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Average 4 years-7 tons, cost $202.30; yield, $298.19

Average for 4 years-Yield per acre 61⁄2 tons; return per acre, $298.19; cost per acre, $202.30; Profit per acre, $95.89; Profit per ton, $13.69.

The actual yield given for 78 acres tested was 7 tons average for four years. This is probably much better than the average for the state. The total number of vines on 78 acres is given as 33,198 or 425 per acre.

Cost of 40-acre vineyard. 4 years, to bearing.

Land at $200..
Buildings.
Implements.
Pumping plant.

Total Investment..

Vines at $25.00..
Vines to replant..
Vine markers..

Vine stakes..
Rope tying 4 years.
Sulphur...

Field labor and expense.
Overhead expense...

Yield 50 tons at $40....

Total Net Investment.
Net Investment per A..

Cherries..
Apricots.

Y. C. Peaches.

Y. F. Peaches (L)..
Y.F. Peaches (H.P.))
Pears..

Grapes (M).
Grapes (T. S.).

Plums...

Tomatoes (14 qts.)|

Asparagus..

Hour Rate.

1918

$0.50

.35

2712

172

.45

.50

.50

.1212

.052

.25

CALIFORNIA PIECE RATE WAGES

Regular time first 8 hours; overtime, 8 to 12 hours at 14 times the rate for regular time; double time over 12 hours at twice the rate for regular time.

Cutting Piece Rate, per 100 Pounds

1919

$0.65

.47

.31

.20

.50

.55

.65

.16

.041⁄2 .22

.35

1920

$0.75

.50

.38

.28

.50

.62

.75

1.00

18

.052
.22

.3314

1921

$0.75

.48

.30

.18

.55

.05

.22

.331%

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.33%

.331%

The rates for all other fruits and vegetables must yield a rate of 33c per hour to 50 per cent of the women workers.

The rates for canners are fixed by the individual establishemnts but the law requires that all such rates must yield to the women canners a rate of not less than 33% cents per hour.

April.
May.

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924

January. 4.35 5.30 6.05 6.75 7.45 9.00 15.00 7.65 5.40 7.30 8.70 February 4.25 5.40 6.20 7.00 7.50 9.00 15.00 8.00 5.50 9.30 March. 4.15 6.15 6.55 7.25 7.50 9.00 15.00 8.50 5.80 9.60 4.15 6.25 7.35 8.00 7.50 9.00 22.75 8.75 5.80 10.45 4.15 6.25 7.70 7.75 7.50 9.00 23.25 7.00 6.50 10.10 4.50 6.35 7.85 7.75 7.50 9.00 26.30 6.00 6.20 9.90 4.50 6.05 7.85 8.15 7.50 9.00 22.25 6.00 7.30 9.00 4.70 5.90 7.65 8.40 7.50 9.00 20.00 6.40 7.30 September.. 7.25 5.70 6.60 8.40 9.00 9.00 14.00 6.15 6.90 October.. 6.50 5.20 7.70 7.25 9.00 9.00 12.00 5.70 7.40 November.. 5.55 5.80 7.70 7.25 9.00 9.00 10.00 5.70 7.65 December.. 5.10 6.30 7.15 7.35 9.00 9.00 8.00 5.40 7.50

8.25

June..

July.
August.

Cost of Sugar

Prices of Cans F. O. B. Can Plants, Western

Style of Can

Price of Tinplate.
No. 21⁄2 Cans.

3.

10.

1-E. O..
1 Tall.

1 Flat.

Based on price of Tinplate, March First.

2 Tall.

1 Sq. Tips.
211⁄2 Sq. Asp..
2 S. T. Asp.
2 Jelly.

2 Sp. Jelly.
8-oz. Pimento.
6-oz. Paste.
8-oz. Sauce.
5-oz. Chile.

9.60
9.60

9.10
9.10

1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925

$7.80 $8.84 $8.25 $8.36 $8.82 $6.02 $6.22
32.46 35.89 34.46 34.31 35.20 26.59 27.37
36.83 40.68 40.20 38.90 39.90 30.24 30.88
77.00 84.80 83.83 81.2083.15 63.65 62.88
20.64 20.00 20.50 15.72 16.04
23.82 26.21 25.91 25.11 25.75 19.73 19.88
26.66 29.16 28.84 28.00 28.60 22.39|22.00
27.01 29.77 29.42 28.49 29.20 22.29 23.31
30.12 31.24
36.65 37.87|

35.69
44.72

24.04 25.00
31.20 24.14 25.15|

30.65 23.62 24.63
21.35 16.66 16.99

18.12 17.59 18.00 14.08 13.40
18.27 17.7118.10 13.96|14.37
17.20 13.66 14.15

Assignment No. 5
Useful Information

The Jones Laughlin Steel Company of Pittsburgh, Pa., one of the largest manufacturers of tin plate, nails, wire products, chains and attachments, shafting, power transmission machinery and all iron and steel products has extended the privilege of the use of the following articles accredited to them and which are copyrighted and protected by them. Superintendents and factory employees will find much of value in these articles.

Horse Power

(Jones Laughlin Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.)

A horse power is the energy required to raise 33,000 pounds one foot in one minute.

The horse power of a boiler is measured by its capacity to evaporate 30 pounds of water per hour at 70-gauge pressure (temperature 318.4 deg.) from 100 degree feed water, for every horse-power.

The indicated horse power of an engine is the power developed by the steam on the piston without any deduction for friction.

The effective horsepower of an engine is the actual and available horse-power delivered to the belt or gearing, and is always less than the indicated.

Capacity of Tanks

(Jones Laughlin Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.)

RECTANGULAR TANKS: Multiply the length by the width by the depth (all in inches) and divide the result by 231. The result will be capacity in gallons.

Round Tanks: Multiply the length by the square of the diameter (all in inches) by .7854 and divide the result by 231. The result will be the capacity in gallons.

Shafting

(Jones Laughlin Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.)

Shafts for transmitting power are subject to two forces, viz.: transverse strain and torsion.

In shafts of wrought iron or steel, in which bearings are not very near to each other, a transverse strain, too small for fracture, will produce sensible deflections; if this is too great it will produce sensible irregularities in the motion and tend toward the rapid destruction of the shaft and its bearings. This limits the distance between the bearings, as the weight of the shaft itself will produce an inadmissible amount of deflection wherever this distance exceeds a certain amount, which varies with the material and diameter of the shaft.

In factories and work shops power is usually taken off from the lines of shafting at many points by pulleys and belts, by means of which the machinery is operated.

Whenever the machines to be driven are below the shaft, there is a transverse strain on the shaft, due to the weight of the pulley and tension of the belt, which is, in addition to the transverse strain, due to the weight of the shaft itself. Sometimes the power is taken off horizontally on one side, in which case the tension of the belt produces a horizontal transverse strain, and the weight of the pulley acts with the weight of the shaft to produce a vertical transverse strain. Frequently the machinery to be driven is placed above the floor to which the shaft is hung in the story below; in this case the transverse strain produced by the tension of the belt is in the opposite direction to that produced by the weight of the pulley and shaft.

Sometimes the power is taken off in all these directions from the part of a shaft between two adjacent bearings.

To transmit the same power, the necessary tension of a belt diminishes in proportion to its velocity, consequently, with pulleys of the same diameter, the transverse strain will diminish in the same ratio as the velocity of the shaft increases.

In very long lines of small shafting flywheels are put on at intervals, to diminish the vibratory action due to the irregularities in the torsional strain.

To Ascertain Horse Power of Shafting

The torsional strength of shafts, or their resistance to breaking by twisting, is proportional to the cube of their diameter. Their stiffness, or resistance to bending, is proportional to the fourth power of their diameters, and varies inversely in proportion to their load and also to the cube of the length of their spans or "bay."

For head shafts supported by bearings close to each side of the main pulley or gear so as to wholly guard against the transverse strain, the following formulæ afford an ample margin for strength:

Diameter of shaft in inches.

D

R

=

H =

=

Revolutions per minute.
Horsepower.

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Turned Steel: H=

D3 XR

125

Receiving and transmitting pulleys should always be placed as close to bearings as possible; and it is good practice to frame short "headers" between the main tie beams of a mill so as to support the main receivers, carried by the head shafts with a bearing close to each side as is contemplated in the formulae. But if it is preferred, or necessary, for the shaft to span the full width of the "bay" without intermediate bearings, or for the pulley to be placed away from the bearings toward, or at the middle of the bay, the size of the shaft must be largely increased to secure the stiffness necessary to support the load without undue deflection. Shafts may not deflect more than 1-80 of an inch to each foot of clear length with safety.

To find the diameter of shaft necessary to carry safely the main pulley at the center of a bay:

Multiply the fourth power of the diameter obtained by the above formula by the length of the "bay," and divide the product by the distance from center to center of the bearings when the shaft is supported as required by the formula. The fourth root of this quotient will be the diameter required.

D:

=

D= 3/100H

R

3/125 H

/12

R

As the strain upon a shaft from a load upon it is proportional to the product of the parts of the shaft multiplied into each other; therefore, should the load be applied near one end of the span or bay instead of at the center multiply the fourth power of the diameter of the shaft required to carry the load at the center of the span or bay by the product of the two parts of the shaft when the load is near one end and divide

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