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4,800 gallons of juice and this will concentrate down to 3,200 gallons of 1.035 purée. 3,200 gallons of purée can be boiled down to 2,000 gallons in the large tanks and this will then make 8 kettles of 250 gallons each. Concentrate each 250 gallons to 150 gallons of paste. This will fill 24,840 No. 6-ounce cans holding 64 ounces net. This is a total of 9,703 pounds of paste. This represents 20 per cent of the total weight of the tomatoes required and the total waste is 38,297 pounds, or 80 per cent while the quantity required to fill one dozen 6-ounce cans is 23.45 pounds. The loss in concentrating the 1.035 purée to the paste is 622 per cent and the loss in concentrating the tomato cyclone juice to the paste is 75 per cent.

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Peel tomatoes and cut in large pieces, add onions and green peppers, chopped medium fine and boil until thick. Add the sugar before cooking. Then add the vinegar, salt and spices. The mustard seed should be put into the chutney to become a part of it, while the cloves, allspice and cinnamon should be put into a muslin bag large enough to hold it loosely and then placed in the chutney. When finished remove the bag. Seal in glass jars or bottles.

Labeling of Canned Tomatoes With Pulp, Puree, Etc.

"Inquiries have been received concerning the labeling of canned tomatoes packed in their own juice, in added tomato juice, in whole tomato pulp or purée, or in pulp, purée, or seepage made from trimmings.

"Properly ripened and prepared tomatoes packed in no more juice than normally comes from them after peeling and trimming may, without any qualification, be correctly labeled 'canned tomatoes.' This is the article which the

purchaser expects to receive under the name 'canned tomatoes,' and is the only article entitled to that name without qualification.

"Tomatoes packed with added tomato juice, with added whole tomato pulp or purée, or with added pulp, purée, or seepage from trimmings should be labeled with a plain and conspicuous statement of exactly what they are, to prevent the purchaser from receiving the erroneous impression that the article is canned tomatoes. The word, or words, naming the added product should be printed in conjunction with the word 'tomatoes.' The term 'standard tomatoes' does not inform the purchaser that the product is not canned tomatoes, and does not constitute a declaration of the added product.

"Tomato juice is understood to be the juice which naturally drains from tomatoes after peeling and trimming them. This term is not properly applicable to finely divided pulp or purée made by cycloning trimmings or whole tomatoes or mixtures of both. Seepage is understood to be the liquid which drains freely from trimmings without subjecting them to the vigorous rubbing of a cyclone or similar machine. In the preparation of pulp, purée, or seepage for canning with tomatoes particular care should be taken to eliminate all moldy, fermented, and other decomposed material."

Assignment No. 3
Miscellaneous Products

Marine Products

"There is a very large variety of fresh and salt water products put up in cans and these have received the following classifications by Charles H. Stevenson (The Preservation of Fishing Products for Foods. U. S. Fish Commission Bulletin for 1918).

"There are five general classes of marine products viz.: (1) plained boiled, steamed or otherwise cooked; (2) processed in oil; (3) prepared with vinegar, sauces, spices, jellies, etc.; (4) cooked with vegetables, etc.; and (5) preserved by some other process, but placed in cans for convenience in marketing.

"The first class includes salmon, mackerel, herring, menhaden, cod, halibut, smelt, oysters, clams, lobsters, crabs, shrimp, green turtle, etc.; sardines almost exclusively make up the second class.

"The third class includes various forms of herring prepared as 'brook trout,' 'ocean trout,' etc., mackerel, eels, sturgeon, oysters, lobsters, crabs, etc.

"The fourth class includes fish chowder, clam chowder, codfish balls, green turtle stew, terrapin stew, and deviled

crabs.

"The fifth class is made up of smoked herring, halibut, haddock, carp, pickerel, lake trout, salmon, eels, sturgeon, etc., and brine salted mackerel, cod, and caviar.”

Crabs

"Canned crab meat in this country was the result of experiments made by James McMenamin, of Norfolk, Va. He began at Norfolk in 1878, but moved to Hampton in 1879, and that has been the chief point of supply up to the present time. The season for catching crabs is from April to October.

"The live crabs are placed in large crates, well washed, and then run into a steam box, where they are cooked for 25 minutes. After cooling they are 'stripped' that is, the shell, viscera, and smaller claws are removed. The meat is then picked out of the bodies and large claws by hand, or it may be removed by centrifugal force or by compressed air. The latter methods, which are of recent origin, are effective and save much labor. In the centrifugal method the shell and claw are cut across to expose the tissue and a quantity so prepared is placed in a centrifugal drum almost the same as that used for drying in a laundry. The drum is made to spin at a high speed and all the meat is extracted. The compressed air method consists of an air compressor and a storage tank, with pipes leading to a nozzle. The shell is held in front of the nozzle, the air is turned on, and the meat blown out. Either method is faster, better, and cleaner than the hand picking.

"The meat is filled into cans and processed. The No. 1 cans generally used are first heated for a half hour in boiling water, vented, and then processed for one hour at 240° F.

"Crab meat is not so easy to keep as some other kinds, the tendency being to blacken more or less in the cans.'

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OYSTERS

"The oyster is a marine bivalve of the genus Ostrea, the species used in this country being Ostrea virginiana. It is found along the coast, chiefly in the shallow waters at the mouths of rivers and in bays. Chesapeake Bay has long been noted for the abundance of its oysters. They are found naturally all along the Atlantic Coast as far north as Massachusetts, and at one time were abundant in Long Island Sound. Active dredging depleted the beds and now the supply is maintained only by cultivation and the restriction of dredging operations. Some oysters are canned on the coast of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia, but they are no longer canned north of Maryland. The oyster occurs in the Gulf on the west coast of Florida and all along the shore to Texas. There is a large business in canning oysters in Mississippi and Louisiana. A few oysters are found on the Pacific Coast, but not in sufficient quantity to warrant canning. The abundance of oysters in Chesapeake Bay made canning operations most profitable there, and the output acquired a reputation which still gives it some preference in the market. Prior to 1900 probably 95 per cent of the canned oysters were put up in Baltimore or in the immediate vicinity. The southern or Gulf oyster, however, has been proved to be equally good for canning purposes and the industry has rapidly assumed large proportions in those localities.

"The oyster grows naturally on the hard reefs in from 15 to 180 feet of water, depending upon the temperature. In the Gulf they grow in shallower water. They will also grow in the bayous and flats by transplanting and furnishing shells or hard objects to which the spawn may become attached. Formerly no regulations were deemed necessary as to the places at which oysters might be taken, but since the rivers have become polluted with city sewage, it is necessary to guard carefully against oysters from contaminated beds. The different states regulate the time when the fishing may be done, which is generally from the 1st of September until the 1st of May. The oysters for canning are usually taken from the beds between the 1st of October and the 1st of April.

"Oysters were among the first products canned in this country. It is recorded that some were put up in an experi

mental way in New York in 1819, though they did not become a commercial proposition until the work was developed by Thomas Kensett in Baltimore in 1844. In the beginning all the oysters were shucked raw, by hand. In 1858 Louis McMurray, of Baltimore, found that by scalding the oysters in boiling water the shells would partially open and the labor of shucking could be lessened. Two years later the system of steaming them instead of scalding was developed, and no material change in method has taken place since that time. McMurray is said to have had a most excellent reputation as an oyster packer. His method was to save all the liquor and condensed steam from the steam boxes, filter it, and use it in filling the cans. He used neither salt nor water. There is probably no packer in the business at the present time following this method.

"Oysters are obtained by dredging and by tonging, the former upon the reefs and in the deeper water, and the latter in the shallow bayous where planting has been done. The usual equipment consists of a schooner of about 48-foot keel, 55 feet over all, and 16-foot beam. When loaded, this will carry about 275 barrels of oysters. The crew consists of a captain and four men. A dredge is carried on each side of the boat and operated by two men. The dredge consists of a heavy iron rake about 3 feet wide, to which is attached a chain or heavy cord purse, the mouth of which is held open by an iron bar just above the rake. The dredge is lowered to the ground and dragged along by the movement of the boat. The rake loosens the oysters from the rock or ground and they are collected in the purse.

"At short intervals the dredge is drawn on board by means of a windlass, the purse is emptied, and the operation repeated. The oysters are culled in some places, the small ones being returned. The catch is put in the hold if the boat is out in warm weather or is to be gone for more than a day. The trips are generally limited to from three to five days in order to insure delivery in a fresh condition at the cannery. Other varieties of smaller boats are also used, though power boats are generally barred. The Gulf-coast factories pay about 60 cents per barrel for oysters used in canning and 80 cents per barrel for those used in the fresh trade, owing to the difference in size. The barrel is rated by measure and not

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