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Year

1909. 1910.

1911.

1912.

1913.

1914. 1915.

Year

1907.. 1908.

1909.

1910.

1911.

1912.

1913.

1914.

Beans

Limas.

44

Variety

Hend. Bush. Blackeyes...

Large Whites.
Small Whites.
Bayos..

Pinks.
Cranberries..
Mexican Reds.

Red Kidneys..
Miscellaneous.

Totals.

[blocks in formation]

YIELD OF THE CALIFORNIA BEAN CROP, 1914–1922

(Basis 100-lb. Sacks)

3,000 1920.

2,000 1921.
2,500 1922.

105,000 55,000 30,000
325,000 150,000 150,000
30,000 65,000 21,000

Tons

16,000

10,000

27,000

15,000

650,000 575,000 255,000 600,000
100,000 46,000
75,000 120,000

15,000

12,000

29,250

Tons

2,000

3,000

4,500

2,750

5,750

1921

1920

1922 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 1914 1,025,000 725,000 810,000 700,000 1,545,000 1,224,000 1,600,000 1,750,000 1,500,000 140,000 150,000 255,000 175,000 134,000 116,000 300,000 380,000 180,000

175,000 463,000 300,000 275,000 405,000

150,000

100,000 325,000 75,000

2,700

1,100

6,000

425,000 618,000 610,000 300,000 155,000
675,000 978,000 900,000 410,000 600,000
15,000 118,000 125,000 125,000 85,000

725,000 650,000

500,000

721,000 1,200,000 30,000 95,000 103,000 150.000 100,000 125,000 130,000 30,000 50,000 154,000

135,000

60,000 60,000 30,000 35,000 26,000 20,000

25,000 20,000 9,000 25,000 290,400 200,000 125,000 98,000 125,000

2,835,000 2,346,000 1,800,000 2,970,000 5,150,400 4,980,000 3,660,000 3,868,000 2,905,000

Nuts

Year

1912. 1913.

1914.

1915.

1916.

1917.

1918..

1919.

1920.

1921.

1922.

Year

1912. 1913.

1914.

1915.

1916.

1917.

1918. 1919.

1920.

1921.

1922.

CALIFORNIA WALNUTS

ALMONDS

California

Tons

3,000

1,100

2,250

3,500

3,400

4,000

Average production of Walnuts in California for the past eleven years was 16,846 tons per year.

5,100

7,250

6,000

Tonnage

6,000

8,500

11,500
12,000

9,000

13,000

12,800

15,000

18,500

28,448

19,977

20,068

25,010

Shelled

Tons

6,790

5,057

6,764

7,850

9,163

Opening Prices
F. O. B. California
Shipping Point

No. 1 Soft Shells

10,772

14,004

9,075

Importations Foreign Almonds

Unshelled Total

Tons

Tons

10,437

11,868

$0.14

.16

.161⁄2

2,884

2,377

1,388

2,438

2,228

3,075

3,741

3,351

.136

.1512

.201.

2,201

2,855

.28

.312

.222

24/2

.221/2

7,526

9,674

7,434

8,152

10,288

11,391

13,847

17,745

12,426

12,638

14,723

Average production of Almonds in California for the past eleven years was 4,555 tons per year.

COST OF PRODUCING APRICOTS

By WARREN E. HYDE, Chairman of Voting Board California Prune and Apricot Growers' Association

Published by Permission.

In the following tables are given the costs of raising apricots and the cost of drying them afterwards. They are set forth in two tables so that any grower may see what our experience has been first in bringing the apricot to the stage of picking and, second, in picking, handling, drying and delivering to the packing house.

These figures are taken from the books of four apricot growers who are very careful in keeping accurate cost of operations, and are based on average-sized apricot trees with average of 90 trees to the acre. Of course, there will be variations in this because of more or less number of trees to acre, and also because of size of trees, but these figures are about accurate.

COST PER ACRE TO PRODUCE 1 TON APRICOTS

Pruning and brush burning.
Digging borers, white washing.
Plowing..

$22.50

3.00

4.00

12.00

1.00

Discing 6 times at $2.00.

Slabbing once.

Spraying 2 times.

Checking..

Irrigating once.
Fertilizer..

Thinning.
Taxes.

Interest at 7% on $1,000.

Depreciation complete in 60 years.

Smudging and overhead not calculated.

5-ton yield per acre.

Taking the items one by one as listed: The pruning and brush burning, of course, would apply to varied sizes of trees, but the $22.50 is a very conservative figure, taking in consideration the usual method of pruning apricot trees; digging of borers includes not only digging and taking borers out of trees, but also the filling of holes around trees and white washing of trees; plowing $4.00 per acre is common commercial charge when done by commercial tractor owner; discing at 6 times includes 2 or 3 discings before irrigating and as many after; slabbing is only figured at one operation; spraying two times allows one oil spray and one bordeaux spray; checking is one checking for the irrigation; irrigation once with charge of $21.00 is based on average flow of water and average charge; item of fertilizer of $5.00, thought was taken in consideration that some growers do not apply commercial fertilizer whatever, but do use green cover crop method which would make this item if anything below actual cost; the item of thinning was based more particularly on the crop of 1923, which, of course, was a peak crop year; taxes are for the taxes of land and tree improvements on same, and interest is figured at 7 per cent on $1,000 per acre valuation; depreciation is figured on

36.00 2.00

21.00

5.00

27.00 7.50

70.00

12.50

$223.50 .per green ton 44.70

complete depreciation so far as trees are concerned in 60 years; on the item of smudging, this was not figured at all because in Santa Clara Valley it is not the universal practice on account of locations. Of course, in the sections where smudging is common, it amounts to a considerable item. Overhead was not charged up against this account at all but, of course, we all know that we have such an account with which to figure. This makes total of expense items as enumerated of $223.50 per acre, calculating that average crop per acre is 5 tons would make expense per ton of $44.70, or in other words, for a grower to come out even on expenses as enumerated above, he would have to receive that amount for his apricots per ton green.

It goes without saying that some of these items will be criticized— some growers feeling that certain items are too high and others that the same items are too low. A good many growers are in the habit of figuring their plowing discing, slabbing, etc., that are commonly done with the tractor, at actual cost per hour operation, but in these calculations one must take into consideration the depreciation of the machine and also interest on machine and implements.

The same objections may be made to the following table which begins where the other leaves off, but experience has indicated that the costs here estimated are pretty nearly correct. It will be noticed that the first table is figured on a per acre basis and the second on a green ton basis. Still going on the 5 tons to the acre yield basis and then allowing, as we have, a shrinkage at the ratio of 5 to 1, it is necessary to estimate that one acre of green fruit will yield one ton of dried fruit.

Therefore the total cost of a ton of dried fruit will be $223.50 plus $142.30, or $365.80, as follows:

GREEN TON BASIS

Picking.

Distributing boxes in orchard, hauling fruit to dry house.
Weighing, waiting on cutters, etc.

Cutting at 15c per box, 53 boxes per ton.

Loading cars, sulphuring, spreading on dry ground, etc..
Sulphur.

Stacking trays, taking off fruit.

Binning and sacking..

Delivery to packing house.

Interest on investment, trays, sulphur boxes, boxes, ladders, etc..
Insurance on $175 valuation at $2.50 per 100-20% for 1 mo...
Depreciation on trays, cars, sulphur house, boxes, ladder, etc..
Washing trays at 7c each, estimating each tray billed twice.

$10.00

.75

1.00

7.95

.50

.40

3.00

.50

.40

2.10

.17

.50

1.19

$28.46 .$142.30

Shrinkage at 5 to 1 cost per dry ton.

But, you say, a grower makes very little money in the best of years on apricots, and loses heavily in ordinary years, if these figures are correct. This is not strictly true, although we will say that, year in and year out, the apricot grower does not make as much as he is supposed to make, nor as much as he himself figures he makes unless he counts in depreciation, interest on his investment, and so on, as we have done in these tables.

The fact is that, when the grower sells part of his apricots to the green fruit buyer, part to the canner, and the rest to the association for drying, he does fairly well in a good year. And very few orchardists count on making money on their investment. They love their orchards and their homes and their work, or else they are planning to sell out some day at a substantial profit, therefore, they do not figure very closely.

But figures of this sort seem to be helpful and I believe that every grower should keep some sort of cost sheet to know where he stands.

STATISTICS ON GROWING PEACHES

Figures Furnished by California Peach Growers' Association Average Yield per Acre

Tons

Average return to Grower
F. O. B. Shipping Point
Clings Frees
.$25.00 $25.00
47.50 45.00
27.50 25.00
35.00 25.00
27.50 22.50
8.00 7.00
30.00 22.50

37.50 30.00

34.00

60.00

70.00

32.50

45.00

22.50

Tuscans..

Walton.

Hauss.

Johnson.
Orange.

Phillips.
Levy..
Lovells..
Muirs.
Crawfords..

1914...

1915..

1916..

1917.

1918..

7

8

8 1911.

8 1912.
1913.

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Total...

8

1910...

1914.

1915.

1916.

1917.

50.00 1919. ... 90.00 1920.....100.00

6 1918.

37.50

60.00

1923..... 30.00

1921.

1922.

50.00

40.00

70.00

Acreage of pears in California:

Bearing..

Non-Bearing

Planted 1912.

1919..

1920..

1921.

1922.

1923..

Cost of Production
Per Acre, 1923

Plowing.
Cultivating.
Thinning and
Propping..
Pruning..
Irrigation.

Fertilizing

Spraying.
Picking.

Delivery.

Taxes..

Depreciation
Bldgs..
Depreciation

$6.00

10.00

Interest Invest...
Feed and Fuel..
Dep. Orchard....
Insurance.

Pears:

Prices paid to growers of No. 1 canning pears since 1914 are as follows:

$50.00

$85.00 .100.00

30.00

28.00

15.00

14.00

10.00

13.00

28.00

14.00

7.00

15.25

Equipment.... 30.90

45.00 17.00

30.00

5.00

Total cost... $288.15
Return at $30.00.$240.00

Loss per Acre.. $48.15

65.00

75.00

35.00

Acres

43,548

23,075

7,093

73,716

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