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Apothecaries' Weight

10

10

1

2

1

21 1

3

2

3

10

1

13

10

1

2

2

21 1

3

3

2

6

0

O

0

7

0

1

5

1 2

9

1 14

1 15

24 grains

20 pennyweights
12 ounces

10

15

4

0

8

34

11

3

13

0

4

4

41

8

101

0

11

=

Spinach 51′′

66

=

Squash, 43".

66

Strawberries, H. S.

H. S.

H. S.

=

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Weights and Measures

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1 ounce oz.

= 1 pound-ib.

=

1 quarter

1 hundred weight-cwt.

5"

1 pennyweight-dwt.

=

1 ounce 480 grains
= 1 pound-5,760 grains

1 scruple

1 drachm

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20 grains
3 scruples
8 drachms
12 ounces

= 1 ounce

= 1 pound-5,760 grains

Apothecaries' weight is used only in weighing of medicines.

10. 6

02601160-6-I26

21 1

21 1 12

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1

11

4 quarters

1 ton-2,000 lbs.

20 hundred weight Avoirdupois weight is used for weighing all ordinary articles, such as live stock, grain, hay, vegetables, etc. The standard avoirdupois pound of the United States is determined from the Troy pound, and contains 7,000 grains Troy. In some states 2,240 pounds are considered one ton. Troy Weight

11

15

0

10

14 0 13 1

3 2

1

2 2 2

6

Troy weight is used in weighing gold, silver and jewels. Pearls and diamonds are weighed by the karat of 4 grains, 5 diamond grains being equal to 4 grains Troy. The Troy pound, containing 5,760 grains, is the standard unit of all weights in the United States.

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0 7

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Linear, or Long Measure

3 barleycorns

7.92 inches 12 inches

3 feet

51⁄2 yards, or 161⁄2 feet
4 rods, or 100 links

10 chains

Square, or Surface Measure

144
square inches
9
square feet
304 square yards
square yards
square rods
rods

16

40

4

Cubic, or Solid Measure

Apothecaries' Measure

=

20 ounces
8 pints

==

=

=

=

8 furlongs

3 miles

= 1 league

Linear measure is used only in measuring distances or length in any direction. The yard is the standard unit of length.

1 span

1 cubit

=

1 pace (military)

1 pace (geometrical)

1 fathom

=

1728 cubic inches

27 cubic feet

40 cubic ft. rou. timber
50 cubic ft. hewn timber
42 cubic feet timber
40 cubic feet timber
108 cubic feet
128 cubic feet

60 minims (or drops)
8 drachms

=

=

=

=

==

=

= 1 chain

640

acres

=

Square measure is used in measuring anything which has both length and breadth; that is, surface measure of two dimensions only.

=

=

=

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1 rood

1 acre, or 43,560 sq. ft.

1 square mile

=

1 inch

1 link

1 foot

1 yard

1 rod, perch or pole

=

=

1 furlong

1 mile

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1 cubic foot

1 cubic yard

1 ton or load

1 fluid drachm

1 fluid ounce

Measures of Length

1 line

1 nail (cloth measure)
1 palm

1 hand (horse height measure)

1 pint

1 imperial gallon

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Measures of Length-Continued

1 cable's length

1 league

1 degree of the equator

1 degree of meridian

Dry Measure

2 pints = 1 quart (qt.)

=

4 quarts
2 gallons
4 pecks =
36 bushels =

Measure of Time

1 chaldron (for coke and coal) In Dry Measure the liter is legal at .908 quart.

Liquid Measure

60 seconds

60 minutes
24 hours

7 days
28 days

4 gills (gi.)
2 pints
4 quarts
42 gallons

63 gallons
84 gallons
10 gallons
252 gallons
126 gallons
18 gallons
32 gallons

Note.-311⁄2 gallons, in some instances, are considered a barrel.

365 days
366 days

Circular Measure

60 seconds

60 minutes

360 degrees

30 degrees

1 gallon (gal.)-268.8 cubic inches
peck (pk.)

1

1 bushel (bu.)

12 signs 360 degrees

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

= 1 ton

=

=

28, 29, 30 and 31 days
12 calendar months

1 pint (pt.)

1 quart (qt.)

1 gallon (231 cubic inches)

1 tierce

1 hogshead (hhd.)

1 puncheon

1 anker

1 pipe

1 runlet

1 barrel

69.124 statute miles
1.1527 statute miles
60 geographic miles

=

=

=

= 120 fathoms

= 3 miles

=60.1613 miles or 60 nautical knots or geographical miles

=69.146 miles

=

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1 sign zodiac

1 zodiac circle

the circumference of the earth

at the equator

1 degree of the equator

=

= 1 geographic mile

=

1 degree

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English Money:

=

=

=

=

Land Measurement

6 mi. X 6 mi. = 36 sq. mi. 1 mi. X 1 mi. = 1 sq. mi. 1 mi. X1⁄2 mi. = 1⁄2 sq. mi. 1⁄2 mi. X1⁄2 mi. = 4 sq. mi. 1⁄2 mi. X4 mi. = 4 mi.X4 mi. =

=

sq. mi.

sq. mi.

4 seconds

1 minute

1 second

24 hours, or one day

1 hour

=

23,040 acres = 1 Township

640 acres 1 Section

=

320 acres = 1 Half Section

160 acres = 1 Quarter Section

=

80 acres 1 Half Quarter Section

=

=

40 acres = 1 Quarter Quarter Section. 208.7 ft. square

=

43,560 sq. ft.

66 ft.

80 chain or 5,280 ft.

=

=

=

1 acre

1 acre
1 chain
1 mile

2 ft., 9 in.

1 vara
50 varas
100 varas = 275 ft. square

=

1371⁄2 ft. square

1 keg of nails

1 barrel of flour

=

Time .0666 second

=

=

Board Measure

In figuring board measure, all boards are assumed to be 1 inch thick. To find the contents of lumber, multiply the length in feet by the width and thickness in inches and divide by 12.

First: 1 in. x 12 in. x 8 ft.: 1x12×8÷12=8 sq. ft.
Second: 1⁄2 in x 12 in. x 8 ft.: 2X12X8÷12=4 sq. ft.
Third: 6 in. x 8 in. x 16 ft.: 6X8X16÷12=64 sq. ft.

4 Farthings = 1 Penny

12 Pence

= 1 Shilling
1 Pound

20 Shillings

=

To convert English money into American money: Reduce the English money to pence. Divide the rate of exchange (normal 4.8665) by 240, the number of pence in one pound, the result will be the value of one penny in American exchange. Multiply the total number of pence to be converted by the value of one penny, the result will be the equivalent in dollars and cents.

$4.80÷240= .02,

Rate of exchange is $4.80. £6 18s 9d 1,665d.

value of one penny. 1,665dX.02 = $33.30.

A List of Units Used in Commerce

1 barrel of beef or pork = 200 pounds

=

100 pounds

=

196 pounds

=

250 pounds

= 100 pounds

1 pig of iron or lead
1 quintal of fish

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