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A List of Units Used in Commerce-Continued

1 firkin of butter

1 gallon of petroleum

1 stone of iron or lead
1 gallon

1 cubic foot

1 cubic foot

1 cubic yard

1 bushel

1 gallon oil

1 gallon water

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56 pounds

61⁄2 pounds
14 pounds

231 cubic inches
7.4805 gallons

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= 1728 cubic inches
27 cubic feet

=2150.42 cubic inches
7.32 pounds average
8.34 pounds

8.55 pounds
7.68 pounds

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1 gallon sea water

1 gallon proof spirits Weight of one bushel (varies somewhat in different states) wheat, beans, potatoes, clover seed, 60 pounds; corn, rye, flaxseed, onions, 56; corn on cob, 70; buckwheat, 52; barley, 48: hemp seed, 44; timothy seed, 55; castor beans, 46; oats, 35; bran, 20; blue grass seed, 14; a barrel of potatoes contains 24 bushels as sold in New York; one barrel of flour, 196 pounds; pork and beef, 200 pounds.

METRIC EQUIVALENTS

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1 meter = 39.37 in. = 1.096 yards.
1 dekameter = 1.9884 rods
1 kilometer=0.62137 mile.

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Approximate Metric Equivalents 1 decimeter = 4 inches.

1 meter=1.1 yards.

1 kilometer=5% of mile.

1 hektar = 21⁄2 acres.

1 ster or cu. meter = 4 of a cord.

1 liter =

1.06 qt. liquid. 10.9 qt. dry.

1 hektoliter = 25% bushels.

1 kilogram = 2% pounds.
1 metric ton=2,200 pounds.

Useful Information

To find diameter of a circle multiply circumference by .31831. To find circumference of a circle multiply diameter by 3.1416. To find area of a circle multiply square of diameter by .7854. To find surface of a ball multiply square of diameter by 3.1416. To find side of an equal square multiply diameter by .8862. To find cubic inches in a ball multiply cube of diameter by .5236. Doubling the capacity of a pipe increases its capacity four times. Double riveting is from 16 to 20 per cent stronger than single. One cubic foot of anthracite coal weighs about 53 pounds. One cubic foot of bituminous coal weighs from 47 to 50 pounds. One ton of coal is equivalent to two cords of wood for steam purposes. A gallon of water (U. S. Standard) weighs 83 lbs. and contains 231 cubic inches.

There are nine square feet of heating surface to each square foot of grate surface.

A cubic of water contains 71⁄2 gallons, 1728 cubic inches, and weighs 621⁄2 lbs.

Each nominal horse power of a boiler requires 30 to 35 lbs. of water per hour.

To sharpen dull files lay them in dilute sulphuric acid until they are eaten deep enough.

A horse power is equivalent to raising 33,000 lbs. one foot per minute, or 550 lbs. one foot per second.

The average consumption of coal for steam boilers is 12 lbs. per hour for each square foot of grate surface.

To find the pressure in pounds per square inch of a column of water multiply the height of the column in feet by .434.

Steam rising from water at its boiling point (212 degrees) has a pressure equal to the atmosphere (14.7 lbs. to the square inch).

To evaporate one cubic foot of water requires the consumption of 71⁄2 lbs. of ordinary coal, or about 1 lb. of coal to 1 gallon of water.

One-sixth of tensile strength of plate multiplied by thickness of plate and divided by one-half the diameter of boiler gives safe working pressure for tubular boilers. For marine boilers add 20 per cent for drilled holes.

No plate or bars of either steel or iron should be worked at a black or blue heat (say about 500°); the material will stand far more strain either red hot or cold, while at an intermediate point great risks will be run, and possibly strains produced which result in rupture later on.

To find the speed of a piston in feet per minute, multiply length of stroke by revolutions per minute, divide this product by 12 and multiply quotient by 2; result is the answer.

To find the capacity of a cylinder or prism multiply the area of its base by its altitude, reduce to cubic inches and divide by 231; result will be capacity in gallons.

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No. 21⁄2 Fancy. Choice

Standard.

Second.

Water.

California Canned Fruits-F. O. B. Cannery

APRICOTS

*No. 10 Fancy. Choice.

Standard.

Water

Solid Pack Pie.

No. 21⁄2 Fancy. Choice.

Standard

Second.

Water

Comparative Opening Prices

California Packing Corporation and Predecessors

*No. 10 Fancy.

Choice.

Standard.

Water.

Solid Pack Pie..

Assignment No. 4

Price and Pack Statistics

ROYAL ANNE CHERRIES

*Previous to 1913, tins specified as No. 10 size were referred to principally as No. 8.

No. 21⁄2 Fancy. Choice. Standard.

Second..

Water..

*No. 10

Fancy.
Choice

1923 1922 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 1914 1913 1912 1911 1910 1909 1908

2.60 4.75 2.15 2.70 2.35 3.85 1.65 2.30 1.75 3.00 1.40 2.00 1.50 2.30 1.25 1.90 1.40 2.05

9.00 15.50 12.00 8.25 7.50 6.00 5.25 5.50 6.00 5.50 6.50 5.00 6.00 6.00 7.50 9.50 8.00 12.75 11.00 7.50 6.755.50 4.75 4.75 5.25 5.00 5.75 4.50 4.25 5.00 5.65 8.00 6.50 10.50 9.00 6.00 5.75 4.50 3.50 3.75 4.00 3.50 4.75 3.25 3.00 3.50 4.00 6.75 5.00 6.50 8.00 4.75 5.00 3.50 2.40 2.85 3.50 2.75 4.25 2.60 2.60 2.75 4.25 6.50 5.00 7.00 8.00 5.00 5.50 3.60 2.40 2.85 3.75 2.85 4.50 2.60 2.60

4.00 2.75 2.40 2.00 1.75 1.90 2.00 1.90 2.25 1.75 1.50 2.10
3.75 2.50 2.15 1.70 1.50 1.60 1.75 1.60 1.901.50 1.401.60
3.25 1.75 1.80 1.35 1.05 1.20 1.35 1.20 1.55 1.10 1.05 1.15
2.90 1.50 1.70 1.25 .901.10 1.20 1.05 1.35
.95 .95 1.00
2.60 1.35 1.60 1.15 .80 1.00 1.10 1.00 1.25 .90 .90 .90

YELLOW FREE PEACHES

1923 1922 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 1914 1913 1912 1911 1910 1909 1908

3.50 5.25 4.65 3.45 3.90 3.00 4.50 4.35 2.85 3.35 2.50 3.90 3.65 2.35 3.00 2.15 3.25 3.15 2.20 2.90 2.00 2.85 2.85

*Previous to 1913, tins specified as No. 10 size were referred to principally as No. 8.

11.00 18.50 14.00 13.509.258.00 7.758.00 7.507.507.507.006.00 8.00 12.75 13.00 10.00 16.00 13.00 12.50 8.757.50 7.25 7.50 7.00 7.00 7.00 6.255.50 7.00 11.00 11.50 9.00 14.00 11.25 10.00 7.50 6.256.256.50 5.505.50 5.505.004.00 5.50 6.50 8.50 5.00 9.00 8.50 9.006.50 4.254.00 4.00 4.254.254.25 3.753.504.00 6.50 8.50 5.00 8.50 7.50 8.50 4.00 3.50 ....4.004.00 4.00.

4.003, 252.60 2.50 2.752.25 2.50 2.50 2.25 1.902.60 3.752.75 2.352.30 2.60 2.00 2.25 2.25 2.00 1.75 2.25 3.25 2.25 1.95 1.75 1.75 1.60 1.70 1.75 1.35 1.25 1.75 2.75 2.15 1.60 1.50 1.401.40 1.50 1.50 1.25 1.15 1.50 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.35 1.30 1.301.30 1.401.201.10....

2.50 4.65 2.10 2.35 2.30 3.90 1.65 1.90 1.90 2.85 1.45 1.70 1.70 2.40 1.35 1.60 1.60 2.25

1923 1922 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 1914 1913 1912 1911 1910 1909 1908

4.00 2.75 2.25 1.85 1.65 1.75 1.85 1.85 2.15 2.00 1.75 2.20 3.50 2.50 2.00 1.60 1.40 1.50 1.65 1.60 1.80 1.60 1.45 1.70 3.00 2.00 1.65 1.20 1.00 1.15 1.25 1.25 1.35 1.20 1.10 1.30 2.75 1.75 1.50 1.10 .90 1.05 1.10 1.10 1.20 1.05 1.00 1.20 2.60 1.60 1.40 1.00 .85 1.00 1.05 1.05 1.10 1.00 .90 1.10

8.25 14.00 12.00 8.25 6.75 5.75 5.25 5.50 5.75 5.75 6.00 5.50 5.25 7.00 6.757.50 7.50 11.50 11.00 7.50 6.25 5.25 4.50 4.75 5.00 5.00 5.30 4.75 4.50 5.25 5.506.25 6.25 10.00 9.00 6.25 5.00 3.75 3.25 3.50 3.75 3.75 4.25 3.50 3.25 4.00 3.85 5.00 5.00 7.00 7.50 5.50 4.50 2.75 2.40 2.75 3.00 3.00 3.40 2.75 2.65 3.25 Solid Pack Pie.. 3.75 4.75 4.25 7.00 7.50 5.75 4.50 2.85 2.50 3.00 3.25 3.00 3.75 2.65 2.65

Standard.

Water.

*Previous to 1913, tins specified as No. 10 size were referred to principally as No. 8.

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