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Fig. 160. King Hophra worshipping one of the punishing gods. British Museum.

Fig. 161. The four lesser gods of the dead interceding as mediators before the judge Osiris. A tablet in British Museum.

Fig. 162. The four lesser gods placed on the altar as a sacrificial gift to the judge Osiris. A tablet in British Museum.

Fig. 163. The name of Amasis, spelt in the second oval Io, M, Neith, S, T. The characters in the first oval are Ra, N, B, or Nephra.

Fig. 164. The name of Hanes-Vaphra, spelt O, N, S, B, B, Ra. The first half of her name may be the same as that of the wife of Shishank, from which the Egyptian town received its name Tape-Hanes, or Daphnæ.

Fig. 165. The head of Cyrus with an Egyptian head-dress. From a bas-relief at Persepolis. (Ker Porter's Travels.)

Fig. 166. The restoration of the temple at Sais described by Herodotus, by the help of five fragments in the British Museum, namely, two intercolumnar walls, two obelisks, and a capital. A third intercolumnar wall is in Rome.

Fig. 167. View of the mounds at Sa-el-Hagar, the ancient Sais.

Fig. 168. A small temple of a single block of stone at Tel-etmai near Mendes. (Burton's Excerpta.)

Fig. 169. Figures of three labourers and a musician. (H. Horeau.) The group is arranged by the artist.

Fig. 170. Figures of a king wearing the double crown, his queen, their son, and two bald-headed priests. One holds up his hands in the act of prayer before the ark which is standing on the ground; and the other, clothed with a leopard-skin, is placing fire and water on an altar. (H. Horeau.) The group is arranged by the artist. Fig. 171. The model of a house in wood. From the British Museum.

Fig. 172. The crown of Upper Egypt, that of Lower Egypt, and the double crown formed of the two united.

Fig. 173. The statue of Amunothph III. in the British Museum. (J.


Fig. 174. One of the colossal statues of Rameses II. in front of the temple at Abou Simbel. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 175. An Assyrian figure in bas-relief. In his right hand he holds a fir cone, with which, as with a sponge, he seems in the act of sprink ling water. The cone may have been filled with water out of the vessel held in his left hand. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 176. The figure of a woman in bas-relief, of the later Egyptian style. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 177. The fighting gladiator of Agasias. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 178, A column from the Memnonium, with the lotus flower from which it was copied. (J. Bonomi.)

Page 197. An ornamental border formed of the flower and fruit of the lotus. From this, after several changes, the Greek border of the egg and spear pattern seems to be taken. It also resembles the fringe of bells and pomegranates worn in metal on Aaron's garment. (Monumens de l'Egypte, par Champollion.)

Fig. 179. The name of Cambyses, spelt K, N, B, O, Sh.

Fig. 180. The name of Darius, spelt in the second oval N, T, R, I, O, S. This is a good instance of the Asiatic mode of writing D, by means of N, T, as they wrote B by means of M, P. The first oval may be translated beloved by Ra and Amun.

Fig. 181 and 182. The earliest known coins that can be considered Egyptian. From the British Museum.

Fig. 183 and 184. Coins of Cyprus, with the bull Apis and the winged sun. The first has the Phenician characters S, A, for Salamis. From the Duc de Luynes' collection.

Fig. 185. The name of the satrap Amasis, partly illegible.

Fig. 186. The name of the satrap Nephra, spelt Ra, Ñ, B.

Fig. 187. The name of Mandothph, spelt in the second oval M, N, D, 0,— O, T, P, dedicated to Mandoo. The first oval is Ra, Neb, To, Ra, lord of the world.

Fig. 188. The god Mandoo, with a hawk's head and the crown of Amun-Ra. Fig. 189. The name of Xerxes, spe't Ch, S, I, R, S.

Fig. 190. An Egyptian soldier with shield large enough to cover the whole body. From the Sculptures in Lycopolis. l'Egypte, vol. iv. 46.)

(Description de

Fig. 191. The name of Artaxerxes, spelt A, R, T, Ch, Sh, Sh, S.

Fig. 192. The name of Inarus or Adonra-Bakan, spelt in the second oval A, T, N, Ra, B, Ch, N.

Fig. 193. The name of Amyrtæus, spelt Io, M, A, A, ?, T, K.

Fig. 194. The pigmy god Pthah. From a porcelain image of the same size. Fig. 195. The goddess Ken standing between Chem and Rampo. Beneath is the Persian goddess Anaita and three worshippers. From a tablet in the British Museum. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 196. The pigmy Pthah, with his children, the Cabeiri, the punishing gods, and the bottomless pit guarded by apes. From a mummy case in the British Museum. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 197. The name of Thannyras, spelt in the first oval, after the upper characters, which mean Pharaoh, H, A, O, M, Ra. The characters in the second oval are divided into three groups, each following an M. Those in the first group are Ran-F, his name. Those in the second group are M, O, Ch, N, T, I, successor to. Those in the third group are Adon-Ra.

Fig. 198. The figure of Thannyras worshipping the sun. (Burton's Excerpta,

pl. 6.)

Fig. 199. Thannyras in the form of a sphinx with a human head, presenting the figure of Truth to the sun. (Monumens Egypt. Prisse, pl. x.)

Fig. 200. Oimenepthah I. on his knees presenting offerings to Amun-Ra seated on a throne. Above the god is the sun with two asps, to which has since been added rays of light, each ending with a hand. From Cosseir. (Monumens Egypt. Prisse, pl. vi.)

Fig. 201. The name of Nepherites, spelt N, F, A, O, R, O, T.

Fig. 202. The name of Achoris, spelt in the second oval H, A, K, R, I.

Fig. 203. The name of Psammuthis, spelt in the second oval P, Si, Mo, T. The characters in the first oval may be translated approved by Osiris and Pthah.

Fig. 204. The name of Nectanebo, spelt in the second oval N, O, Ch, T, A, Neb, Fo. The name in the first oval may be the same as that of the late king Achoris, spelt Ra, Ho, K.

Fig. 205. A mummy laid out upon a lion-shaped couch. The soul, in form of a bird with human head and hands, holds in one hand a sail, the character for wind or breath, and in the other hand the character for life. These it is putting into the mouth of the mummy t raise it from the dead, while the god Anubis is preparing to unwrap the bandages. (Wilkinson's Materia Hieroglyphica, i. 17.) Fig. 206. The vault of heaven is represented by the goddess Neith coloured blue, who forms an arch by bending forwards till her hands touch the ground. Beneath this vault is the figure of a man falling to the ground in death. The red colour of his skin tells us that he is in his mortal or animal body, while beside stands upright a second body painted blue, which is his spiritual body, or angel, or ghost. On either side is the figure of Kneph-Ra seated. From a mummy-case in the possession of Dr. Lee at Hartwell.

Fig. 207. The name of Alexander the Great, spelt A, L, Ch, N, D—A, M, N,
or Alechand Amun. (Egypt. Inscript. 2nd series, pl. 61.)
Fig. 208. The bust of Ptolemy Soter, from a bronze at Naples, found in
Herculaneum. (Visconti, Iconographie Grecque.)

Fig. 209. The name of Philip Arridæus, spelt in the second oval P, L, I, P, O, S. The first oval means beloved by Amun and approved by Ra. Fig. 210. The tomb of an Apis, being a chamber walled up in the tunnel under the hill near Memphis.

Fig. 211. The figure and name of Osiri-Apis or Serapis.

Fig. 212. The name of Alexander Ægus, spelt in the second oval A, L, K, S, A, N, T, R, S, Alexandros. The first oval means beloved by Amun and approved by Ra.

Fig. 213. The chasm in the rock by which the city of Petra is entered. (Bartlett.)

Fig. 214. The name of Ptolemy, spelt P, T, O, L, M, A, A, S.

Fig. 215. Silver coin of Ptolemy Soter, with eagle standing on a thunderbolt. Fig. 216. The hieroglyphic word Pe-ouro, or Pharaoh, the king; from which the Greek artist copied the eagle and thunderbolt.

Fig. 217. Copper coin of Alexandria with the head of Jupiter or Serapis. Fig. 218. A painting of Hippolytus in his chariot; his tutor following in alarm; the bull rising out of the water; and the fury of the bull, as a person, striking with a torch at the horses' heads. From a vase in the British Museum, which may be supposed to be copied from the painting by Antiphilus.

Fig. 219. The bust of Queen Berenice, from a bronze at Naples, found at Herculaneum. (Visconti, Iconographie Grecque.)

Page 302. An Egyptian landowner, holding his sceptre and staff of inheritance From the British Museum.

Fig. 220. The heads of Ptolemy Philadelphus and his first wife, Arsinoë, from

a gem cut on sardonyx. (Visconti, Iconographie Grecque.) Fig. 221. The name of Ptolemy Philadelphus; the characters in the first oval are, beloved by Amun, to whom Ra gave victory. Fig. 222. A view of the temple of Isis in the island of Phile, with the small


temple of Athor behind; and a plan of the same.
pl. 72 and 70.)

Fig. 223 to 227. Five capitals formed of flowers and buds of the papyrus; from Philæ. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 228. A capital formed of palm branches; from Phila. (J. Bonomi., Fig. 229. Statue of a priest, in the British Museum.

Fig. 230. Two figures drawn upon the wall with squares, showing the proportions used by the Theban sculptors. (J. Bonomi.) Fig. 231. Coin with the heads of Soter, Philadelphus, and Berenice. (Visconti,

Iconographie Grecque.)

Fig. 232. Coins with the heads of Philadelphus and his second wife, Arsinoë, on one side, and on the other Soter and Berenice, their parents. (Visconti, Icongraphie Grecque.)

Fig. 233. Coin of Arsinoë Philadelphus, dated in the year 33 of the king's reign, and with the mint mark ПА, for Paphos in the island of Cyprus, where it was struck. (Visconti, Iconographie Grecque.) Fig. 234. A small votive pyramid in stone, made to be presented to the temple as an offering. It bears the name of King Nantof, and his first name seems to mean "approved by the queen of Psammetichus III.," which would lead us to believe that this King Nantof was the sovereign priest of Memphis in the reign either of Hophra or Amasis. From the British Museum.

Fig. 235. The name of Ptolemy Euergetes; in the first oval, Son of the brother-gods, approved by Ra, a living image of Amun; in the second oval, Ptolemy immortal, beloved by Pthah.

Fig. 236. A doorway at Karnak, built by Ptolemy Euergetes in front of a small temple, which stands near the south-west corner of the sacred area which forms the great temple of Karnak. From a photograph.

Fig. 237. A figure of Mercury in the false antique style; from a slab in the British Museum, which was brought from Canopus.

Fig. 238. A diagram explaining how Eratosthenes measured the latitude of a place by the length of a shadow thrown by the sun on the equinoctial day at noon.

Fig. 239. A diagram explaining how Eratosthenes determined the angular distance between the towns of Syene and Alexandria by means of the shadows at those places on the longest day at noon, and then the length of the earth's circumference by means of the distance between those two towns.

Fig. 240. A coin of Ptolemy Euergetes.
Fig. 241. A coin of his Queen Berenice.

Fig. 242. The name of Ptolemy IV., immortal, beloved by Isis; and in the first oval, son of the gods Euergetes, approved by Pthah, to whom Ra gave victory, a living image of Amun.

Fig. 243. A coin of Ptolemy Philopator. (Visconti, Iconographie Grecque.) Fig. 244. A coin of his Queen Arsinoë. (Ibid.)

Fig. 245. The name of Ptolemy V., immortal, approved by Pthah; and in the first oval, beloved by the father-gods, approved by Pthah, to whom Ra gave victory, a living image of Amun.

Fig. 246 A Roman coin of Marcus Lepidus crowning the young King Ptolemy

(Visconti, Iconographie Grecque.) (Ibid.)

Epiphanes. The Roman has the title of guardian to the king. On the other side is a female head crowned with battlements, for the city of Alexandria. (From the Pembroke coins.) Fig. 247. A coin of Ptolemy Epiphanes; his crown is formed like rays of light. (Visconti, Iconographie Grecque.)

Fig. 248. An Egyptian ship with one sail and several rowers, for navigating

the Nile.

Fig. 249. The name of Ptolemy Philometor, meaning, son of the two gods Epiphanes, approved by Pthah and Horus, like Ra and Amun. Fig. 250. The name of Ptolemy Euergetes II. In the second oval, beloved by Pthah, living for ever; in the first oval, son of the gods Epiphanes, approved by Pthah, like Ra, a living image of Amun.

Fig. 251. The elevation of the portico of the temple of Antæopolis. (Description de l'Egypte, iv. 56.)

Fig. 252. View of the temple of Apollinopolis Magna. (Denon, pl. 58.)
Fig. 253. Plan of the same. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 254. Side elevation of the same. (J. Bonomi.)

Fig. 255. Bas-relief of the Apotheosis of Homer in the British Museum. At the top is seated either Jupiter on Mount Olympus, or the poet on Mount Parnassus. Beneath him stands a figure of Memory. Then follow the Nine Muses and the female Apollo. On a pedestal stands the critic, holding a book in his hand. In the second division Homer is seated, and crowned by the king and queen, who are known to be Philometor and his mother by the queen standing before the king. The figures in front of the poet are, Fable, History, Poetry, Tragedy, Comedy, Nature, Virtue, Memory, Faith, and Wisdom.

Fig. 256. Hero's Steam Engine, copied from the manuscripts.

Fig. 257. Coin of Ptolemy Philometor. (Visconti, Iconographie Grecque.)
The palm-branch, in Greek Phoenix, tells us that it was struck in
Phenicia, probably in Cyprus, called in hieroglyphics, the Island
of Phenicia.

Fig. 258. View of the small temple of Athor in th e island of Philæ. (Hector


Fig. 259. The figure of the Nile-god as Aquarius, in the Zodiac of the temple of Dendera. (Denon, pl. 132.)

Page xxxvi. The collar, the badge of office, is being placed on the
From a bas-relief in the British

governor of a province.


Fig. 260. Hebrew writing from the rock at Wady Mokatteb (Trans. R. Soc.

Lit., 1832):

ל דכרן עבג דכרן רע זר:

דקן ניר דקא עם רק יהו רן חהך : שלם רע •

For a memorial [offering] for Abeg, A memorial for his foreign companion [or concubine]. Keep alive the broken lamp of the rejected people, O Jehovah; Make [the nation] that has waited rejoice. A worthless peace offering.

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