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In 1857 he was chosen professor of surgery at the University of Keil. In 1870 to 1871 he was general physician and consulting surgeon for the Prussian army. He served as surgeon of the army and was connected with the Lazareth hospitals.

Prof. von Esmarch was decorated with many honors and titles. His pamphlet on “First Aid in Emergencies" has been translated in 25 languages.

We are indebted to the New York Staats Zeitung for their courtesy extended to us and the above portrait. W. B. J.

Prizes Offered by the International Congress on Tuberculosis.-The Central Committee of the International Congress on Tuberculosis has announced the offer of the following prizes:

I. A prize of $1000 is offered for the best evidence of effective work in the prevention or relief of tuberculosis by any voluntary association since the last International Congress in 1905. In addition to the prize of $1000, two gold medals and three silver medals will be awarded. The prize and medals will be accompanied by diplomas or certificates of award.

Evidence is to include all forms of printed matter, educational leaflets, etc.; report showing increase of membership, organization, classes reached, such as labor unions, schools, churches, etc.; lectures given; influence in stimulating local boards of health, schools, dispensaries, hospitals for the care of tuberculosis; newspaper clippings of meetings held; methods of raising money; method of keeping accounts.

Each competitor must present a brief or report in printed form. No formal announcement of intention to compete is required.

II. A prize of $1000 is offered for the best exhibit of an existing sanatorium for the treatment of curable cases of tuberculosis among the working classes. In addition to the prize of $1000 two gold medals and three silver medals will be awarded. The prize and medals will be accompanied by diplomas or certificates of award.

The exhibit must show in detail construction, equipment, management, and results obtained. Each competitor must present a brief or report in printed form.

III. A prize of $1000 is offered for the best exhibit of a furnished house for a family or group of families of the working class, designed in the interest of the crusade against tuberculosis. In addition to the prize of $1000 two gold medals and three silver medals will be awarded. The prize and medals will be accompanied by diplomas or certificates of award. This prize is designed to stimulate efforts towards securing a maximum of sunlight, ventilation, proper heating and general sanitary arrangement for an inexpensive home. A model of house and furnishing is required. Each competitor must present a brief with drawings, specifications, estimates, etc., with an explanation of points of special excellence. Entry may be made under competitor's own name.

IV. A prize of $1000 is offered for the best exhibit of a dispensary or kindred

institution for the treatment of the tuberculous poor. In addition to the prize of $1000 two gold medals and three silver medals will be awarded. The prize and medals will be accompanied by diplomas.

or certificates of award.

The exhibit must show in detail construction, equipment, management and results obtained. Each competitor must present a brief or report in printed form.

V. A prize of $1000 is offered for the best exhibit of a hospital for the treatment

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Medical Review of Reviews

AN INTERNATIONAL MONTHLY REVIEW OF CURRENT MEDICAL LITERATURE ESTABLISHED 1895

Edited by DANIEL LEWIS, M. D., LL. D.
PUBLISHED BY THE

Medical Review of Reviews Company
Incorporated under the Laws of the State of
New York.

President. Vice-President. HORACE M. SIMMONS, M.D, DANIEL LEWIS, M.D., LL.D.

Secretary,

SAMUEL J. KOPETZKY, M.D.

Copyright, 1908. All Rights Reserved. Entered as Second-Class Matter at the Postoffice, Baltimore, Maryland.

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION:

TWO DOLLARS A YEAR, when paid in advance, otherwise, $2.50, in the United States, Alaska, Cuba, Porto Rico, Mexico, the Hawaiian and Philippine Islands. In Canada, $2.50. In Great Britain, 10 Shillings. In France, 12 Francs. In Germany, 10 Reichsmarks.

These rates include postage only on subscriptions paid in advance. Extra postage will be charged on subscrip tions not paid within four months, to conform with the new postal laws and regulations pertaining to the second class of mail matter.

Money can be sent safely by registered letter, bank draft, check, postal or express money order.

Make all remittances payable to the order of MEDICAL REVIEW OF REVIEWS COMPANY.

MARCH, 1908.

ANOTHER TYPHOID EPIDEMIC.

We are now enabled to state fro authentic sources that there have been reported a total number of cases of typhoid fever at Peekskill, N. Y., amounting to nearly if not quite I per cent. of the entire population. Should this proportion occur in New York city it would mean 40,000 cases-a number which would be appalling.

At the latest report before us there have been 27 deaths at Peekskill, which is also a very large mortality.

The authorities responsible for the enforcement of sanitary rules and regulations are still attempting to place the blame upon other shoulders than their

own.

The following abstract from the New York State Department of Health Bulletin, in speaking of this epidemic says:

As soon as the department learned of the outbreak a special investigation was made by representatives of the State Department, and it was soon established pretty conclusively that the epidemic was due to pollution of the drinking water. The watershed of the New York city water supply adjoins that of the Peekskill supply, and a camp of laborers of foregn birth was located by contractors doing engineering work on behalf of New York city on the Peekskill watershed. This camp and its immediate environment were found to be in a very insanitary condition, human excreta being visible at many points, so situated that contamination of the Peekskill water supply was inevitable. This water supply was supposed to be protected by rules drawn up by the State Department of Health, but little or no attempt at the proper enforcement of these was being made by the local authorities. An inspector who had been patrolling the watershed to detect violations of the rules was discharged in the fall, and no policing of the district had been made since then. The recent orders of the State Department of Health ordering a thorough investigation of the watershed had not been complied with.

What was found by the department's representatives would have been discovered and the nuisances suppressed had the local authorities performed their duties and carried out the advice of the State Department of Health, and the price paid for this neglect has been a heavy one. It is to be hoped that the lesson may be heeded by other communities. Rules, per se, amount to little; measures. must be taken to secure their enforcement, and a penny-wiseand-pound-foolish policy brings its own reward and entails much suffering upon innocent victims.

The above states the exact truth regarding the situation, and thus within about five years Ithaca (Cornell University), Watertown and Peekskill have suffered severely from the grossest neglect of ordinary sanitary precautions for the protection of their supplies of potable water. We remarked editorially at the time of the Cornell epidemic that we did

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