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shall any person who has any of these diseases work in a building, room, basement, cellar, or vehicle occupied or used for the production, preparation, manufacture, packing, storage, sale, distribution, or transportation of foods, drugs, or beverages.

RULE 8. Every person or corporation in charge of, or in control of, or in authority over any of the places mentioned by and described in these regulations, shall be responsible for the condition thereof, and it shall be his or its duty to see that the provisions of these regulations with reference to the condition, arrangement, and conduct of such places are carried out.

RULE 9. The sidewalk display of food products is prohibited unless such products are inclosed in a show case or similar device which will protect them from flies, dust, or other contamination. Food products that necessarily have to be peeled, pared, or cooked before they are fit for consumption fay be displayed on the sidewalk without cover: Provided, That in such display the bottom of the container be at least eighteen inches above the surface of the sidewalk. The sidewalk display of meat or meat products is prohibited.

RULE 10. Confectionery, dates, figs, dried fruits, berries, butter, cheese, and bakery products while on sale or display are required to be properly covered to protect them effectively from contamination or damage by flies, dust, or vermin.

Bakeries-Sanitary Regulation-Employees. (Reg. Bd. of H., Nov. 8, 1920.)

REG. 52. Bakeshops.-RULE 1. Rooms in which the dough is mixed and the pastry prepared for baking must be well ventilated and lighted. Walls, ceilings, floors, proof boxes, pans, kneading troughs and machines must be kept clean. Toilets and lavatories must not be directly connected with the working rooms, and sewerage pipes must not be led through them.

RULE 2. Before beginning the work and before preparing and mixing the ingredients, the persons engaged in the work must wash their hands and arms thoroughly in clean water. For this purpose sufficient wash basins, together with soap and clean towels, excluding roller towels, must be provided.

RULE 3. Persons having open tuberculosis, venereal, or other communicable disease must not be employed in bakeries.

RULE 4. All windows and doors must be properly screened during the fly


RULE 5. The supply of flour must be stored in dry places, where it is protected from all contamination. Water used to coat the bread must be pure, unpolluted, and provided fresh every day. The bread and pastry must not be laid on the bare floor.

RULE 6. It is strictly forbidden to sit or lie on any of the tables or shelves which are intended for use for the dough or baked articles. Chairs and benches in sufficient number must be provided.

RULE 7. The working rooms must be furnished with cuspidors, at least one in each room, which must be emptied and washed out daily with a disinfectant solution, and about 5 ounces of such a solution shall be left in each cuspidor while it is in use. Spitting on the floor is forbidden. Smoking, snuffing, chewing of tobacco or gum is forbidden in the working rooms while work is in progress or while dough or baked articles are exposed.

RULE 8. The working rooms must not be used for any purpose other than strictly connected with the preparing and baking of foods; especially must they not be used as washing, sleeping, or living rooms.

RULE 9. Domestic animals must not be kept in nor be permitted to enter bakeshops.

RULE 10. All barrels, boxes, tubs, pails, casks, kneading troughs, machines, or other receptacles containing food preparations must be kept covered.

RULE 11. Before bread is taken from the bakeshop each loaf or double loaf should be placed in a suitable paper bag or be securely wrapped with clean glazed paper. The public is warned against using bread which has been taken from the bakeshop unwrapped.

Slaughterhouses and Markets-Sanitary Regulation. Hogs and PoultryFeeding. Meat of Diseased Animals—Sale Prohibited. (Reg. Bd. of H., Nov. 8, 1920.)

REG. 53. Slaughterhouses.-RULE 1. Every person owning, leasing, or occupying any place, room, or building wherein cattle, sheep, swine, or poultry are killed or dressed, or any market, public or private, shall cause such place, room, building, or market to be kept at all times thoroughly cleansed and purified, and all offal, blood, fat, garbage, manure, or other unwholesome or offensive refuse shall be removed therefrom at least once every 24 [hours], if used continuously, or, if only used occasionally, within 24 hours after using, and such building, place, or premises shall have a suitable floor, made of cement or tile laid in cement, brick, or other material, which can be flushed and washed clean with water, and which shall be approved by the State board of health. No cesspool or pit for refuse or offensive matter of any kind shall be permitted in the room, or building; nor shall swine be kept or fed within 150 feet of the slaughterhouse. Doors and windows must be screened to exclude flies and side walls and woodwork must be painted or whitewashed. When all meats and poultry within slaughterhouses are kept in screened rooms or refrigerated rooms, from which all flies are excluded, screen doors and windows may not be necessary.

RULE 2. Slaughterhouses are required to be kept in a sanitary condition, and they are declared to be insanitary when the slaughterhouse is dilapidated and in a state of decay; when the floors or side walls are soaked with decaying blood or other animal matter; when cobwebs or other evidence of filth or neglect are present; when the drainage of the slaughterhouse or yard is not efficient; when filthy pools or hog wallows exist in the slaughterhouse yard or under the slaughterhouse; when storage hides kept in slaughterhouse lie in pools of filth, or are infested with maggots, or give out vile odors; when the water supply used in connection with the cleansing or preparing is not pure and unpolluted; when the bones or refuse are not burned or buried; when carcasses are transported from place to place without being covered with clean, white cloths, or if kept in unclean, bad-smelling ice boxes, refrigerators, or storage rooms.

RULE 3. Hogs and poultry shall not be fed any uncooked slaughterhouse offal or the uncooked flesh of animals.

RULE 4. Sale of meat of diseased animals or poultry or veal of calves less than 4 weeks old is prohibited.

Hotels and Rooming Houses-Sewage Disposal-Towels and Bedding. (Reg. Bd. of H., Nov. 8, 1920.)

REG. 57. Hotels and rooming houses.-RULE 1. Sewers and drainage.-Every hotel and rooming house connected with a cesspool or located in any city or town having a sewerage system shall be well ventilated, drained, and connected according to sanitary principles with such cesspool or sewerage system, and shall be kept free from effluvia arising from sewer, drain, water-closet or

other source within the control of the owner, manager, agent, or other person in charge.

RULE 2. Bedding, sheets, and towels. The proprietor or manager of every hotel and rooming house in this State shall furnish each guest with clean individual towels. All public lavatories and wash rooms of any hotel or rooming house must also be supplied with clean individual towels. All beds, bunks, or cots, to be occupied by guests, must be supplied with clean comforts, pillow slips, and sheets. Sheets must be of sufficient length and width to cover completely the mattresses and springs. Sheets and pillow slips, after being used by one guest, must be washed, ironed, or mangled and dried before being furnished to another. All beds must be kept free from vermin.

RULE 3. Owners, keepers, and managers of hotels and rooming houses must provide fire escapes and fireproof stairways for persons occupying rooms above the second story, as required by law.

Human Excreta-Sanitary Disposal. (Reg. Bd. of H., Nov. 8, 1920.)

REG. 63. The protection of watercourses, water sheds, streams, springs, reservoirs, and water supplies of every sort.-RULE 1. Each town and city health officer where there is no sewerage system should take up immediately with the city or town council the proposition of the installation of a proper sewerage system, and the same should be completed at as early a date as possible.

RULE 2. Pending the installation of such sewerage system, the health officer of each town or city should advise that there be constructed sanitary privies at each and every household, building, store, and every other place where human excreta are discharged, such privy to be constructed in accordance with the plans as herein suggested. These should be constructed and ready for use at as early a date as possible.

RULE 3. Each county health officer, with the cooperation of the county commissioners, is hereby urged to advise that there be constructed in each residence in his respective county a sanitary privy for the use of persons occupying such residence, whether temporary or permanent. These should be constructed at as early a date as possible.

RULE 4. The park department of the city of Denver should either construct or cause to be constructed sanitary privies on all highways or public roads throughout the Mountain Park system controlled by the city; proper signs should be placed in a conspicuous manner designating these as "public comfort stations." These should be constructed, one for women and one for men, and be so designated. The distance between these stations should not be greater than 10 miles.

RULE 5. All county health officers throughout the State should advise the construction of sanitary privies, one for men and one for women, along all public highways passing through such county or counties, to be designated in the same manner as in paragraph 4.

RULE 6. The health officer of each city or town should see that the excreta from these privies are disposed of as provided for in paragraph 7. The health officer of the city of Denver shall have charge of all privies constructed on public highways controlled by the city, and the county health officers throughout the State shall have charge of the proper disposition of all excreta de posited in privies constructed upon the public highways of each respective county or counties, not provided for in the foregoing paragraphs.

RULE 7. This subject is of so great importance to town and rural sanitation that Doctor Stiles's description and specifications which represent the best solution of the problem yet devised are reprinted, both for single privies for

dwellings and larger ones for hotels and schools. The points, then, to be considered in the construction of a sanitary privy are:

1. The provision of a proper receptacle for the protection of the excreta from all agencies which may spread the contained germs.

2. To make the outhouse so comfortable that it will be sought in preference to any other place.

3. To make it in such a way that the poorest citizen can afford it.

a. The receptacle consists practically of a box, with a top represented by the seat, with a floor which is a continuation of the floor of the room, with a front extending from the seat to the floor, with a hinged back which should close tightly, and with two sides continuous with the sides of the room and provided with wire-screened ventilators, the upper margin of which is just under the level of the seat. The seat should have one or more holes, according to the size of the privy desired, and each hole should have a hinged lid which lifts up toward the back of the room; there should be a piece of wood nailed across the back, on the inside of the room, so as to prevent lids from being lifted sufficiently to fall backward and so as to make them fall forward of their own accord as soon as the person rises. In this box there should be one or more water-tight tubs, half barrels, pails, or galvanized cans, corresponding to the number of holes in the seat. This receptacle should be high enough to reach nearly to the seat, or better still, so as to fit snugly against the seat, in order to protect the floor against soiling, and sufficiently deep to prevent splashing the person on the seat; it should be held in place by cleats nailed to the floor in such a way that the tub will always be properly centered. The back should be kept closed.

b. The room should be water-tight and should be provided in front with a good, tightly fitted door. The darker this room can be made, the fewer flies will enter. The roof may have a single slant, or a double slant, but while the double slant is somewhat more sightly, the single slant is less expensive on first cost. The room should be provided with two or three wire-screened ventilators, as near the roof as possible.

c. The ventilators are very important additions to the privy, as they permit a free circulation of air and thus not only reduce the odor but make the outhouse cooler. These ventilators should be copper wire-screened in order to keep out the flies and other insects. There should be at least four ventilators, arranged as follows: One on each side of the ox; one on each side of the room near the roof; and a fifth ventilator over the door, in front, is advisable.

Disinfectant. It is only in comparatively recent years that the privy has been thought worthy of scientific study, and not unnaturally there is some difference of opinion at present as to the best plan to follow in regard to disinfectants.

a. Topsoil. Some persons prefer to keep a box or a barrel of topsoil sand or ashes in the room and to recommend that each time the privy is used the excreta be covered with a shovelful of the dirt. While this has the advantage of simplicity, it has the disadvantage of favoring carelessness, as people so commonly fail to cover the excreta; further, in order to have the best results, it is necessary to cover the discharge very completely; finally, at best, our knowledge as to how long certain germs and spores will live under these conditions is very unsatisfactory.

b. Lime.—Some persons prefer to have a box of lime in the room and to cover the excreta with this material. Against this system there is the objection that the lime is not used with sufficient frequency or liberality to keep insects away, as is shown by the fact that flies carry the lime to the house and deposit it on the food.

Cleaning the receptacle.-The frequency of cleaning the receptacle depends upon the size of the tub, the number of persons using the privy, and the weather. In general, it is best to clean it about once a week in the winter and twice a week in summer. Each time that the receptacle is emptied it is best to sprinkle into it a layer of topsoil about a quarter to half an inch deep before putting it back into the box.

Disposal of the excreta.—For the present, until certain very thorough investigations are made in regard to the length of time that the eggs of parasites and the spores of certain bacteria may live under various plans, it is undoubtedly best to burn or boil all excreta; where this is not feasible, it is best to bury all human excreta at least 300 feet away and downhill from any water supply.

Many farmers insist upon using the fresh night soil as fertilizer. In warm climates this is attended with considerable danger, and if it is so utilized, it should never be used upon any field in which are grown vegetables that are to be eaten uncooked; further, it should be promptly plowed over.

In view of our present lack of knowledge as to the length of time various bacteria may live, the use of fresh, unboiled night soil as a fertilizer is false economy which may result in loss of human life; this is especially true in warm climates.

Sewage Disposal. (Reg. Bd. of H., Nov. 8, 1920.)

REG. 64. Sewage disposal.-RULE 1. For each river and waterway at any given point there shall be a minimum standard of purity, and this minimum is dependent upon the amount of sewage effluent discharged. The reasons for this limit are not the same in all cases, but vary according to the use that is made of the water of the river, or stream, and according to the character of the territory through which it flows. No universal standard of purity can be wisely established or maintained.

RULE 2. Sewage and waste matter before being discharged into any river or waterway shall be purified to such a degree as not to affect health in any way by a reasonable use of the water; nor to cause sensible offense to public decency; nor to cause material injury to the fish industry; nor to cause silting.

RULE 3. Though the demands of public health, decency, and protection to the fish industry are such as to require a high standard of purity, the economic aspects of the case should be considered, the fundamental principle being that the results accomplished shall be reasonably commensurate with the cost of prevention of pollution.

RULE 4. Inasmuch as the safety of public water supplies is the most important element in the problem of stream pollution at the present time, the following general principles should govern the discharge of sewage, effluent and waste matters into rivers and waterways:

a. Streams from which water supplies are taken without purification should not receive any sewage effluent or waste that will render the water a menace to health or otherwise impair its natural quality.

b. Streams from which water supplies are taken and used for purification should not receive a sewage effluent or waste of such character as to put an unreasonable burden upon the purification works at any waterworks system.

c. Streams, reservoirs, or lakes not used for water supplies may receive sewage effluent of such character that its entrance will not sensibly offend decency in the reasonable public use of the same, or cause interference to fish industries.

RULE 5. The board will designate, for each case separately, the general character of sewage treatment that will be required, ranging from simple

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