposes are the Brandywine, Oregon and Longworth.

"Strawberries used for canning are grown the same as for the market, but only varieties of uniform size and with a well-developed flavor are used. It is preferable that they be handled in shallow boxes and drawers; in no case should boxes larger than the quart size be used.

"These berries are prepared by hand at the factory, as no machine has been invented which will sort them or remove the stems. If they arrive in the shallow boxes they are stemmed, and the soft or defective ones picked out. The good berries are placed in large shallow pans, care being taken to prevent the accumulation of a layer deep enough to squeeze out any juice, then washed in a single layer under sprays. While passing under the sprays they are gently rolled over, so that all parts will be struck by the water. They are filled into the cans level with the top, and the cans weighed to insure against short weight. One of the best Eastern packers has the following plan: The berries are stemmed and placed directly on enameled pie plates by one set of women. These are passed to other women, who weigh out a sufficient quantity to just fill a can, after which the berries are washed under a spray of water and then poured into the can through a special funnel. The plates are rinsed before being returned for another lot of berries. The first impression is that the method is cumbersome, but in prac

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