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allowed on sales will be entered in the sales discount column and all deposits made in bank will be entered in bank deposit column. The blank columns are left for emergency.
The columns on the credit side of the cash book will be as follows: Column 1, binding space 14 inches; Column 2, headed "Date," 3/4-inch; Column 3, "Name," 2 inches; column 4, "Description," 24 inches; column 5, "Check No.," 1 inch; column 6, "L. F., Acct. No. or Control No.," 3/4-inch; column 7, "Accounts Payable," 1 inch; column 8, "Purchase Discounts," 1 inch; column 9, 10, 11, blank, 1 inch each; and column 12, "Bank Withdrawals," 1 inch. Total 14 inches.
The entries on the credit side will be made in accordance with the headings of the columns. The date payment is made is entered in date column; the person to whom payment is made is entered in the name column; a brief description of the account paid is entered in the description column; the number of the check drawn is entered in the check number column; the ledger folio or the account number or the control number if a grower's account is entered in the L. F. column and the amount paid is entered in the accounts payable column. It will be noted that the columns for general ledger and green produce ledger are omitted on the credit side of the cash book and all entries made to the accounts payable ledger column. This is done to facilitate a tie-up with the accounts payable distribution as made on the transmittal sheets kept by the cost department. If it is desired to segregate the payments in the cash book it will be necessary to take the totals from the three ledgers when balancing the accounts and this will prove to be an awkward procedure. The accounts payable ledger will contain the accounts of vendors, growers and all others to whom payments are made, the credits being taken from the invoices which will be put through on the transmittals.
Used in connection with the cash book is the Daily Bank Statement and where accounts are kept at more than one bank a separate statement should be used for each bank.
This statement will be 14 by 11 inches in size. Heading space of one inch in which is printed the "Name of Firm" and "Daily Bank Statement and Reconciliation for Month of." Binding space at left of two inches, 3-inch holes for post binder. Then 8 columns headed "Detail of Outstanding Checks," and sub-headed "Check No." and "Amount," repeated four times. In these columns will be listed the checks outstanding at the end of the month. To the right of these columns will be a column 3-inch wide in which the days from 1 to 31 will be printed. To the right of this column will be another of an inch headed "Memo" and then a column headed "Deposits," another "Checks" and another "Balance." The balance the first of the month will be entered at the top in the balance column. The checks drawn daily, the deposits made daily and the daily balance will be entered and at the end of the month the columns totaled and proved.
At the bottom of the last amount column under the detail of outstanding checks will be printed "Total Checks Outstanding,” “Ledger Balance," "Total" and "Balance from Bank Statement." The total
checks outstanding plus the ledger balance as shown in the last column on the sheet will balance with the statement received from the bank. This is a very simple form and easily kept.
Payroll checks will not be listed on this form. It is better to keep the payroll account in a different bank from that in which the general funds. are kept. There will be no confusion of accounts where this is done.
Payroll checks should have the word "Payroll" printed lightly in large letters across the face of the check and in cases where more than one plant is operated each plant should use checks of a different color. For listing payroll checks each week for balancing purpose use a sheet 7 by 16 inches in size with heading at top punched for filing on board file. Sheet to be divided in center by heavy lines from top to bottom. Each half divided into columns headed "Check No. ;""Payroll No.;" "Amount;" and one blank amount column. Lines ruled across sheet 4-inch apart and numbered in the first column from 1 to 100 allowing for the listing of 100 checks on each sheet. List the payroll number and the amount of each check. Use the blank column for entering the amount of all checks not returned with the bank statement. Do not use this sheet unless it is checked against the bank statement as it will not pay to do so. It should in all cases be used and checked.
In drawing on the general funds of the business it is best to use a voucher check. There are many forms of voucher checks in use but the one recommended is that having the voucher perforated so it can be detached and retained by the payee for reference as to the items paid by the check. Unless this is possible it sometimes causes a great deal of trouble to the accountant of the payee in locating the items in the account to be credited. Where the voucher cannot be detached but is returned to the maker with the check it is necessary to make out a separate remittance advice for the use of the payee.
A great many drafts are used in the canning business as goods are sold subject to draft. The best form of draft is one that is made in the form of an envelope, in size 41⁄2 by 10 inches, without the flap which closes over the end and fastens by tin clasps.
At the left end of the draft is a space ruled off 31⁄2 inches wide. This is printed at the top with the word "Enclosures" and down the side is printed "Invoice;" "Bill of Lading;" "Insurance Policy;" "Permit." A check mark is put against the documents which are enclosed in the envelope to be presented by the corresponding bank to the customer. The draft, in regular form, is printed on the balance of the face of the envelope. This form preserves the papers inclosed and prevents their loss. Always draw drafts at sight as sight drafts do not require revenue stamps. Use a rubber stamp and stamp on the face of the draft the terms under which any discount is to be allowed. The stamp should read as follows: "Allow 2 per cent discount on $. . . ., if paid on or before ten days from date of draft. Otherwise allow 1 per cent if paid within thirty days, unless shipment arrives prior thereto in which case draft is due within three full business days thereafter. Documents against payment. If dishonored hold documents without protest and wire immediately."
The Journal: The best form of journal is the journal voucher. Made in loose leaf. Size of sheet 7 by 11 inches. Binding space at left 11⁄2 inches, two 3/8-inch holes for post binder. Heading space at top 3/4-inch in which is printed "Name of Firm;" "Journal Voucher No.;" and "Date." Space following binding 4 inches headed "Title of Accounts;" then 1 inch headed "Detail" followed by 4-inch headed with the check mark "V;" then 14-inch headed "Account No." and subdivided into "Main” and "Sub;" then 14 inches headed "Charges" followed by 1/4-inch headed with the check mark "V" and this followed with 14-inch headed "Credits." 14 lines across the sheet spaced 4-inch apart for the accounts affected. Below these five more lines for "Explanation,” and at bottom of sheet "Made by;" "Approved by;" "Posted by." Use one voucher for each entry. No voucher should be made or allowed to be posted unless approved by the auditor or person authorized.
The General Ledger: The best form of general ledger is as follows: Loose leaf. Binding space at left 21⁄2 inches. Heading 3/4-inch in which is printed "Name of Firm;" "General Ledger;" "Account;" "Sheet No." and "Account No." "Date" column at right of binding space, 1 inch.
Then 51⁄2 inches headed "Description:" then 5-inch headed "Posting Reference;" then 18-inches headed "Charges;" then small checking column "V" followed by "Credit" and "V" columns; then "Balance" column sub-headed "Kind" and "Amount." 36 lines ruled across the sheet 4-inch apart.
General Ledger, Analysis Form: This form is used in conjunction with the standard form just described and is bound in the same binder. It is intended to take care of those accounts having many subdivisions such as the box account which is divided into a number of different sizes. The sheet is the same size and the binding and heading is the same. Following the binding space are six amount columns, the headings of which are blank. These columns are for writing in the subdivisions of the main account such as No. 1 Tall Boxes; No. 21⁄2 Boxes; No. 6-10 Boxes, etc. In case there are more than six subdivisions a fly sheet is used having six blank columns and in this way as many sub-accounts as may be desired are secured.
On the main sheet following the blank columns are the "Date" column, 3/4-inches; then a column 5-inch for "Posting Reference;" then "V" column followed by a "Credit column and another "V" column; then the "Balance" column subdivided into "Kind" and "Amount."
Accounts Receivable Ledger: This form is a standard one and can be purchased at any office supply house as can also the binder in which to bind the sheets. The best form of sheet to purchase is that having a double debit and credit column and two date and explanation columns and ruled on both sides. This form can be used also for the accounts payable ledger, except in the very large corporations where the accounts payable are kept by a bookkeeping machine.
The Notes Receivable and Notes Payable Ledger is a small ledger subdivided for the two classes of accounts. The sheets are 6 by 91⁄2 inches. Binding space at left 2 inches, 3/8-inch post hole. For notes receivable the heading is "Received from;" "Account No.;" "Where Payable;"
"Date;" "Amount;" "When Payable;" "Rate of Interest;" "Interest Payable." Under this heading which requires 11⁄2 inches are four lines divided into four columns headed "Date Pledged," 11⁄2 inches; "Description," 334 inches; "Value," 1% inches and "Date Returned," 1% inches.
Under this record is the record of payments on "Principal" and "Interest." Under the heading "Principal" are the sub-headings "Due" and "Payments" and these are again subdivided into "Date;" "Folio" and "Amount" with a column for "Balance."
Under the heading "Interest" are the sub-headings "Due" and "Payments." The due column is subdivided into "Date and Amount" and the payment column into "Date," "Folio" and "Amount."
The notes payable record is exactly the same except that the first line. of the heading is printed "Payable to" instead of "Received from" and is headed "Notes Payable" instead of "Notes Receivable." Both forms are printed on both sides and makes a complete record of all transactions affecting the notes.
The Sales Register: The sheet for the sales register will be 11 by 17 inches. Binding at left 134 inches. inch post hole. Heading one inch in which is printed "Name of Firm," "Sales Register" and "Month of." The heading for the columns will require 3/4-inch. 35 lines across the sheet every 5th line a heavy one. Columns as follows: Following the binding 3-inch headed "Day;" 3/4-inch headed "Invoice No.;" 15%-inch headed "Buyer;" then 234 inches headed "Credit" and subdivided into "Canned Goods Sales" 14 inches and "Sundry Credits" 11⁄2 inches. and this column again subdivided into "Acct. No." 1⁄2-inch and "Amount," 1 inch. Heavy double lines divide the sheet here and these are followed by 14 inches headed "Broker" then four columns, each 78-inch, headed "Brokerage to Broker," "Brokerage Direct," "Label Allowance," and "Sales Freight." Then 3 columns each 138 inches headed "Selling Expense," "Sales Allowance" and "Miscellaneous" and sub-headed, "Acct. No.," 1⁄2-inch, and “Amount," 7-inch. This followed by the last column "Accounts Receivable," 78-inch. The charges on this side of the dividing lines are all grouped under the heading "Charge."
Posting to the sales register are made from the sales binder which contains a copy of all invoices sent out. The gross amount of the sale is entered in canned goods sale column, when this account is affected. Sales other than canned goods are entered in the sundry credit column giving the number of the account to which the credit is to be posted.
All storage on canned goods held in the warehouse should be charged to the customer at the end of every month. Then from the bill in the binder enter such amounts in the sundry credit column under account No. 150, incidental sales and income.
When charging interest from the binder bill enter in the sundry credit column under account No. 138, interest received.
Handling charges on such consignments of canned goods as are received from outside sources for inclusion in pool cars should be charged to the firms to which the goods are to be shipped and all such amounts
should be entered in the sundry credit column under account No. 150, incidental sales and income.
Freight and dravage paid on such consignments can be distributed direct from the cash book but it is better to bill through the binder and handle in the same way as handling charges.
All bills in the binder covering the sale of scrap junk, sugar sacks, apricot pits, cherry stems, etc. should be entered in the sundry credit column under account No. 150, incidental sales and income.
The name of the broker is entered in the broker column. The brokerage is shown under two divisions. Where the brokerage is deducted from the invoice, enter the amount in the brokerage direct column where it is to be credited to a broker's account, and the amount does not appear on the invoice as a deduction, it is to be entered in the brokerage to brokers column.
All deductions on the invoices for label allowance are entered in the label allowance column.
All invoices in the binder covering samples, advertising and sales promotion and demonstrations and display will be entered in the selling expense column under the account numbers 183E, 183F and 183G.
All credit memorandums will be filed in the binder and credits to buyers for overcharges and shortgages will be entered from the binder credit memorandum to sales allowance column under the sub-account 192A.
Credits for swells and swell allowances will be entered from the binder credit memorandum to sales allowance column under the sub-account 192B.
Canned goods returned will be treated in the same manner, the entry being to the sub-account 192D.
All other binder charges for which no column is provided will be entered in the miscellaneous column and will be identified by the proper account number.
The net amount of the invoice, representing the amount to be paid by the buyer will be entered in the accounts receivable column.
At the end of the month, or weekly if desired, the sales register will be closed and balanced. The various columns will be recapped and the amounts to be posted to each account will be entered in the column directly below the closing lines. The total of the recap of each column will balance with the total of the column. The postings will then be made to the proper accounts.
The total of canned goods sales column is a credit to canned goods sales in the general ledger. The total of the two brokerage columns is a charge to brokerage account in the general ledger. The total of label allowance column is a charge to labels account in the general ledger.
The credits to the brokers accounts can be posted every day or as a total each week or month. If posted daily this can be done either from the sales register or direct from the binder tag. It is better to post from the register in which case only the amounts in the brokerage to brokers column will be credited.