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1 dozen box hooks; 1 dozen box scrapers; 1 dozen box hatchets; 1 dozen stencil brushes; 1 stencil cabinet; 1 dozen marking pots; 1 dozen warehouse brooms; 1 wire-strapping machine.
In the sirup-mixing room will be installed 3 mixing tanks of 200 gallons each; 2 stock tanks of 600 gallons each; 6 grade tanks of 300 gallons each.
The general equipment will consist of 8 drinking fountains; 6 gross fruit-cutting knives; 6 gross tomato-peeling and coring knives; 6 gross peach-pitting spoons; 6 gross pear corers; 6 gross peeling knives; 2 dozen sample pans; 6 timecheck punches; 1 dozen saccharometers; 1 dozen salometers; 2 dozen can openers; 6 gross dish pans; 10 gross cutting pans.
For office equipment see Office Organization.
Assignment No. 6
Factory Operating Departments
The operating departments of the fruit and vegetable canning plant are the timekeeping department, the greenproduce receiving department, the preparation department, the canning department, the siruping department, the processing department, the can-stacking department, the warehousing department, the box-making department and, in those companies operating more than one plant and having a centralized office, the factory office.
The Timekeeping Department
This department should be so located that the employees pass the office window on their way from the dressing rooms to the department in which they are employed.
A clerk should be stationed at this window and give out to the employees every morning a time card on the back of which he will stamp the time the card is given out, using a clock time stamp for the purpose. He will also write the employee's number on the face of the card.
Each department in the factory should have its own time card. These cards can be of different colors so that the card of any department can be easily and readily recognized and picked out.
The employee will receive the card of the department in
which he works. He will then proceed to the foreman of his department, present the card to him and the foreman will punch the time at which he is to start work. He will also punch the card to indicate the division of the department the employee is working in.
At noon the foreman will punch the time the employee leaves for lunch and the time returned from lunch and at night will punch the time the employee leaves work. The employee will then turn his card in to the timekeeping office, where it will again be stamped on the back with the time stamp.
This system will make it impossible for a foreman to punch an employee's card at an earlier, or a later, hour than is indicated by the clock time stamp on the back of the card. The company will save many dollars by this system, as it is a common practice among foremen to allow from half an hour to an hour extra to their help to make them feel a little better, and sometimes for other reasons. Foremen have been known to borrow money from the help and pay it back twice over with extra time allowed on the time cards.
A very good system of handling the cards effective in some plants, and one that saves a great deal of time to the timekeeper and also in getting labor reports to the general manager from the cost department, operates as follows:
The men's cards are numbered from 1 to 500, and the women's cards from 501 up. When a number has been given out and the employee using that number terminates his employment with the company that number should not be used again during the year.
An intelligent night watchman is secured and paid a slightly higher rate than is usually allowed for ordinary watchmen.
As soon as he is on duty in the evening he is put in charge of the time cards being turned in by the employees. Between his regular rounds through the factory he will stamp the time on the back of the cards as they are turned in, and after all the employees have left work he separates the men's cards from the women's cards and arranges them in numerical order.
He then figures the number of hours each employee has worked, regular time, overtime and double time, and writes
the results on the card in the places provided for the purpose. This will be as far as his duties extend. He then leaves the cards for the regular timekeeping force to work on in the morning, when a clerk will check the time each employee has been credited with and figure the amount earned for the day, figuring the regular time, the overtime and the double time separately and then computing the total. These extensions should be checked by another clerk, who will enter the totals in his payroll book, which is simply an ordinary timebook in the following form: Time book sheet 27 inches wide by 18 inches long. Margin at top of sheet 21⁄2 inches. Printed in this space are name of firm; "Payroll Sheet No. 00"; "Plant No."; "Week Ending"; and "O. K. Superintendent"; then 5/8 of an inch for column headings, and 56 name lines across the sheet in fairly heavy blue ink. The vertical columns will be as follows, starting at the left: 1⁄2 inch headed "Employee's No."; 21⁄2 inches headed "Name of Employee"; 4 inch for checking, headed with the check mark ""; 1⁄2 inch headed "Check No."; 3/4 inch headed "Amount of Check"; 1⁄2 inch headed "Deduction"; 3/4 inch headed "Amount Earned"; 1 inch headed "Total Hrs. for Week" and subdivided into three columns, one headed "R" for "Regular Time," one headed ""O" for "Overtime," and one headed "D" for "Double time"; then, 7 columns, each 11⁄2 inches, headed with the names of the days of the week and each subdivided into three columns which will be subheaded into the same. headings as the previous "Total Hour" column. These columns are for the daily earnings. Then 7 more columns headed with the names of the days of the week, each column one inch wide, and these also subdivided into the same subheadings as the preceding seven columns. These columns will be for posting the hours worked each day, and will be one inch wide. Then 1 column, 34 inch, headed "Adjustments," and the balance, 134 inches, headed "Remarks.” Bind at top of sheet. Book opens from top.
While this ruling makes a large sheet it is convenient for the reason that all columns are added down and not across, the balances at the bottom being very easily checked, and it requires only one-half the number of sheets for the payroll that would be required with a sheet 14 inches wide and 18
inches long with 28 name lines ruled across and spaced onehalf inch apart and each name line divided into three sections to take care of the regular time, overtime and double time data which is necessary in states having a supervising welfare commission as does California. In states not having this supervision the payroll sheet will be a very simple affair. The payroll book should be in loose-leaf form, the clerk making up his sheets before they are put into the binder. This will allow the binder for the current week to be in use while another clerk is compiling reports from the "dead" binder at the same time.
In California the State Welfare Commission makes a weekly audit of all cannery payrolls, and it is compulsory to keep the payroll of women separated from that of the men and also separate records of the employment of minors. The payroll records of women employees must be kept by departments in which they work, and this causes a great deal of additional work inasmuch as the women will be transferred from one department to another, sometimes working in three departments in one day, each of which must be charged with the proper portion of their time. At the end of the week it very often happens that a great many women will receive three or four checks covering their earnings, one check for the amount earned in each department in which they have worked.
With this style of payroll sheet this is difficult to overcome unless a duplicate list of employees is kept giving each employee's number and name, the amount earned in each department and the total earned for the week. The checks will be made from this record and the Welfare Commission audit from the regular payroll record.
However, this system while complete, is more or less out of date, and other timekeeping systems, more efficient and requiring a great deal less work, will be explained later. It is the purpose at this time to work one system right through to the end before taking up another.
In the operation of the factory, the shifting of employees from one department to another cannot be avoided. This makes it somewhat difficult at times to give the employee an exact record of his work on the daily time card. Forewomen and foremen must use their intelligence in getting
the most accurate record possible without interfering with the rapidity of the factory operations. For instance, four men working in the cook room put in approximately four hours of the day on the double seamers and four hours in mending leaks. It would be perfectly proper to check two men eight hours on the seamers and two eight hours mending leaks. The record is accurate and time is saved.
The factory departments and department subdivisions for labor will be as outlined below. (Other divisions than those given, to take care of various operations in plants packing other than fruit products, can easily be made up by the accountant.)
Main divisions of the factory labor are:
Fruit Room Labor.
Investment Accounts Labor.
The second division of labor will be the division of Direct Labor account into the following sub-accounts:
The complete divisions and subdivisions of the labor accounts will be as follows:
1. PREPARATION LABOR-GENERAL.
3. Checkers and Assistants.
7. Sorting Belt.
8. Porters and Sweepers.