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Fig. 53. Three Egyptian soldiers in a war-chariot. The principal man of captain was called in Hebrew a chief of three.

Fig. 54. A view of hills which come to the edge of the sea near Mount Sinai and cause the route called, The Way by the Sea. (Bartlett.)

Fig. 55. An Egyptian tombstone from the burial-place of Taavah. (D. Roberts.) Fig. 56. A view of Mount Serbal, and the Valley of Feiran. (Bartlett.) Fig. 57. The letters of the Hebrew alphabet with their sixteen hieroglyphic originals. The other six Hebrew letters are copied, not from the hieroglyphics, but from other Hebrew letters, from which they differ by a slight distinctive mark. The hieroglyphic P, F, Th, K, and N, and T, which lie down, are turned up in their Hebrew copies. Fig. 58. The name of Thothmosis IV. The smaller characters in the second

oval are Mes, Meso, meaning victorious in battles.

Fig. 59. A view of the small temple built by Thothmosis IV., between the legs of the great sphinx. (Young's Hieroglyphics, pl. 80.) Fig. 60. The name of Queen Mautmes, spelt Mo, T, M, Sh.

Fig. 61. A bas-relief at Luxor, representing in several groups the birth of this queen's son; 1st. The ibis-headed god Thoth, as a messenger, announces to the queen that she is to give birth to a child. 2nd. The god Knef, the spirit, and the goddess Isis, holding the queen's hands, put into her mouth the character for Life, meaning probably that of the coming child. 3rd. The queen while sitting on the midwife's stool has her hands rubbed by two of her maidens to ease the pains of child-bearing, while the child is held up by a third. 4th. The priests and nobles salute the new-born child, who is afterwards the King Amunothph III. (H. Horeau.)

Fig. 62. The name of King Amunothph III. The letters in the second oval are, A, M, N, O, followed by "Lord of Mendes." The O, is a contraction for the word Othph, seen in Fig. 49, showing that the last syllable of the name was not always clearly pronounced, and explaining why the Greeks sometimes thought it Amunoth, and sometimes Amunoph.

Fig. 63. A sitting colossus of Amunothph III., in the British Museum.

(J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 64. The ground plan of the temple of Luxor. This court was added by Rameses II. to the older building by Amunothph III. (J. Bonomi.) Fig. 65. A column formed of a cluster of eight stalks of the papyrus-plant tied together with bands; the eight buds form the capital. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 66. A column of a single papyrus-stalk and bud, of most unnaturally thick proportions. It is ornamented with bands, as if it were a cluster of several stalks. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 67. A column of a single papyrus stalk, with a full-blown flower for the

capital. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 68. The name of King Amunmai Anemneb. The letters in the last oval are A, M, N, M, A, N, M, Neb.

Fig. 69. The hieroglyphics from which the Greek letters seem to have been copied. As we have seen in the case of the Hebrew alphabet, many of the Greek letters are set upright, which as hieroglyphics lie down. That the Greek was copied from the Egyptian K is

explained by the intermediate sound of the guttural. The older forms of the and X were more close to the hieroglyphics than those in common use. If the Greeks gained their knowledge of letters from the Phenicians, as some historians tell us, it must have been from the Phenicians of the island of Cyprus, who owed their knowledge to Egypt.

Fig. 70. The name of Rameses 1., spelt in the second oval Ra, M, S, S, O.
Fig. 71. The name of Oimenepthah I. It is spelt Pthah, M, O, I, N, but the
order in which these letters are to be placed is learned from
Manetho calling him Ammenophthes.

Fig. 72. The Abyssinian dog, the Feneck, with the hieroglyphic copy of it. A figure with the head of this dog was once the first letter in the name of Oimenepthah or Aimenepthah, as the letter A; but in most cases it was afterwards cut out to give place to the sitting figure of Osiris.

Fig. 73. Ground plan of the temple at Quorneh.

Fig. 74. A view of the portico of the temple at Quorneh in Thebes.
(H. Horeau.) The spaces between the columns are open, and not
filled up with low walls, as in the temples of a later time.
Fig. 75. A battle scene from Karnak, in which King Oimenepthah I, in his
chariot is slaying the enemy. (H. Horeau.)

Fig. 76. Plan and section of the tomb of Oimenepthah in the hills on the west
side of Thebes. (H. Horeau.)

Fig. 77. King Oimenepthah showing his love for the god Osiris. (Belzoni.)
Fig. 78. The god Anubis hanging up in heaven the lamp of the family of
King Oimenepthah. (His sarcophagus in Soane's Museum.)
Fig. 79. The conquerors of the great serpent of sin, who carry it in procession.
From the sarcophagus of Oimenepthah I., in Sir Juo. Soane's
Museum. (Egypt. Inscript. pl. 64.)


Fig. 80. Mankind coming to judgment. (On the same sarcophagus.)
Fig. 81. The trial of a dead man by the judge Osiris. From a papyrus.

(Denon, pl. 141.)

Fig. 82. The name of Amunmai Rameses 11., spelt in the second oval Amun,

M, Ra, M, S, S.

Fig. 83. View in the Hall of Columns at Karnak. (Owen Jones.)

Fig. 84. View of the portico of Luxor, before one of the obelisks was removed to Paris. (Denon, pl. 50.)

Fig. 85. A column from the Memnonium. Against it stands a figure of the king in form of a mummy. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 86.

Section of the Hall of the Memnonium. Each of the taller columus in the middle avenue is copied from a single full-blown papyrus, each of the columns in the side avenue is from a papyrus in bud; as at Karnak. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 87. An ape on the top of a landmark, where he has taken refuge when the waters are out; the sign of the summer solstice. From the ceiling of the Memnonium. (Burton's Excerpta, pl. 58.)

Fig. 88. The Dog-star rising heliacally. Its name is S, T, T, S, or Sothis.

(Burton's Excerpta, pl. 58.)

Fig. 89. The constellations of Orion and the Bull, with their names, Ori, A,
N, and Mesora. (Burton's Excerpta, pl. 58.)



Fig. 90. Ground plan of the Memnonium.

Fig. 91. A column in the temple of Karnak. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 92. Rameses II. slaying his enemies in honour of the god Amun-Ra. He holds them by the hair of the head. The god encourages him with his gestures. Behind the king is his standard, carried by what should be a standard bearer, a stick with a pair of arms. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 93. The monuments on the face of the rock near Beyrout, one by Rameses II., and the other by an Assyrian monarch, probably Sennacherib. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 94. A troop of soldiers with bows, swords, spears, shields, and hatchets. They are addressed by a general, perhaps the king's son, with a single lock of hair, who holds an ostrich feather as a staff of office. (H. Horeau.)

Fig. 95. A war chariot with a pair of horses. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 96. The front of the temple of Abou Simbel, with four colossal statues sitting, two on each side of the entrance. The upper part of one is thrown down. (Ower. Jones.)

Fig. 97. Plan of the same temple hollowed out of the rock. (H. Horeau.)
Fig. 98. Section of the same temple. (H. Horeau.)

Fig. 99. Plan of the temple of Asseboua in Nubia, with the inner rooms hollowed out of the rock, and an avenue of sphinxes in front. (H. Horeau.)

Fig. 100. The name of Pthahmen-Miothph, or approved by Pthah and dedicated to Truth. The characters in the second oval are Pthah, M,N, Mi, O, Ph, I.

Fig. 101. The name of Oimenepthah II. The characters in the second oval are Osiri or O, I, M, N, Pthah. This name, like that of Oimenepthah I., is often written with a dog-headed Anubis in the place of the Osiris, for the first character.

Fig. 102. The name of Osirita Ramerer Amunmai. The order of the characters in the second oval is doubtful; they are Osiri, T, A, Ra, M, R, R, A, M, N, M.

Fig. 103. The statue of Pthahmen-Miothph. In the British Museum.

Fig. 104. The name of Rameses III. The characters in the second oval are Ra, M, S, S, with two others to which we do not here venture to give a force.

Fig. 105. Plan of the temple at Medinet Abou.

Fig. 106. View of the courtyard of Medinet Abou. The four smaller columns are of Greek work, and are a part of a Christian church which was built about the fourth century and dedicated to St. Athanasius. (H. Horeau.)

Fig. 107. Plan of the temple at Karnak.

Fig. 108. The lid of the sarcophagus of Rameses III. In the Museum at


Fig. 109. Plan of the city of Thebes, and of the hills in the neighbourhood, in which the kings, queens, and nobles were buried.

Fig. 110. Amun-Ra, his name is spelt A, M, N, R, A.

Fig. 111. Amun-Ra; Maut, the mother, his wife; and Chonso, their son.

(H. Horeau.)

Fig. 112. Chonso with the new moon on his head. Ch, N, S, O.
Fig. 113. Kneph. N, Ph, followed by the determinative sign.
Fig. 114. Seb. S, B.

Fig. 115. Chem. A, M, N, Ehe, Ch, M. The semicircle, usually a Th, here
has the guttural force of the Ch. The whole is pronounced
Amunehe Chem. From the word Amunehe comes the Greek word
Mnevis, the name of the Bull of Heliopolis.

Fig. 116. Pasht. P, Ch, T.

Fig. 117. Athor. Her name is pictorial rather than spelt. It is a house containing the god Horus, or Ei, T, Hor, the house of Horus. Fig. 118. Neith. The character for her name is followed by the feminine

termination T, S.

Fig. 119. Thoth. His name is an ibis on a perch, of which the perch has the force of T, or Thoth.

H, A, P, I, Mo.

Fig. 122. Osiris. Is, Iri, followed by a sitting figure.

Fig. 123. Isis. Isi, followed by the feminine termination T, S.

Fig. 124. Horus. Or, I.

Fig. 120. Hapimou, the Nile.
Fig. 121. Pthah. P, Th, H.

Fig. 125. Anubis. A, N, P.

Fig. 126. Typhon. T, P, O, followed by the feminine termination T, S.

Fig. 127. Nephthys. The character for her name is formed of two united, the dish NEB, and the house EI. Together they form the word Neb-t-ei, lady of the house.

Fig. 128. The goddess of the sacred tree of knowledge is pouring out of a jar two streams of water; one falls into the mouth of a man upon his knees, and the other into the mouth of his soul, in the form of a bird with human head and hands. (Egypt. Inscript. 2nd Ser. pl. 81.)

Fig. 129. The name of Amunmai Shishank. It is spelt A, M, N, Mi, Sh, Sh,

N, K.

Fig. 130. Figures which may have been the origin of the Urim and Thummim of the Hebrews. 1st. A shrine containing the figures of the gods Horus and Truth, pronounced Ouro and Mei or Thmei. 2nd. A snake and a vulture each on a dish; they bore the same two names. 3rd. Another figure of Truth or Thmei on a dish. (J. Bonomi.) Fig. 131. A metal cup in the British Museum which was brought from Nineveh. On the inside are engraved figures of the winged sun; the winged sphinx standing, and wearing the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt; and the beetle with outstretched wings, holding a ball or sun between its front legs.

Fig. 132. Four men carrying a religious ark in the procession of Rameses III.

(Denon, pl. 134.)

Fig. 133. A standard or pole bearing the sacred asp, with the double crown on its head. (Denon, pl. 119.)

Fig. 134. A captive bearing the name of "The kingdom of Judah;" spelt J,U,D,H,—M,L,K,-land; from the walls of Karnak. (J.


Fig. 135. The name of Amunmai Osorkon, spelt in the second oval A, M, N, Mi, O, S, R, K, N.

Fig. 136. The Egyptian title of Se-ra, Son of the Sun.

Fig. 137. The name of Rameses VII.

Fig. 138. The name of Takellothis, spelt in the second oval A, M, N, Mi, T, K, L, I, M, T, or Amunmai Takelimot, with four characters in the middle, meaning "the son of Isis.”

Fig. 139. The name of Osorkon II., spelt A, M, N, Mi, O, S, R, K, A, N,
followed by three characters meaning "the son of Isis.”
Fig. 140. The name of Shishank II. or Amunmai Shishank, the son of Isıs.
Fig. 141. The name of Bocchoris, spelt Ra, B, I, K. For the B, see Note on
Fig. 39.

Fig. 142. A small pyramid with a doorway.

From Meroë.



Fig. 143. The name of Sabacothph, spelt S, B, K, O, T, P.
Fig. 144. The name of Sevechus, spelt in the second oval S, V, K.

Fig. 145. The name of Tirhakah, spelt in the second oval T, H, R, K, or


Fig. 146. An Assyrian sculpture, seeming to represent timber brought down from Mount Lebanon to the city of Tyre, and thence carried away in ships distinguished by the Phenician horse's head. They are accompanied by the winged bull of Assyria, and leave behind them Dagon, the fish-god of the coast of Palestine. They pass by the Island of Cyprus. (Botta's Nineveh.)

The next slab, not here drawn, tells us by the crocodiles that the timber is being landed on the coast of Egypt.

Fig. 147. Restoration of a colossal statue at Argo in Ethiopia. In its proportions it is shorter and stouter than nature. Ethiopia.)


Fig. 148. Rameses II. suckled by a goddess. From a temple in the neighbourhood of Calabshe. (H. Horcau.)

Fig. 149. The name of Chemmis, spelt Ch, M, I.
Fig. 150. The name of Chephren, spelt Ch, M, R, N.

Fig. 151. The name of Mesaphra, spelt Ra, Mes, A, B.

Fig. 152. The name of Uchureus or Uchora, spelt Ra, Uch, O.

Fig. 153. The name of Asychis, spelt A, S, S, A,

Fig. 154. The name of Ammeres, spelt in the second oval A, M, N, A, S, R, U • or Amun Aseru. The name in the first oval may be Vophra, spelt Ra, B, O, B.

Fig. 155. The name of Psammetichus I., spelt in the second oval P, S, M, T, K. The name in the first oval is Vophra, spelt Ra, B, B. The name of Vaphres seems given to Psammetichus III, by Manetho, by a mistake, instead of to this king.

F.g. 156. The name of Necho, spelt in the second oval N, K, O. The name in the first oval is Vophra, spelt Ra, B, B. Fig. 157. The name of Psammetichus II.

That in the first oval may be read


That in the first oval is Hophra,

Campbell's tomb, from It contains a true arch (Vyse's Pyramids.)

Fig. 158. The name of Psammetichus III.
spelt Ra, H, B.
Fig. 159. Section of a tomb near the pyramids, called
the name of the gentleman who opened it.
of three stones beneath a ruder brick arch.

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