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dwellings and larger ones for hotels and schools. The points, then, to be considered in the construction of a sanitary privy are:
1. The provision of a proper receptacle for the protection of the excreta from all agencies which may spread the contained germs.
2. To make the outhouse so comfortable that it will be sought in preference to any other place.
3. To make it in such a way that the poorest citizen can afford it.
a. The receptacle consists practically of a box, with a top represented by the seat, with a floor which is a continuation of the floor of the room, with a front extending from the seat to the floor, with a hinged back which should close tightly, and with two sides continuous with the sides of the room and provided with wire-screened ventilators, the upper margin of which is just under the level of the seat. The seat should have one or more holes, according to the size of the privy desired, and each hole should have a hinged lid which lifts up toward the back of the room; there should be a piece of wood nailed across the back, on the inside of the room, so as to prevent lids from being lifted sufficiently to fall backward and so as to make them fall forward of their own accord as soon as the person rises. In this box there should be one or more water-tight tubs, half barrels, pails, or galvanized cans, corresponding to the number of holes in the seat. This receptacle should be high enough to reach nearly to the seat, or better still, so as to fit snugly against the seat, in order to protect the floor against soiling, and sufficiently deep to prevent splashing the person on the seat; it should be held in place by cleats nailed to the floor in such a way that the tub will always be properly centered. The back should be kept closed.
b. The room should be water-tight and should be provided in front with a good, tightly fitted door. The darker this room can be made, the fewer flies will enter. The roof may have a single slant, or a double slant, but while the double slant is somewhat more sightly, the single slant is less expensive on first cost. The room should be provided with two or three wire-screened ventilators, as near the roof as possible.
c. The ventilators are very important additions to the privy, as they permit a free circulation of air and thus not only reduce the odor but make the outhouse cooler. These ventilators should be copper wire-screened in order to keep out the flies and other insects. There should be at least four ventilators, arranged as follows: One on each side of the box; one on each side of the room near the roof; and a fifth ventilator over the door, in front, is advisable. Disinfectant. It is only in comparatively recent years that the privy has been thought worthy of scientific study, and not unnaturally there is some difference of opinion at present as to the best plan to follow in regard to disinfectants.
a. Topsoil. Some persons prefer to keep a box or a barrel of topsoil sand or ashes in the room and to recommend that each time the privy is used the excreta be covered with a shovelful of the dirt. While this has the advantage of simplicity, it has the disadvantage of favoring carelessness, as people so commonly fail to cover the excreta; further, in order to have the best results, it is necessary to cover the discharge very completely; finally, at best, our knowledge as to how long certain germs and spores will live under these conditions is very unsatisfactory.
b. Lime. Some persons prefer to have a box of lime in the room and to cover the excreta with this material. Against this system there is the objection that the lime is not used with sufficient frequency or liberality to keep insects away, as is shown by the fact that flies carry the lime to the house and deposit it on the food.
Cleaning the receptacle.-The frequency of cleaning the receptacle depends upon the size of the tub, the number of persons using the privy, and the weather. In general, it is best to clean it about once a week in the winter and twice a week in summer. Each time that the receptacle is emptied it is best to sprinkle into it a layer of topsoil about a quarter to half an inch deep before putting it back into the box.
Disposal of the excreta. For the present, until certain very thorough investigations are made in regard to the length of time that the eggs of parasites and the spores of certain bacteria may live under various plans, it is undoubtedly best to burn or boil all excreta; where this is not feasible, it is best to bury all human excreta at least 300 feet away and downhill from any water supply.
Many farmers insist upon using the fresh night soil as fertilizer. In warm climates this is attended with considerable danger, and if it is so utilized, it should never be used upon any field in which are grown vegetables that are to be eaten uncooked; further, it should be promptly plowed over.
In view of our present lack of knowledge as to the length of time various bacteria may live, the use of fresh, unboiled night soil as a fertilizer is false economy which may result in loss of human life; this is especially true in warm climates.
Sewage Disposal. (Reg. Bd. of H., Nov. 8, 1920.)
REG. 64. Sewage disposal.-RULE 1. For each river and waterway at any given point there shall be a minimum standard of purity, and this minimum is dependent upon the amount of sewage effluent discharged. The reasons for this limit are not the same in all cases, but vary according to the use that is made of the water of the river, or stream, and according to the character of the territory through which it flows. No universal standard of purity can be wisely established or maintained.
RULE 2. Sewage and waste matter before being discharged into any river or waterway shall be purified to such a degree as not to affect health in any way by a reasonable use of the water; nor to cause sensible offense to public decency; nor to cause material injury to the fish industry; nor to cause silting. RULE 3. Though the demands of public health, decency, and protection to the fish industry are such as to require a high standard of purity, the economic aspects of the case should be considered, the fundamental principle being that the results accomplished shall be reasonably commensurate with the cost of prevention of pollution.
RULE 4. Inasmuch as the safety of public water supplies is the most important element in the problem of stream pollution at the present time, the following general principles should govern the discharge of sewage, effluent and waste matters into rivers and waterways:
a. Streams from which water supplies are taken without purification should not receive any sewage effluent or waste that will render the water a menace to health or otherwise impair its natural quality.
b. Streams from which water supplies are taken and used for purification should not receive a sewage effluent or waste of such character as to put an unreasonable burden upon the purification works at any waterworks system.
c. Streams, reservoirs, or lakes not used for water supplies may receive sewage effluent of such character that its entrance will not sensibly offend decency in the reasonable public use of the same, or cause interference to fish industries.
RULE 5. The board will designate, for each case separately, the general character of sewage treatment that will be required, ranging from simple
and direct discharge into stream (with or without sterilization) to the passage of sewage through grit chambers, screen chambers and house, primary Imhoff settling tanks, dosing house and tank, sprinkling filters or contact beds, secondary Imhoff settling tanks, sand filters, sludge drying beds, etc.
RULE 6. Applications for the board's advice and directions regarding the discharge of sewage directly into a stream or as to the construction of sewage treatment works, must state the ultimate number of persons who will use the sewer, and be accompanied by a certificate of the State engineer, giving the rate of discharge of the stream, in cubic feet per second, at time of minimum flow in the stream.
RULE 7. Should the board require the construction of a sewage treatment plant, full detailed working plans and specifications must be prepared by an expert in designing and in construction of sewage treatment works; said plans and specifications must be presented to the board for inspection, consideration, and approval. Plans and specifications approved by the board must be closely followed in building the treatment works, and any failure to so follow the plans, etc., will subject the works to condemnation by the board. Schools-Location, Construction, and Cleanliness-Toilets and Wash RoomsWater Supply-Ventilation, Heating, and Lighting-Seats Employment of Teachers or Janitors Infected with Communicable Diseases ProhibitedPhysical Examination of Pupils-Cleaning or Disinfection of School Rooms. (Reg. Bd. of H., Nov. 8, 1920.)
REG. 59. School hygiene.—The attention of all physicians, and especially of health officers, is called to the importance of physical examination of every child before entering school and also of medical inspection at short intervals during the entire school year. These examinations may be made either by their private physicians, by the health officers, or school inspectors, as may seem desirable. In this work the State must count on the cooperation of the medical profession, as well as of health officers.
School buildings.-The site of a school building should be well drained, either by nature or artificially; it should not be near enough to railroads or noisy factories to interfere with work; it should have ample playground space; it should have some shade; the surface should be graveled or turfed.
Foundation.-The foundation must be impervious to soil water in order that capillarity must not dampen the walls.
Basement.-If there is a basement, it should rise sufficiently high above the ground for light and air to penetrate to every part of it, and should never be allowed to become a dump for refuse of any kind. If no basement is provided, the foundation walls should be pierced in appropriate places and guarded with gratings in order to allow a circulation of air below the floors.
Cloakrooms.-These should always be provided in order to avoid the stuffy and disagreeable odor of clothing in damp weather. In the country shelves for dinner pails should also be provided.
Toilets. These must be separate for the sexes, well screened, well painted or whitewashed, and kept clean. If privies are used, they should be constructed under regulation 63. If water-closets are used, a type should be selected which can easily be scrubbed, and an automatic flush is desirable. Urinals must be placed in the toilets allotted to boys.
Wash rooms. It is patent that children should be afforded an opportunity for cleansing the hands and face after play or visits to the toilet and be taught its importance. For this, if pipe water is available, the ordinary porcelain
basins with a run-off to the sewer connection should be installed. In case it is not available, ordinary granite or enameled basins, with a water supply in buckets or tanks, should be possible to any school. Paper towels or individual towels must be used. The use of a roller or common towel is prohibited by law. Water supply.-All water used in schools must be from deep wells or city or town water supplies. No surface water or water from shallow wells should be tolerated. Complying with the antidrinking cup law, wherever it is possible, drinking fountains, at least two in number for the different sexes, should be erected, either in the building or [at] some point on the grounds where freezing will not be possible. The use of the common drinking cup is prohibited by law. At the beginning of each year, and at intervals of three months thereafter, water should be examined by the State chemist.
Schoolrooms; space.-Not less than 225 cubic feet of space should be allowed to each person in the schoolroom, including the teacher. Rooms not affording this amount of space are overcrowded and transfers should be made until the condition is relieved. Twelve-foot ceilings are best for all purposes.
Ventilation.-Whatever means are used should provide for a complete change of air in about 20 minutes.
Heating. Whatever system of heating is employed should maintain the temperature of every part of the schoolroom between 60° and 70° F., with a relative humidity of at least 40 per cent. School can not safely be continued in a room where the temperature falls below 60°.
Humidity. Some means, even if only the placing of pans of water on stoves or radiators, should be provided for adding to the moisture in the air; since air that is too dry is unpleasant and unhealthful to breathe.
Light. The room should be lighted from one side only, or by properly softened skylights, and the lighting area should not be less than one-sixth of the floor area. Prismatic glass in the upper sash is an advantage, since it diffuses the light to the opposite side of the room.
Seating.-Seats must be adjustable to the bodies of the children.
It is nothing short of criminal to compel the child to adjust itself to the seat. Good work can not be done by an uncomfortable child, and lasting eye trouble or bodily deformity, such as spinal curvature, may come from this practice. Blackboards.-These should be always dull finished. hard on the eyes. Erasers should be dusted outside. be cleaned each evening by the janitor.
A glossy blackboard is The chalk racks should
Care of the building.-Floors may be oiled with a small amount of floor dressing. Dry sweeping and dusting should not be permitted while school is in session. Oiled sawdust is a good allayer of dust and is prepared by dissolving a teacupful of floor oil in a quart of gasoline and thoroughly and quickly mixing it with as much sawdust as will absorb it cleanly. Oiled dustcloths are made by adding an ounce of floor oil to a quart of gasoline, out of which cloths are wrung. These are allowed to dry and may be washed when necessary. On account of the inflammability of the gasoline, it is necessary that these operations be conducted out of doors. The floors of buildings should be scrubbed at least weekly, on Friday evenings, and before the beginning of the school year should have a thorough cleaning.
Teachers and janitors.-No teacher or janitor shall be employed who is infected with any disease which would debar a child from the school. This is especially true of open tuberculosis and syphilis, and school medical inspectors and health officers should instantly require the resignation of any person employed in the schools who is suffering from one of these diseases.
Rules. Each school board, together with the health officer of each town or city, should formulate rules and regulations for the examination, both
physical and mental, of all children who may apply for admission to either public or parochial schools.
a. Such regulations should embrace an examination and report of the condition of the eyes, ears, nose and throat, teeth and gums, physical or mental defects, for evidence of communicable diseases, such as scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, mumps, trachoma, also skin diseases and pyorrhea. Such report must be presented to the superintendent, principal, or teacher in charge of such school.
b. If such report shows evidence of communicable disease, the child must immediately be refused admission to school and a statement of facts furnished parents. If defects in hearing or vision be present or other conditions requir ing correction or operation, parents should be notified by superintendent, principal, or teacher of school, and the same should receive proper attention. The child should present certificate from a licensed physician showing proper corrections before he is admitted to school. Any superintendent, principal, or teacher shall not permit any child who has been affected by communicable disease to return to school without proper certificate from the attending physician or the local health officer.
c. A schoolroom in which a case of diphtheria, scarlet fever, or smallpox has occurred must be thoroughly cleaned or disinfected according to the method designated in regulation 46.
Public Conveyances and Stations-Sanitary Regulations Governing. (Reg. Bd. of H., Nov. 8, 1920.)
REG. 67. Public conveyances.-RULE 1. No person having reason to believe that he is suffering from cholera, diphtheria, plague, scarlet fever, smallpox, erysipelas, measles, leprosy, or chicken pox shall enter, nor shall any person permit anyone under his care so affected to enter, any public conveyance or common carrier, except a hack, wagon, carriage, or automobile, and then only after having notified the person in charge of such infection or exposure. Any conveyance so used must be thoroughly fumigated.
RULE 2. All conductors of railroad trains and street cars, if they have any reason to suspect any passenger to be suffering from any disease enumerated in rule 1, shall immediately notify the nearest health officer located on their route, by the most direct and speedy means possible, of their belief, and the health officer must meet such railroad trains at the station or such street car at the nearest possible point to determine, if possible, whether the disease exists.
RULE 3. When the health officer notified as provided in rule 2 shall find any person in a car or other public conveyance to be affected with any disease named in rule 1 the public conveyance shall be turned over to the health officer, who shall treat such conveyance as infected premises. When in the judgment of the health officer the case is in such early stage of development that other passengers are not endangered, the patient shall be removed from the conveyance and it shall be allowed to proceed. If the health officer shall deem that the exposure is such as to have infected other passengers he shall call upon the person in charge to remove the infected conveyance from service at the first place where suitable accommodations can be secured, and such health officer shall notify the health officer in whose jurisdiction the infected conveyance is left.
RULE 4. The drinking water and ice supply used in stations and on public conveyances shall be free from anything deleterious to health. In the construction of new equipment all receptacles for drinking water should be so con