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CHARACTERS, ANECDOTES, and OBSERVATIONS, by the late

Dr. SAMUEL JOHNSON.
(From :4r. BOSWELL'S Tour to the HEBRIDES," lately published.]
LORD ORRERY.

YOUNG,
SPEAKING of the noble family of Boyle,

He told us, the first time he fac Dr. Dr Johnson said, that all the Lord Young was at the house of Mr. Richardson, Omerys, till the presen', had been writers.

the author of Clarissa. He was sent for, that The first wrote several plays ; the fecond was

the Doctor might read to him his Conjectures Bentley's antagonist; the third wrote the

on Original Compofirion, which he did, and Life of Swift, and several other things ; his

Dr. Johnson made his remarks; and he was Son Hamilton wrote fome papers in The Ad- Terprised to find Young receive as novelties vaterer and World. He told us, he was

what he thought very commom maxims. well acquainted with Świft's Lord Orrery. He said he believed Young was not a great He said, he was a feeble-minded man ; that, scholar, nor had studied regularly the art of an the publication of Dr. Delany's Remarks on his book, he was fo much alarmed that writing; that there were very fine things in he was afraid to read them. Dr. Johnson (wenty lines together without some extrava

his Night Thougbıs, though you could not find comforted him, by telling him they were

gance. He repeated two paliages from his both in the right; that Delany had seen most Love of Fame--the characters of Brunetta of the good ide of Swift - Lord Orrery most

and Stella, which he praised highly. He said of the bad.-M.Leod asked, if it was not

Young pressed him much to come to Wellwrong in Orrery to expose the defects of a

wyo. He always intended it; but never man with whom he lived in intimacy.

He was sorry when Young died. Johanson. " Why no, Sir, after the man is

The cause of quarrel between Young and his dead; for then it is done historically." He alled, “ If Lord Orrery had been rich, he should turn away a clergyman's widow, who

Son, he told us, was, that his son infifted Young would have been a very liberal patron. His

lived with him, and who, having acquired coversation was like his writings, neat and clegant, but without strength. He grasped the fon. Dr. Johnson said, the could not con

great influence over the father, was faucy to more than his abilities could reach ; tried

ceal her resentment at him, for saying to to pass for a better talker, a better writer, Young, that “ an old man should not resign ad a better thinker, than he was. There was a

himself to the management of any body." quarrel between him and his father, in which I asked him, if there was any improper conhis father was to blame ; because it arose from

nection between them.“ No, Sir, no more the son's not allowing his wife to keep com

than between two statues. He was past Hoy with his father's mistress. The old

fourscore, and she a very coarse woman. Lord Thewed his resentment in his will,

She read to him, and, I fuppose, made his leaving his library from his fou, and assigning

coffee, and frothed his chocolate, anal did 3 his reason, that he could not make use of it.”

such things as an old man wishes to have I mentioned the affectation of Orrery, in

done for him." coding all his letters on the Life of Swift in Atadied varieties of phrase, and never in the common mode of " I am &c. an observation

DR. DODDRID C E, wtuch I remember to have been made several years ago by old Mr. Sheridan. This spe- Dr. Doddridge being mentioned, he ob. cies of affectation in writing, as a foreign served, that “ he was author of one of the Luty of distinguished talents once remarked finest epigrams in the English language. Ic to me, is almost peculiar to the English. I is in Orton's Life of him. The subject is liis look up a volume of Dryden, containing the family - motto,Dum vivimus, vivamus ; Conçuel of Granada, and several other plays, - which, in its primary signification, is, to be of uluch all the Dedications had such studied sure, not very suitable to a christian divine ; conclusions. Dr. Johnson Yaid, such conclu- but he paraphrased it thus : fons were more elegant, and, in addressing “ Live, while you live, the epicure would persons of high rank, (as when Dryden dedi- say, cated to the Duke of York) they were like- " And seize the pleafures of the present day. wile more respectful. I agreed that there it " Live, while you live, the sacred preacher wmuch better : it was making his escape

cries, from the Royal presence with a genteel sud- “ And give to God each moment as it fics. dea timidity, in place of having the resolution " Lord, in my views let both united be; to itand fill, and make a formal bow. I live in pleasure, when I live to the.." Eykop, Mac.

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His Lady

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Goldsmith, rather than not speak, will talk ARAB S.

of what he knows himself to be ignorant, At Fort George we dined at Sir Eyre which can only end in expofmg him.”—“ I Conte's, at the Governor's house, and found wonder, said 1, if he feels that he expo:es him a most gentleman-like man.

himself. If he was with ewo taylori"— " Or is a very agreeable woman, with an uncom.

with two founders," said Dr. Joinfor, (inmonly mild and swest tone of voice.

There terrupting me,) " he would fall a talking on was a pretty large company: Mr. Ferve,

thie method of making cannon, though buih Sir

of them would foon see that he did not Major Brewie, and several officers.

know what inetal a cannon is made of.”. Eyre had come from the Eart-Indies by land, through the defarts of Alabia. He told us, the Arabs could live five days without vicino

PEYNAN T. als, and subsist for three weeks on nothing else but the blood of their camels, who could

It was wonderful how well time passed in Jore so much of it as would suffice for that

a remote castle, and in dreary weather. Af.

It was

ter fupper we talked of Penuant. time, without being exhausted. He highly objected that he was fuperficial. Dr. Jobinson praised the virtue of the Arabs; their fidelity, Jefended him warmly: He said, Pennant if they undertook to conduct any person ; and said they would sacrifice their lives ralbes

has greater variety of enquiry than almost any man,

and has told us more than perhaps than let him be robbed. Dr. Johnson, ulje

one in ten thousand could have done, in the is always for maintaining the superiority of

time that lie took. He has not faid what he civilized orer uncivilized men, said, “ Why,

was to tell; so you cannot find fault with Sir, I can see no superior virtue in this. A

him for what he has not told. If a man Terjeant and twelve men, who are my guari,

comes to look for fishes, you cannot blame will die, rather than that I shall be robbed." --Colonel Pennington, of the 37th regiment, faid Colonel M.Leod, "he mentions the un

him if he does not attend to fowls.”- But, took up the argument with a good deal of reasonable rise of r'ents in the Highlands, and fpirit and ingenuity.-Penningtou.“ But

says, ' the gentlemen are for emptying the the foldiers are compelled to this, by fear of

• bug, without filling it?' for that is the ilhment."'-- Jobnion. “ Well, Sir, the

plurale he uses. Why does he not tell Arabs are compelled hy the fear of intany." ---Pennington. 16 The soldiers have the same

how to fill it ? - Jobaron. “ Sir, there fear of infamy, and the fear, of punithment te is what he observes, and as much as he chu

here is no end of negative criticism. He befides ; fo have leis virtue, because they act

jes. if he teli, what is not true, you may lefs voluntarily."'--Lady Coote observed very

find fault with him; but though he tells that well, that it ought to be known if there was

the land is not well cultivated, he is not not, anong the Ar:bs, some puntament obligulto tell how it may be well cultivated. If tor not being faithful on such occafious.

I tell that many of the Highlanders go bare.

footed, I am not obliged to tell how they GOLDSMITH.

m.iy get shces. Pennant tells a fact, He I talked of the officers whom we had left need go no farther, except he pleases. He to-day ; how much iervice they had seen, and exbarits notbing ; and no lubject whatever how little they got for is, even of fame.- bas yet been exhausted. But Pennant has surely Johnson. " Sir, a soldier gets as little as any toid a great deal. Here is a man fix feet man can get."'--Bofwell. “ Goldsmith has high, and you are angry because he is not acquired more fame than all the otiicers litt leven.” Notwithtanding this eloquent Orawar, who were not Generals," --Jolinson. tio pro Pennantia, which they who have read " Why, Sir, you will tind ten thousand fit this gentleman's Tours, and recollect the Sato do what they did, before you find one wlio vage and the Shopkeeper at Morbodido, will does what Goldimith has done. You must con- probably impute to the spirit of contradiction, fider, that a thing is valued according to its i ftill thiuk that he had better have given rarity. A phble that paves the street is in more attention to fewer things, then have itielf more useful than the ciamond upon a thrown together such a number of imperfect lady's finger."--I with our friend Goldsmith accounts. had heard this. He said, he was angry at Thrale, for sit

LEIBNITZ and Dr. CLARKE. ting at General Oglethorpe's without speak ing. He censured a man for degrading him- After breakfast, Dr. Johnson and I, and felf to a non-entity. I observed, that Go'd- Josep'i, mounted horses, and Col and the smith was on the other extreme; for he Captain walked with us about a Mort mile fpuke at all ventures.- Jolanton, “ Yes, across the island. We paid a visit to the Re

;

a

verend

man.

rcrend Mr. Hector MʻLean. His parish own blood, or feeling a little pain from a cofits of the inlands of Col and Tyr-yi. wound. I think the beavy gluymore was an tie was about seventy-seven years of age, a ill contrived weapon. A man could only cecent ecclefialtick, drelied in a full suic of strike once with it. li employed both his dick, a:id a black wig. He appeared like hands, and he muit of course be soon fatigued a Dutch pattor, or one of the Assembly of Di- with wielding it ; so that if his antagonist vines at Westminster. Dr. Johnson oblerved could only keep playing a while, he was fure to me afterwards, that he was a fine old man, of him. I would fight with a dirk against and was as well dressed, and had as much Rorie More's sword. I could ward off a Diznily in his appearance, as the dean of a blow with a dirk, and then run in upon my Citeral, We were told, that be had a va- enemy. When within that heavy sword, I Table library, though bu: poor accommoda- have him; he is quite helpless, and I could La for it, being obliged to keep his books fab him at my leisure like a calf. It is in large chests. It was curious to see liim thought by sensible military men, that the and Dr. Jołmíon together. Neither of them English do not enough avail the.nfelves of their Heard very diftinctly; to each of them talked superior strength of body against the Fiench; na his own way, and at the same time. Mr. for that must always have a great advantage in V.Leand, he had a confutation of Boyle, puthing with bayonets. I have heard an offi

a t; Le boitz. Johnson, “ A confutation of cer fiy, that if women could be made to Birin, Srl What part of Bayle do you mean? stand, they would do as well as men in a Toe greatest part of his writings is not confuta- mere interchange of bullets from a distance; be; it is hiftorical and critical.”—Mr. M.Lean but if a body of men should come close up to fád, “ the irreligious part ;” and proceeded them, then to be sure they must be over

ik of Leibnitz's controversy with Clarke, come : now, faid he, in the same manner the aling Leiboitz a great -- Jonofon. weak bodied French mult be overcome by, * Wry, Sir, Leibnitz perafted in affirming On Itrong foldiers.” that Sexton called space jenjerium numinis, notwithstanding he was corrected, and de.

TRADE. Gred to observe that Newton's words were After breakfast he said to me, “ A HighCA1 Inico um numinis No, Sir, Leibnitz land Chief Thould now endeavour to do every ** 25 palety a fellow as I know. Out of thing to raise his rents, by means of the inTapet to Queen Caroline, who patronised duty of liis people Formerly it was right .., Clarke treated him too well.”

for him to have bis house full of idle fellows; During the time that Di. Juhnson was they were his defenders, his scrvants, his dethuis guiog on, the old mimitter was ftanding pendants, his friends. Now they may be with bis back to the fire, cresting up erect, better employed. The system of things is pilling down the front of his perriwis, and now so much altered, that the family cannot Liring what a great man Leibnitz was. To have influ:nce bu: by riches, because it has give an kies of the scene, would require a no longer the power of ancient feucal times, jue with two columns; but it ought rather An individual of a family may have it; but it Eute represented by two good playeo. The C:npot now belong to a family, unless you 1 gentlem:n laid, Clis ke was very wicked, could have a perpetuity of men with the same I sing fo much into the Arian Suf- view's. M.Leod luts four times the land Tom. "I srl not say he was wicked, that the Duke of Dedford has. I think, with in Dr. Johofon; he might be mistaken.”- li's spirit, hic m.y in time make himself the Milen. “ He was wickcu, to shut his eyes greatelt me in the king's dominions ; for 2: the Scriptures; and worsav men i land may always be improved to a certain deEd have since confused him to all in- gree. i would never have any man sell lanı!,

** and purposes.”- Johnson. " I know to throw money into the funds, as is often nito has confused him to all intents and done, or to try any other species of trade, tutors." Here again there was a double Depend upon it, this rage of trade wil detaiking, each cout.nuing to maintain his own ftroy itself. You and I thall not see it ; argument, without hearing exactly what the bueihe time will come when there will be an other said.

end of it. Trade is like gaming. Jfa whole

company are gamefters, play must ceale; for MILITARY OBSERVATIONS. there is nothing to be won. When all nao

After fupper he said, “ I am sorry that tions are traders, there is nothing to be gained prize-fighting is gone out; every art Thould by trade, and it will top first where it is be preserved, and the art of defence is sure. brought to the greatest perfection. Then the It isoportant. It is absurd that our foldiers proprietors of land only will be tho gret fheud tuve fwords, and not be taught the men."--l observed, it was hard that M* Leod are of them. Prize-figlieing made people ac- Thould find ingratitude in so many of his peocustomed not to be alas med at seeing their ple-Johnton. "Sir, giacitude is a fruit of

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great

great cultivation ; you do not find it amorg ble to explain. He never wears a night-cap, gross people."-I doubt of this. Nature as I have already mentioned; but he puts a seems to have implanted gratitude in all living handkerchief on his head in the night.-The creatures. The lion mentioned hy Valerius day that we left Talisker, be bade us ride on. Maximus, had it. It appears to me that He then turned the head of his horse back culture, which brings luxury and selfifhness towards Talisker, stopped for some time ; with it, has a tendency rather to weaken than then wheeled round to the fame Jirection promote this affection,

with ours, and then came briskly after us.

He sets open a window in the coldest day or MATRIMONY.

night, and stands before it. It may do with

his constitution ; but most people, among At breakfast Dr. Johnson said, “ Some

whom I am one, would say, with the frogs cunning men choose fools for their wives, in the fable, “ This may be sport to you ; thinking to manage them, but they always but it is death to us."--Ii is in vain to try to fail. There is a spaniel fool and a mule fool. find a meaning in every one of his particu. The spaniel fool may be made to do by beat larities, which, I suppose, are mere habits, ing. The mule fool will neither do by words contracted by chance; of which every man nor blows; and the spaniel fool often turns has some that are more or less remarkable. mule at last : and suppose a fool to be made His speaking to himself, or rather repeating, do pretty well, you must have the continual is a common habit with studious men accus. trouble of making her do. Depend upon it, tomed to deep thinking; and, in consequence no woman is the worfe for sense and know. of their being thus rapt, they will eyen laugh Jedge."—Whether afterwards he meant by themselves, if the subject which they are merely to say a polite thing, or to give his musing on is a merry one. Dr. Johnson is opinion, I could not be sure ; but he added, often ustering pious ejaculations, when he " Men know that women are an over-match

appears to be talking to bimself; for some. for them, and therefore they choose the weak. times his voice grow's stronger, and parts of est, or most ignorant. If they did not think the Lord's Prayer are heard. I have fat beso they never could be afraid of women

side him with more than ordinary reverence knowing as much as themselves.”—In justice on such occasions *. to the sex, I think it but candid to acknow

In our Tour, I observed that he was difledge, biat, in a subsequent conversation, le gusted whenever he met with coarse mantold me that he was serious in what he had

ners. He said to me, “ I know not bow 1aid.

it is, but I cannot bear low life: and I find

others, who have as good a right as I to be STRIKING PECULIARITIES OF Dr. John- fastidious, bear it better, by having mixed

more with different forts of men. You would He has particularities whịch it is impoßi. think that I have mixed pretty well too." P.EMARKS on the DIFFERENT SUCCESS, with RESPECT to HEALTH, of SOME

ATTEMPTS to pass the WINTER in HIGH NORTHERN LATITUDES. By

JOHN AIKIN, M. D. [From the “ Memoirs of the Literary and PHILOSOPHICAL Society, at Manchester.") THOUGH the cure of diseases may, where to be met with, has been afforded by

perhaps, most safely be confined to the that celebrated and much-regretted navigator members of a profession, devoted hy educa- Captain Cook ; an account which was justly tion and habit to this sole object, yet the pre- thought worthy of the most bonourable aptervation of health must be in some measure 'probation a philosophical society could becommitted to the care and judgment of every Itow. From similar sources, relations of individual. The discuition therefore of any voyages and travels by plain unprejudiced means to obtain this end, divested as it may men, I have collected some other facts prohe of technical language, and abstruse specula- bably at present forgotten or disregarded, tion, cannot fail of being generally interesting. which appear to me capable of suggesting feThe mofl remarkable and useful account of veral striking and important observations refuccess in this important point perhaps any' lative to the preservation of health in parti.

☆ It is remarkable, that Dr. Johnson should bave read this account of some of his own peculiai hubies, without saying any thing on the subject, which I hoped bic would have

SON.

done.

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calar circumstances. Thefe, with a brief and all became grievously afflicted with the Commentary and some general reflections, I scurvy, except the Captain, Master and Surbeg leave to submit to your confideration. geon. Weak and fick as they were, how

Towards the beginning of the last century ever, it was necessary for them to labour several voyages of discovery were made in hard out of doors during the greatest inclementhe Northern Seas; and the Greenland whale. cy of the season ; for believing their ship fo dafthery began to be pursued with ardour hy maged as to be incapable of carrying them various European nations. These two cir. home, they undertook the laborious task of comitances have given rise to various instances building a pinnace from the timber growing of wintering in the dreary and desolate laruls on the INand. At the return of spring the of high northern latitudes ; and the surprize young greens sprouted up much suoner and ing difference of success attending these ac- more plentifully here, than where Monck tempts most strike every reader.

wintered; and it became very hot before The first remarkable relation of this kind they left the place. They loft only two men that I have found, is that of the wintering of out of a crew of twenty-two. Captain Monck, a Dane, in Hudson's B:ly, In the year 1633, iwo trials were made kitade 63o. 20. He had been sent on a by the Dutch of establishing wintering places voyage of discovery with two lips well at their northern fisheries ; the one at Spitze provided with neceffaries, the crews of which bergen, the other on the coast of Greenland, amounted to fixty-four persons. The ships in latitudes about 77 or 78. Seven sailors being locked up in the ice, they landed and were left at each, amply furnished with evecrected huts for passing the winter, which ry article of clothing, provifion, and utenthey occupied in September 1619. At the fils thought necessary or useful in such a situbeginning of their abode here, they got ation. The journals of both companies are alrundance of wild fowl, and some other fresh preserved. provisions; but the cold soon became so in- That of the men in Greenland takes notease, that nothing further was to be pro- tice, that on September 18th, the allowance cored abroad, and they were obliged to take of brandy began to be served out to each perto their ship-stores, The severity of the cold son. On October 9th they began to make a may be conceived, from their seeing ice three constant fire to fit hy. About this time, it hundred and sixcy feet thick ; and from their is remarked, that they experienced a confiderbeer wine and brandy being aļl frozen to able change in their bodies, with giddiness in the very centre. The people foon began to their heads. They now and then killed a be fickly, and their fickness encreased with hear; but their chief diet was falt meat. In tize cold. Some were affected by gripes and March they were all very ill of the scurvy : coleness, which continued till they died. and on April the 16th the first man died, and At the approach of Ipring they were all higli- all the rest were entirely disabled, but one ly (corbatic, and their mouths were so ex- person. This poor wretch continues the tremely sore, that they were unable to ent journal to the last day of April, when they azy thing but bread soaked in water. AC were praying for a speely release from their Let their bread was exhausted; and the few miseries. They were all found dead. furvivors chiefly subsisted on a kind of berry The journal of those who were left at dug out from beneath the snow. When the Spitzbergen recites, that they fought in vain Spring was far advanced, no fresh vegetables for green herbs, bears and foxes, in that decald yet be found. In June the Captain folate region ; and killed no other game than crawled out of his hut, and found the whole one fox, the whole time. The scurvy arcompany reduced to two men besides bimself. peared among them as early as November Thele melancholy relicts supported them- 24th ; and the first man died January 14th. içives in the best manner they were able, The Journal ends February 26th; and theie and recovered their strength by feeding on a too were all found dead. crua root they discovered, and some game Not many years after these unfortunate caught in hunting. At length they embark- attempts, an accident gave rise to an experied in the smaller thip, and after undergoing ment, the event of which was for entirely bomberlefs dangers and hardships, returned the reverte of these, that it meriis very partitoare in fafety.

cular notice. On the fime fiue of SpitzberIn the same immense Bay, but as far fouth gen, between lat. 77 and 78, 2 m:'s crew * 2. 32, Captain James, an Englishman, belonging to a Greenland Grip, confiling of wintered with his crew. His residence was eight Englishmen, wooh u heen tent athyre op aa ifland covered with wood; but the to kill deer, were bulirit, in confecold was, notwithstanding, molt intense. In quence of some muides, aod reduced to the the depth of winter they were able to pro. deplorable ncceffiey 8f waterug in that care very little fresh provision by the chase, dreadful country, totally wiprovided with:

every

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