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Prepossession of the Turks in favour of their own Military Character. Hassan Ali

appointed Grand Vizier. His Character. Situation of the Ottoman Empire. Conduct of Selim. Treaty between the Porte and the King of Prussia. Continued Preparations for War between the Porte on the one Part, and the Russians and Austrians on the other. Death and Character of the Emperor Joseph. Succeeded by his Brother Leopold. Character and Conduct of Leopold on the Commencement of his Reign. His arduous Situation internal and external. Discontents and Disturbances in Hungary, the Milanese, and Tuscany, and Insurrection and Revolt of the Netherlands. Political State of Europe. Sextuple Alliance in opposition to the Confederation between Austria and Russia. Hostility and Animosity between the Courts of Berlin and Vienna ;-yet both these Powers inclined to Peace. A Congress for that Purpose proposed by Leopold. State and position of the Austrian and Prussian Armies. Eugerness of the Divan for a Continuation of the War. Progress of the Austrian Arms, on the Side of Turkey. Cessation of Hostilities and Armistice between the Turks and Austrians. Death and Character of Field Marshal Laudhon. Conferences and Convention at Reichenbach for the Purpose of a Pacification between Austria and Turkey, and for a Restoration of the Netherlands to the Dominion of Austria. Prudent Conduct of Leopold, with regurd to the Hungarians. Dissentions, Contests, and State of Parties in Hungary. Leopold elected King of the Romans, and crowned Emperor. Grants, as by free-will

, to the Hungarians, what he had refused to their importunate Solicitations. Settlement of his Family, and Intermarriages. Various Acts of his Imperial Majesty's prudent Condescension and Favour. Peace concluded between the Court of Vienna und the Ottoman Porte at Sistovia.

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Progress of the Spirit of Freedom. Modified by the different Characters of Nations.

Singular Combination of a Spirit of Liberty with Aristocratical Pride and Religious Bigotry. Political Constitution of the Austrian Netherlands. Analogous to that of England. Arbitrary Government of the Emperor. Discontents of the People.


• The reader is requested to observe, that two distinct series of pages have been followed in the present Volume, which commence respectively at the portions allotted ! to the “History of Europe," and the “Chronicle."


Suppression of Monasteries. Subversion of the Constitution. Imprisonments and
Emigrations. Emigrants from Brabant assemble at Breda. Sequestration of all

the Abbeys of Brabant. Efforts for the Prevention of Insurrection, Conspiracy

against the Austrian Government discovered. Attempt to check Emigration in

vain. Declaration of the States of Brabant from Breda. Letter from the Cardinal

Archbishop of Malines to the Pope respecting the Conduct of the Emperor, and

State of the Country. Insurrections. Valour and Success of the Insurgents.

Engagement at Turnhout und at Tirlemont. dction between the Austrians and

Patriots in the open Field. The Patriots become Masters of the Town and Citadel

of Ghent. Relaxation of Discipline in the Austrian Armies. Advantages arising

to the Patriots from the Reduction of Ghent. The Emperor endeavours to

reconcile the Provinces to his Government by fair Promises. Daring Attempt of a

Band of Patriots in the Capital of Brabant. Succeeds. The Austrians driven out

of Brussels. Rejoicings at Brussels. The States assume the Reins of Government.

Confederation between the States of Brabunt and those of Flanders. Acceded

to by all the other Provinces, except Limbourg. The United Belgic States

provide for their Security, by raising an Army. The Austrian Netherlands at

this Time the principal "Object of Political Attention. Reflections on the usual

State of weaker, when united stronger States. Splendid Hopes from the

Emancipation of the Provinces from the Yoke of Austria.



Miserable Effects of Newfungled and Democratical Principles. Patriotic Assembly

instituted at Brussels. Their Reasonings and Claims. Political Constitution of

the Provinces of the Netherlands. The Principles and Pretensions of the Patriotic

Assembly offensive to the Nobility and Clergy. Means employed by these Orders

for quashing the Doctrines of the Democrats. Effects of these. State of Parties.

Preponderating Influence of the Clergy. Measures taken by the Nobility for the

Recovery of their Popularity. Without any considerable Effect. Popular Discon-

tents rise to a Pitch of Restlessness and Commotion. Troops employed for the Preserva-

tion of the Peace. Jealousies between the ruling Powers and the Leaders of the Army.

General Vandermersch arrests Deputies sent with Orders to the Army from the Con-

gress. Declared Generalissimo by the Officers of the Army. Other Encrouchments

in the Power of Congress. Vandermersch suddenly and shamefully abandoned by the

Army. Imprisoned in the Citadel of Antwerp. Charges brought ugainst him. Duke

of Ursel persecuted by Congress. The Congress becomes unpopular and odious to the

Bulk of the People. Imprisonment of Vundermersch resented by his Countrymen the

People of Flanders. Declining State of the new Government. Expectations from

the Accession of Leopold II. to the Austrian Dominions. Almost, though not entirely

disappointed. Memorial of Leopold to the Inhabitants of the Netherlands. Criticisms

on that Piece. Conduct of Leopold vindicated. Charucter of Sovereign Princes in

general. The Firmness of Leopold revives a Party in his Favour. Quick Increase

of the Loyalists, in both Numbers and Courage. Arguments in Favour of a Reunion

with the House of Austria, and of Hereditary Monarchy in general. Letter to Con-

gress from the King of Prussia. Blind Ambition, Obstinacy, and Rashness of Con.

gress. Notification to Congress of the Terms of Reconciliation between his Imperial

Majesty and the Belgic Nation. Consented to by the three allied and mediating

Powers. Strange Obstinacy of Congress. A Degree of Reunion among the discor-

dant Parties in the Netherlands brought about by a conmon Hatred of the Austrian

Government. Hostilities renewed with great Animosity. Two of the Provinces that

remained in Obedience to the Austrians. A great Resource to the Austrians. Rapid

Growth of Ambition. Character of the Brabanters. Wild Schemes of Conquest.

Repulse of the Brabanters from Limbourg. Various Encounters. A large Austrian

Army marches against the Low Countries. Attempts of Congress to rouze the Nation


to Perseverance in Arms against the Austrians. Made in vain. Various Proposals

for Reconciliation. Rejected by the Austrians. The Austrians, under General

Bender, enter Brabant. All the Provinces submit uguin, on very favourable Con-
ditions, to the House of Austria. Reflections.


Peace on the Ground of the Status quo, rejected by the Empress of Russia. Ambitious

Designs of the Empress, opposed by Prussia and Great Britain. Heroic Courage of

the King of Sweden. Means for gaining over the Nution at large to his Views, and

raising the necessary Supplies for the War. The King puts himself at the Head of

his Forces, and enters Russian Savolax. His Successes. Ten Thousand Russians

defeated by Three Thousand Swedes at Carnakoski. Reduction of the Russian Fort

Valkiala. Other Advantages. The King of Sweden at the Head of his Galleys,

takes or destroys the Russian Gulley- Fleet, in the Harbour of Fredericksham. En-

gagements between the Swedish Fleet, under the Duke of Sudermania, and the Russian

Fleet. The Swedes prepare to make an Attack on the 'Town and Harbour of Wybourg.

Perilous Situation of the Swedes. Escape with immense Loss to Sweaborg. Defeat

of the Russian Fleet, under the Prince of Nassau, by the Swedish Fleet, under the

Command of the King. Inclination to Peace on the Part of Russia and Sweden.

Peace between these Powers concluded. The King of Swedeň prepares to attack the

ruli' g Powers, and to restore the Monarchy of France. Meeting at Pilnitz. This

the Centre of the Affairs of Europe, 1791. Real Object of the Meeting at Pilnile.

Substance of a Circular Letter from the Emperor Leopold to the Sovereign Powers.

Russia and Sweden the first Powers that openly declared an Intention to succour the

Royal Family of France. Speech of Gustavus to the Swedish Dict. Reflections on the

Importance of Hereditary Wealth and Honours in a State. These a Barrier against

Monarchical Encroachments, on the one Hand, and the Levity of the People on the other.

Plan of the King of Sweden for a Descent on France. Discouraged by the Emperor,

but persevered in by the King. Assassination, Illness, Death, and Character of the

King of Sweden.


the ruling Passion of the Empress. The Pacification of Wereluiaa Countermine to the

Convention of Reichenbach. Efects of this on the Minds of the Turks. Resentments

against the Swedes. Misplaced. The King of Sweden's Conduct in making Peace

with Russia vindicated. The haughty Spirit of the Empress reduced by the Allies

within the Bounds of greater Circumspection und Caution. Cessation of Hostilities

on the Danube. Vigorous Preparations for Wur on the part of the Ottomans. Naval

Engagements. Heroic Achievements of a Greek Squadron, under the Colours and

Auspices of Russia, and of a Body of Greeks at Land. A Concert formed between

the Czarina and the Greeks, for emancipating that Nation from the Mahomedan

Yoke. Deputies from the People of Greece sent to Petersburgh. How received, Great

and extensive Plan of the Greeks, for expelling the Turks from Europe. Approved

by the Empress, who gives Earnest of future Succours in Case of certain Events.

Russian Plan for a Winter Campaign on the Danube. Turkish Army under Batal

Bey, on the side of Asia, routed and totally ruined. The strong Fortress and Town of

Ismailow tuken by Storm, after a noble Defence, by General Suvarof. Dreadful and

unheard of Mussucre there. Various Actions between the Turks and Russians. Trea-

ty of Peace concluded suddenly at Galatz.



Situation of Poland at the Close of 1790. Poland treated with Insolence by the Courts

of Petersburgh und Vienna. Sound Policy of an Alliance between Poland and Prussia.

Unusual Condescendence of the Courts of Vienna and Petersburgh. Awakened Spirit

and Patriotism of the Polish Nation. Abolition of the permanent Council, and

Establishment of a permanent Diet in Poland. Concessions to the Poles by the

Russians and Austrians. Augmentation of the Military Strength of Poland. Sitra

ation of Northern and Eastern Europe at the Commencement of 1790., Sketch of a

New Constitution favourable to the Liberty and Happiness of all Ranks. Ercites

Jealousy and Alarm in the Courts of Berlin and Petersburg!. King of Prussia de-

mands the Cession of Dantzic and Thorn. Character, Circumstances, and Conduct

of the King of Poland. Patriotic Ardour of the Poles of all Runks. Decrees of

the Polish Diet in favour of the Commons. The Meeting of the Polish States changed

into a Diet of Confederation; in which all Questions are to be decided by a Majority.

The Diet opened by the King in Person. The Diet absolves the King from his Coro-

nation Oath. Debates in the Diet. The King and the Diet accept, with the Soleme

nity of an Oath, the New Constitution.



Erultation of the French at the Confederation. Satisfaction of the Assembly at the Ap-

plause it meets with from the Popular Clubs and Societies in England. Suspicions

occasioned in France by the English Armaments against Spain. Jealousy entertained

against the Emperor. Deliberations in the Assembly concerning an Alliance with

Spain. Domestic Confusions. Continuation of Disturbances in the Colonies. Seve-

ral Regulations for the Internal Government of the Kingdom. Disorders in the Navy.

Discontents in the Army. Motion in the Assembly by M. Duval. Its Con.

sequences. Critical Situation of the King. Designs imputed to the Heads of the Po-

pular Party. Charges against the Duke of Orleans and M. Mirabeau. Both acquite

ted. Coalition of the Parliaments with the Noblesse against the Assembly. Resist,

ance of the Parliament of Toulouse. Compelled to submit. Zeal of the Parisians

for the New Constitution. Confirmation of the Decrees relating to the Civic

Oath. Refractory dispositions of the Noblesse. Pecuniary Embarrassments.

Fabrication of Assignats. Researches into the Civil and Religious Establishments

in France. Number of Seminaries and Convents belonging to the English Roman

Catholics in that Kingdom. Discovery of the Profusions under the late Government.

Efforts of the
Court Party to procure a Junction with Spain against England.


bility of that Party. Decrees in favour of the Descendants of French Protestant Refi-

gees in Foreign Parts. Resolute Behaviour of the Adherents to the Noblesse and

Clergy. Conspiracy at Lyons. Anxiety of the Court of Rome at the Transactions in

France. Decree of the Assembly concerning Episcopal Elections. Opposition of the

Court Clergy to this and other Decrees. Address of the University of Paris to the

Assembly. Attachment of the French in Foreign Countries to the New Constitution.

Zealous Perseverance of its Enemies in opposing it. Duel between M. Lameth and

M. Castries. Other Quarrels and violent Proceedings. Reforms in the Adminise

tration of Justice. Public Revenues before and since the Revolution. Satisfaction

of the Popular Party at the present Situation of Affairs.


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