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section 7, sets up a rule which it is hoped will lead to the establishment of a standard practice.

It is understood that the provision of lighterage covered in several of these recommendations is only within the usual free lighterage limits of the port, and that where lighterage outside such limits is required, it is for buyer's


In order to avoid confusion in another particular, attention is called to the care which must be exercised in all cases in making weight quotations. The net ton, the gross ton and the metric ton, all differ in weight. Similarly there is a variation in the use of the term "hundred weight" to mean either 100 pounds or 112 pounds. It is, therefore, not sufficient to quote a price per "ton" or per "hundred weight." Instead the Conference recommends the use of the terms "ton of 2,000 lbs.," "ton of 2,240 lbs." or "ton of 2,204 lbs.," etc., whichever is intended.

It is also important to note that a carload lot in the United States means the quantity of the particular commodity in question necessary to obtain the carload freight rate for transportation on American railways. This quantity varies according to the commodity and also varies in different parts of the country. Certain commodities being more bulk than others, the minimum carload for them is less than for heavier products occupying less space. The load required may range anywhere from 12,000 to 90,000 pounds. Consequently it is important, when quoting prices applicable to carload lots, to so state and to specify the minimum weight necessary to make a carload lot of the particular commodity for the particular shipment in question.

The Conference points out that in quoting "C. & F." or "C. I. F.," manufacturers and exporters moving large quantities of material by one vessel should be careful to ascertain in advance the buyer's capacity to take delivery. This because, under these terms and as a condition of making the freight rate, transportation companies may require a certain rate of discharge per day, and that rate of discharge might be in excess of the buyer's capacity to take delivery. In such event an adjustment with the transportation company would be necessary, which might affect the freight rate and consequently the price to be quoted.

The Conference also strongly urges shippers clearly to understand the provisions of their insurance protection on all foreign sales, irrespective of the general terms used thereon. In almost all cases it should be possible, when making shipments by steamer, to obtain insurance cover giving full protection from primary shipping point to designated seaport delivery, and/or foreign port delivery. As ordinary marine insurance under F. P. Á. conditions, i. e., free of particular average, gives no protection against deterioration and/or damage to the merchandise itself while in transit, when caused by the recognized hazards attending such risks, shippers should endeavor in all cases to obtain insurance under W. P. A. (S. P. A.) conditions, i. e., with particular average (subject to particular average), when in excess of the customary franchise of 3% to 5%. Under such form of insurance, underwriters will be called upon to pay claims for damages when these exceed the stipulated franchise.

The Conference points out that inasmuch as fees for consular invoices and similar items are arbitrary charges fixed by foreign governments, they are not included in the terms of C. & F. or C. I. F. quotations, and it is part of the duty of the buyer to meet them.

Finally, the Conference strongly recommends, as a most effective measure of simplification, the general practice of quoting for export, as far as possible, either “F. A. S. Vessel," "F. O. B. Vessel" or "Č. I. F." Concentration on this small list, all of which terms are readily understood abroad and are difficult of misinterpretation, will, it is felt, be markedly influential in avoiding confusion and controversy.

The conclusions and definitions set forth above are the recommendations of a Conference which was composed of representatives of nine of the great commercial organizations of the United States interested in foreign trade. Not all have as yet the force of law or long established practice; but it is the hope and expectation of the Conference that these recommendations will receive such adherence on the part of American producers and distributors, as to make them in fact the standard American practice. And it is therefore expected that in due time they will receive the sanction of legal authority.

Part V

Miscellaneous Information


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Assignment No. 1

What Every Canner Should Know

An Excerpt From the Report of the Research Committee, National Canners' Association, October 28, 1922.


The outbreaks of botulism that have been caused by home and commercially canned foods during recent years have given the canning industry grave concern.

A series of investigations financed by the National Canners' Association and conducted in the medical departments of Harvard University, Stanford University and the University of California have been completed and the results are now available. There is given below a series of recommendations which apply the results obtained directly to the canning plant.

Foods That Have Caused Botulism

A survey of the available reports in the medical literature shows that outbreaks of botulism have been ascribed to the following commercially canned foods: ripe olives, spinach, string beans, corn, beets, pumpkin and tomato ketchup. In some of these outbreaks the evidence is far from complete and the record is probably in error. For instance, from the published record and the evidence we now have regarding the organism, it is not believed that B. botulinus will grow and produce its toxin in tomato ketchup. The evidence connecting the outbreaks with commercially canned string beans and corn is incomplete and probably in error. Nevertheless, it is of particular significance in view of the fact that the majority of outbreaks of botulism in the United States have been caused by home-canned string beans and corn.

Outbreaks of botulism have also been caused by home-canned peas, fish, and asparagus. In this connection we cannot too strongly emphasize that the only possible difference between home-canning and commercial canning is in the temperature and time of processing employed. We are forced to the conclusion that the only reason the commercial canning industry has escaped botulism to a far greater extent than home canners is due to the more adequate processes it employs.

Other Foods in Which B. Botulinus Will Grow

The foods mentioned above are not the only ones with which precautions must be taken to prevent botulism. It has been shown experimentally that B. botulinus will readily grow and produce its toxin in Lima beans, navy beans, carrots, cheese, sweet potatoes, evaporated milk, meat, fish and shell-fish. Of course, it will grow in mixtures of all foods in which it will grow separately, as, for instance, succotash. Although the matter has not been tested experimentally, it is believed that B. botulinus would grow and produce its toxin in hominy, mushrooms, parsnips and some kinds of soups. The researches described below

have shown beyond a doubt that outbreaks of botulism may at some future time be expected from all of these foods if they are canned by processes which will not destroy the most resistant strains of B. botulinus. Recommendations

The recommendations given below are based on the results of food poisoning investigations. They are in full accord with the best practice in the operation of canning plants. These recommendations are briefly summarized under the following five heads: (1) Sanitation; (2) Processing; (3) Coding; (4) Incubation; and (5) Storage.


It has been shown that B. botulinus occurs naturally in the soil and is widely distributed throughout the world. It has also been shown that with B. botulinus, as with other bacteria, the numbers of organisms present in food has a profound influence on the amount of heat necessary to sterilize the greater the number of organisms the longer the process must be made. It is obvious from this that the first step in preventing B. botulinus from existing in canned foods is to cleanse the raw product thoroughly. From a practical standpoint it can be said. that the thorough removal of dirt is one of the essential features in safeguarding against botulism.

DECAY FAVORrs Growth of B. BOTULINUS.-It has also been shown that B. botulinus thrives and multiplies when present in decaying vegetation. Whenever spoilage of the raw product occurs to any extent, spores of B. botulinus, if present, may rapidly increase in numbers.

CARE OF RAW PRODUCT.-From this it is evident that raw material which has been improperly stored so that it heats, permits the growth of mold, or shows some evidence of decomposition, is far more liable to contain large numbers of resistant spores of B. botulinus than sound and fresh material. The use of fresh and sound raw products packed with the least delay is one of the greatest means of protection against botulism. Those products which from their nature must be stored before being canned (for instance, sweet potatoes, apples, pears and dried beans) should be stored under conditions that will prevent molding and excessive deterioration.

ACID FOODS NOT INVOLVED.-The statements above apply particularly to non-acid products. The more acid products, such as fruit, tomatoes, kraut and rhubarb, are not suitable mediums for the growth of B. botulinus; but even in fruit it has been shown that bruises, wormholes, decay and other defects may make possible the growth of B. botulinus, and such portions should be removed before canning, or fruit containing such imperfections discarded. All practical measures should be adopted to secure the highest degree of sanitation with all products. Processing

Products with a pH value below 4.5 are not subject to botulinus spoilage when packed under proper sanitary conditions.

1It is now recognized that the acidity of foods is one of the chief factors affecting the time and temperature necessary for sterilization. By acidity in this case is meant the intensity factor of acidity and not the per cent of acid present. The intensity

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