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pounds apple juice, and 40 pounds sugar. Will make 8 No. 10 cans, 12 No. 5 cans and 40 No. 2 jelly cans.

CURRANT JAM No. 2

10 pounds currant pulp, 2 pounds blackberry juice, 60 pounds apple juice and 30 pounds sugar. Will make 6 No. 10 cans and 30 No. 2 jelly cans.

GRAPE JAM No. 1

80 pounds grape pulp, 40 pounds sugar. Will make 10 No. 10 cans, 15 No. 5 cans, and 50 No. 2 jelly cans.

GRAPE JAM No. 2

80 pounds grape pulp and 25 pounds sugar. Will make 94 No. 10 cans and 45 No. 2 jelly cans.

PEACH JAM NO. 1

80 pounds peach pulp and 40 pounds sugar. Will make 10 No. 10 cans, 15 No. 5 cans and 50 No. 2 jelly cans.

PEACH JAM No. 2

80 pounds peach pulp, 25 pounds sugar. Will make 914 No. 10 cans and 45 No. 2 jelly cans.

PLUM JAM No. 1

80 pounds plum pulp and 45 pounds sugar. Will make 10 No. 10 cans, 15 No. 5 cans, and 50 No. 2 jelly cans.

PLUM JAM No. 2

80 pounds plum pulp and 30 pounds sugar. Will make 91⁄2 No. 10 cans and 45 No. 2 jelly cans.

QUINCE JAM No. 1

80 pounds quince pulp and 40 pounds sugar. Will make 10 No. 10 cans, 15 No. 5 cans and 50 No. 2 jelly cans. QUINCE JAM No. 2

80 pounds quince pulp and 25 pounds of sugar. Will make 914 No. 10 cans and 45 No. 2 jelly cans.

STRAWBERRY JAM No. 1

30 pounds strawberry pulp, 50 pounds apple juice, and 40 pounds sugar. Will make 8 No. 10 cans, and 40 No. 2 jelly

cans.

STRAWBERRY JAM NO. 2

30 pounds strawberry pulp, 50 pounds apple juice, and 25 pounds sugar. Will make 6 No. 10 cans and 30 No. 2 jelly cans.

Pie and Tart Filler Formulas

APRICOT FILLER

80 pounds apricot pulp, 15 pounds sugar, 10 pounds glucose and 1/10 of one per cent of benzoate soda. Will make 21⁄2 twenty-five pound pails.

BLACKBERRY FILLER

13 pounds blackberry pulp, 371⁄2 pounds apple juice, 25 pounds apple pulp, 20 pounds sugar, 10 pounds glucose and 1/10 of one per cent benzoate soda. Will make 2 twentyfive pound pails.

CURRANT FILLER

10 pounds currant stock, 2 pounds blackberry juice, 40 pounds apple juice, 25 pounds apple pulp, 20 pounds sugar, 10 pounds glucose and 1/10 of one per cent benzoate soda (11⁄2 ounces). Will make 2 pails of twenty-five pounds each. PEACH FILLER

80 pounds peach pulp, 15 pounds sugar, 10 pounds glucose and 1/10 of one per cent benzoate soda. Will make 3 pails of 25 pounds each.

PLUM FILLER

80 pounds plum pulp, 20 pounds sugar, 10 pounds glucose and 1/10 of one per cent benzoate soda. Will make 3 pails of 25 pounds each.

STRAWBERRY FILLER

13 pounds strawberry pulp, 371⁄2 pounds apple juice, 25 pounds apple pulp, 20 pounds sugar, and 10 pounds glucose, with 1/10 of one per cent benzoate soda. Will make 2 pails of 25 pounds each.

Jelly Making

Farmers Bulletin 203, U. S. Department of Agriculture PECTIN, PECTOSE, PECTASE

"In all fruits, when ripe or nearly so, there is found pectin, a carbohydrate somewhat similar in its properties to starch. It is because of this substance in the fruit juice that we are able to make jelly. When equal quantities of sugar and fruit juice are combined and the mixture is heated to the boiling point for a short time, the pectin in the fruit gelatinizes the

mass.

"It is important that the jelly maker should understand

when this gelatinizing agent is at its best. Pectose and pectase always exist in the unripe fruit. As the fruit ripens the pectase acts upon the pectose, which is insoluble in water, converting it into pectin, which is soluble. Pectin is at its best when the fruit is just ripe or a little before. If the juice ferments, or the cooking of the jelly is continued too long, the pectin undergoes a change and loses its power of gelatinizing. It is, therefore, of the greatest importance that the fruit should be fresh, just ripe or a little underripe, and that the boiling of the sugar and juice should not be continued too long.

"Fruits vary as to the quantities of sugar, acid, pectin, and gums in their composition. Some of the sour fruits contain more sugar than do some of the milder-flavored fruits. Currants, for example, often contain four or five times as much sugar as the peach. The peach does not contain so much free acid and it does contain a great deal of pectin bodies, which mask the acid; hence, the comparative sweetness of the ripe fruit.

SELECTION AND HANDLING OF FRUIT FOR JELLY MAKING

"An acid fruit is the most suitable for jelly making, though in some of the acid fruits, the strawberry, for example, the quantity of the jelly-making pectin is so small that it is difficult to make jelly with this fruit. If, however, some currant juice be added to the strawberry juice, a pleasant jelly will be the result; yet, of course, the flavor of the strawberry will be modified. Here is a list of the most desirable fruits for jelly making. The very best are given first: Currant, crab apple, apple, quince, grape, blackberry, raspberry, peach.

"Apples make a very mild jelly, and it may be flavored with fruits, flowers, or spices. If the apples are acid it is not advisable to use any flavor.

"Juicy fruits, such as currants, raspberries, etc., should not be gathered after a rain, for they will have absorbed so much water as to make it difficult, without excessive boiling, to get the juice to jelly.

"If berries are sandy or dusty it will be necessary to wash them, but the work should be done very quickly so that the fruit may not absorb much water.

"Large fruits, such as apples, peaches, and pears, must be

boiled in water until soft. The strained liquid will contain the flavoring matter and pectin.

"It requires more work and skill to make jellies from the fruits to which water must be added than from the juicy fruits. If the juicy fruits are gathered at the proper time one may be nearly sure that they contain the right proportion of water. If gathered after a rain the fruit must be boiled a little longer that the superfluous water may pass off in steam.

"In the case of the large fruits a fair estimate is 3 quarts of strained juice from 8 quarts of fruit and about 4 quarts of water. If the quantity of juice is greater than this it should be boiled down to 3 quarts.

"Apples will always require 4 quarts of water to 8 quarts of fruit, but juicy peaches and plums will require only 3 or 31⁄2 quarts.

"The jelly will be clearer and finer if the fruit is simmered gently and not stirred during the cooking.

"It is always best to strain the juice first through cheese cloth and without pressure. If the cloth is double the juice will be quite clear. When a very clear jelly is desired the strained juice should pass through a flannel or felt bag. The juice may be pressed from the fruit left in the strainer and used in marmalade or for a second-quality jelly.

"To make jelly that will not crystallize (candy) the right proportion of sugar must be added to the fruit juice. If the fruit contains a high percentage of sugar, the quantity of added sugar should be a little less than the quantity of fruit juice. That is to say, in a season when there has been a great deal of heat and sunshine there will be more sugar in the fruit than in a cold, wet season; consequently, 1 pint of currant juice will require but three-quarters of a pint of sugar. But in a cold, wet season the pint of sugar for the pint of juice must be measured generously.

"Another cause of the jelly crystallizing is hard boiling. When the sirup boils so rapidly that particles of it are thrown on the upper part of the sides of the preserving kettle they often form crystals. If these crystals are stirred into the sirup they are apt to cause the mass to crystallize in time.

"The use of the sirup gauge and care not to boil the sirup too violently would do away with all uncertainty in jelly

making. The sirup gauge should register 25°, no matter what kind of fruit is used.

"Jellies should be covered closely and kept in a cool, dry, dark place."

Jelly Formulas

APPLE JELLY No. 1

80 pounds apple juice, 40 pounds sugar. Will make 8 cans No. 10, 12 cans No. 5 or 40 cans No. 2 jelly cans.

APPLE JELLY No. 2

70 pounds apple juice and 30 pounds of sugar will make 30 No. 2 jelly cans.

APRICOT JELLY No. 1

16 pounds apricot juice, 64 pounds apple juice and 40 pounds sugar. Will make 8 No. 10 cans, 12 No. 5 cans, or 40 No. 2 jelly cans.

APRICOT JELLY No. 2

15 pounds apricot juice, 56 pounds apple juice and 30 pounds sugar. Will make 30 No. 2 jelly cans.

CURRANT-BAKERS' JELLY

70 pounds apple juice, 10 pounds currant juice, and 25 pounds sugar. Will make 1 five-gallon can.

CRAB APPLE JELLY No. 1

80 pounds apple juice and 40 pounds sugar. Will make 8 No. 10 cans, 12 No. 5 cans or 40 No. 2 jelly cans.

CRAB APPLE JELLY No. 2

70 pounds apple juice and 30 pounds sugar. Will make 30 No. 2 jelly cans.

PEACH JELLY No. 1

16 pounds peach juice, 64 pounds apple juice, and 40 pounds sugar. Will make 8 No. 10 cans, 12 No. 5 cans, or 40 No. 2 jelly cans.

PEACH JELLY No. 2

15 pounds peach juice, 56 pounds apple juice, and 30 pounds sugar. Will make 30 No. 2 jelly cans. BLACKBERRY JELLY NO. 1

40 pounds blackberry juice, 50 pounds apple juice, and 40 pounds sugar. Will make 8 No. 10 cans or 40 No. 2 jelly cans. BLACKBERRY JELLY NO. 2

26 pounds blackberry juice, 50 pounds apple juice and

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