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of atoms have resulted the worlds which we behold, with all the properties of immensity, resemblance, and dissimilitude, which belong to them. The soul consists (such is his doctrine) in globular atoms of fire, which impart movement to the body.). Maintaining throughout his atomic theory, Democritus 'introduced the hypothesis of images (erowia), a species of emanation from external objects, which make an impression on our senses, and from the influence of which he deduced sensation (aľoOnois), and thought (vonois). He distinguished between a rude, imperfect, and therefore false perception (okotin), and a true one (yunoin). In the same manner, consistently with his theory, he accounted for the popular notions of the Deity; partly through our incapacity to understand fully the phenomena of which we are witnesses, and partly from the impressions communicated by certain beings (eườwla) of enormous stature, and resembling the human figure, which inhabit the air. To these he ascribed dreanis and the causes of divination. He carried his theory into practical philosophy also, laying down that happiness consisted in an equability of temperament (evOvuía); whence he deduced his moral principles and prudential maxims. Democritus had many admirers;& among others, Nessus, or Nessas, of Chios, and the countryman of the latter (and according to some his pupil); Metrodorus (by whom were propagated certain sceptical notions);' Diomenes of Smyrna ; Nausiphanes of Teios, the master of Epicurus; Diagoras of Melos, the freedman and disciple of Democritus, who is also numbered among the Sophists ($ 110), and was obliged to quit
| ARIST. De Anim. I, 2. PLUTARCH. De Plac. Philos. IV, 3.
2 ARIST. de Animâ I, 2, 3. PLUTARCH. De Plac. Philos. IV, 3, 4, 8, 13, 19. ARIST. De Sensu, c. 4; De Divinat. per Somnum, c. 2. SEXTUS Adv. Math. VII, 135, sqq.; VIII, 6, 184; Hyp. Pyrrh. I, 213, eqq. ARIST. Metaph. IV, 5. Cic. De Divin. II, 67.
3 J. C. SCHWARZ, Diss. de Democriti Theologia, Cobl. 1718, 4to: 4 SEXTUS, Adv. Math. IX, 19, 24. PLUTARCH. De defectu Oraculor. IX, p. 326; Vitå Æmilii Paulli, II, p. 168. Cic. Nat. Deor. I, 12, 43; De Divin. I, 3. 5 Diog. LAERT. IX, 45. STOB. Ecl. II, p. 74, sqq. Cic. De Fin. V, 8, 29. 6 Diog. LAERT. IX, 58, sqq. 7 Cic. Acad. Quæst. IV, 23. SEXTUS, Adv. Math. VII, 48, 88.
Athens' on account of his reputed atheism ;Anaxarchus of Abdera, the contemporary and friend of Alexander the Great; and others. It was from Democritus that Epicurus borrowed the principal features of his metaphysics.
VI. Empedocles. EMPEDOCLES Agrigentinus, De Vitâ et Philosophiâ ejus exposuit, Carminum Reliquias ex Antiquis Scriptoribus collegit, recensuit, illustravit Fr. Guil. STURZ, Lips. 1805, 8vo. Cf. Phil. BUTTMANNI Observ. in Sturzii Empedoclea, in the Comment. Soc. Phil. Lips. 1804, et Empedoclis et Parmenidis Fragmenta, etc.; restituta et illustrata ab AMADEO PEYRON, Lips. 1810, 8vo.
J. G. NEUMANNI Progr. de Empedocle Philosopho, Viteb. 1790, fol.
of P. Nic. Bonamy, Researches respecting the Life of Empedocles; in the Memoirs of the Academy of Inscript. vol. X.
+ TIEDEMANN, System of Empedocles; in Gött. Mag. tom. IV, No. 3.
+ H. RITTER, On the Philosophic Doctrine of Empedocles, in: the Litterarische Analekten of FR. AUG. WOLFF, fasc. IV.
DOMENICO Scina, Memorie sulla Vita e Filosofia di Empedocle Gergentino. Palermo, 1813, 2 tomi, 8vo.
106. Empedocles of Agrigentum distinguished himself by his knowledge of natural history and medicine ;t and his talents for philosophical poetry. It_is generally believed that he perished in the crater of Ætna. Some suppose him to have been a disciple of Pythagoras or Archytas (Diog. Laert. VIII, 54, sqq.); others, of Parmenides. He cannot have been an immediate scholar of the first, inasmuch as Aristotle (Met. 1, 3) represents him as contemporary with, but younger than Anaxagoras; and because he appears to have been the master of Gorgias. His philosophy, which he described in a didactic poem, of which only
1 In 415 B.C. * Sextus EMPIRICUS, Adv. Math. IX, 51, sqq., Hyp. Pyrrh. III, 218. Mariangelus Bonifacius a REUTHEN, de Atheismo Diagoræ. J. Jac. ZIMMERMANNI Epist. de Atheismo Evemeri et Diagoræ, in Mus. Brem. vol. I, p. 4. THIENEMANN, On the Atheism of Diagoras, apud FULLEBORN, fasc. XI, No. 2. Cf. p. 57, sqq.; and BAYLE's Dictionary, s. h. v.
3 Flourished about 442, according to others 460 B.C.
4 Which procured him of old the reputation of working miracles, (probably mesmerism). Diog. LAERT. VIII, 51. Cf. THEOPH. Gust. HARLES, Prcgran mata de Empedocle, num ille meritò possit magiæ accusari, Erl. 1788-90, fol.
• Ge. Phil. OLEARII Progr. de Morte Empedoclis, Lips. 1733, fol.
fragments have come down to us, combined the elements of various systems: most nearly approaching that of Pythagoras and Heraclitus, but differing from the latter, principally: 1st. Inasmach as Empedocles more expressly recognises four elements, earth, water, air, and fire: these elements (compare his system, in this respect, with that of Anaxagoras) he affirmed not to be simple in their nature; and assigned the most important place to fire.9 2ndly. Besides the principle of concord (pilia), opposed to that of discord (veikos), (the one being the source of union and good, the other of their opposites), he admitted into his system necessity also, to explain existing phenomena. To the first of these principles he attributed the original composition of the elements. The material word (opaipos uiqua) he believed, as a whole, to be divine: but in the sublunar portion of it he, detected a considerable admixture of evil and imperfection. (He taught that at some future day all things must again sink into chaos. He advanced a subtle and scarcely intelligible theory of the active and passive affections of things (Cf. Plato Menon. ed. Steph. p. 76, C. D. ; Arist. De Gener. et Corr. I, 8; Fragm. ap. Sturz. v. 117), and drew a distinction between the world as presented to our senses (kóspos aioOntós), and that which he presumed to be the type of it, the intellectual world (koguos vontós), He looked for the principle of life in fire; admitting at the same time, the existence of a Divine Being pervading the universe.” From this superior intelligence he believed the Dæmones to emanate, to whose mature the human soul is allied. Man is a fallen Dæmon. There will be a return to unity, a transmigration of souls, and a change of forms. The soul he defined to consist in a combination of the four elements (because cognition depends upon the similarity of the subject and object); and its seat he pronounced to be
· D. C. L. STRUVE, De Elementis Empedoclis, Dorp. 1807, 8vo.
6 Fragm. edit. PEYRON, p. 27. SIMPLIC. in Arist. Phys. p. 7. De Coelo, p. 128.
7 Sext. Adv. Math. IX, 64 et 127. Cf. ARIST. Metaph. III, 4.
principally the blood.' He appears to have made a distinction also between good and evil Dæmones.'
VII. Others of the Ionian School.
Hermotimus and Anaxagoras. For the traditions relating to Hermotimus of Clazomenæ, see a + Critical Inquiry by FR. AUG. CARUS, in the Collection of Fülleborn, Tasc. IX, p. 58, sqq.
+ HEINIUS, Dissertations on Anaxagoras, tom. VIII and IX of the History of the Royal Academy of Sciences and Belles Lettres of Prussia (French); and in the Magazine of HISSMANN, tom. V, § 335, sqq. (German).
DE RAMSAY, Anaxagoras, ou Système qui prouve l'Immortalité de l'âme par la matière du Chaos, qui fait le Magnétisme de la Terre, La Haye, 1778, 8vo.
GOD. PLOUCQUET, A work mentioned above, $ 85.
+ FR. AUG. Carus, On Anaxagoras of Clazomenæ, and the Genius of his Age, in the Collection of FULLEBORN, fascic X. The same, Diss. de Cosmo-Theologiæ Anaxagoræ fontibus, Lips. 1797, 4to.
+ J van VRIES, Two Dissert. on the Life of Anaxagoras (Dutch), Amsterd. 1806, 8vo.
J. T. HEMSEN, Anaxagoras Clazomenius, sive de Vitâ ejus atque Philosophia Disquis. Philos. Hist. Götting. 1821, 8vo.
RITTER, Work mentioned above, at the head of $ 85.
AnAXAGORÆ Clazomenii Fragmenta, quæ supersunt, omnia, collecta Commentarioque illustrata ab E. SCHAUBACH, etc. Lips. 1827, 8vo.
SCHORN, Anaxagoræ et Diogenes Appoloniatis Fragmenta, 1829.
BREIER, Die philosophie des Anaxagoras von Klazomenä, nach Aristoteles, 1840.
Sketch of the Life, Character, and Philosophy of Anaxagoras, Classical Journal, No. XXXIII, p. 173-177.
107. Anaxagoras, animated by an extraordinary love of sciencé, distinguished himself among the most celebrated thinkers by following this principle, that the study of the heavens and of nature is the proper occupation of man.
He is looked upon by some as the disciple of Anaximenes • (which is inconsistent with chronology), and by others, of
Hermotimus, who was also a native of Clazomenæ, and is said to have recognized a Superior Intelligence as the
I ARIST. De Anim. I, 2. SEXT. Adv. Math. I, 303; VII, 121. PLUTARCH. De Decr. Philos. IV, 5; V, 25.
2 PLUTARCH. De Is. et Osir. p. 361. 3 Born at Clazomena, about 500 B.C. The friend of Pericles. • ARIST. Eth. Eudem. I, 5.
Author of nature.' In his forty-fifth year Anaxagoras fixed himself at Athens; but in consequence of the machinations of a party, he was accused of being an enemy to religion, without its being possible even for Pericles to protect him ; and retired to end his days at Lampsacus. Nothing has so much contributed to his celebrity as his doctrine of a Novs, or intellectual principle, the Author of the universe; a conclusion to which he was led in consequence of the superior attention he paid to the system of nature; the mystical revelations of his countryman Hermotimus' possibly contributing to form in him this opinion; as well as the manifest inconsistency and inadequacy of all those systems which had recognised only material causes. Adhering to the prin. ciple, ex nihilo nihil fit, he admitted the existence of a chaotic matter, the constituent elements of which, always united and identical (tà opotouepn), are incapable of being decomposed; and by the arrangement of which and their dissemination he undertook to account for the phenomena of the natural world;' adding, that this chaos, which he conceived surrounded by air and æther, must have been put in movement and animated at the first by the Intelligent Principle. Nούς he defined to be the αρχή της κινήσεως. From this first principle he deduces motion, at first circular (περιχώρησις); from which resulted the separation (διάκρισις) of the discordant parts, the union (ovuurgis) of the analogous parts: in fine, proportion and order. Intelligence he considers as the forming and regulating cause; it possesses, according to him, omniscience, greatness, power, free energy, and spontaneity (avtokpátes); it is simple and pure; distinct
ARIST. Met. I, 3. Sext. Adv. Math. IX, 7. 2 In 428 B.C. * ARIST. Metaph. I, 3. Plin. Hist. Nat. VII, 52. 4 The term Homoeomeriæ appears to be of more recent invention.
Another of his maxims was, év távti távra that in everything there is a portion of everything.
5 G. DE VRIES, Exercitationes de Homoiomeriâ Anaxagoræ, Ultraject. 1692, 4t + BATTEUX, Conjectures respecting the Homoiomeriæ, or Similar Elements of Anaxagoras. The same, Développement d'un Principe Fondamental de la Physique des Anciens, etc. Mém. de l'Acad. des Inscript. tom. XXV, and + HIŠMANN, Magaz. vol. III, sect. 153 and 191." See also G. N. WIENER, On the Homøomeriæ of Anaxagoras, Wormat. 1771 (Lat.), and EILERS, Essay on his Principle, τον νούν είναι πάντων αίτιον. Fcf. ad M, 1822, 8νο.