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every necessary. From their narrative, drawn 14th to February 3d, of which period up in that style of artless fimplicity which twenty days were paired in total das kners, affords the strongest presumption of veracity, except the light of Jainps, which they conti. I shall extract the most material circum- nued to keep continually burning. With all Itances.
this, it does not appear that any of them were At their wintering place was fortunately a affected with the curry, or any other difor. large substantial wooden building, erected for der; and the degree of weskie's which the use of the coopers belonging to the fifh. seems implied by the mention of their recoery. Within this they built a smaller one, vering strength in the spring, may be suffici. which they made very compact and warm, ently accounted for, merely from their thort Here they constructed four cabins, with allowance of nutritious food. At the return comfortable deer. Ikin beds; and they kept of the ships on May 25th, they all appear to up a continual fire, which never went out for have been in health; and all of them returneight months. They were toleratly suppli- ed in safety tr their native country. ed with fuel from some old casks and boats The lait relation I shall adduce, is one of which they broke up for the purpose. Thus late date, considerably resembling the foreprovided with lodging, their principal care going in several of its circumstances, but still was about their sublistence. Before the cold more extraordinary, weather set in, they killed a good number of In the year 1743, a Russian fhip of Eaft deer, the greatest part of which they cut up, Spitzbergen, in lar, beiween 77 and 78, was roasted and stowed in barı els ; reserving some so inclosed with ice, that the crew, appreraw for their Sunday's dinners. This I ima hensive of being obliged to winter there, fent gived must have been frozen ; as it began to four of their men in a boat to seek for a bul, freeze Tharply before they were rettied in , which they knew to have been crected near their habitation. This venison, with a few that coast. The inne was discovered, but the sea-horses and bears, which they killed from men, on returning to the frore, fuurd all the time to time, constituted their whole winter's ice cleared away, and the ihip no longer to provision, except a very cofavoury article they be seen; and indeed it was ne' er more heard were obliged to make out with, which was of. I pas over their first !ra iíports of grief qkale's fritters, or the scraps of fat after the and despair, and also their niany ingenous oil had been pressed out. These too having contrivances to furnish liomielves with the been wetted and thrown in heaps were moul- necellaries they food most a need of. Their dy. Their usual course of diet ther, for the diet and way of lite are l... cicumtzaces pefirst three monthis, was one meal of venison culiarly connected wit It'y subjvelAfter every day in the week except Wednesdays fitting up their but as comfortably as they and Fridays, when they kept fast on whale's could, and laying in dit wood collected oa fritters. At the end of this period, on exa- the shore for fuel, they thined their altenmining their stock, they found it would not tion chiefly to the procuring of provifion. hold out at this rate, and therefore for the Toree species of animals, which they caught ensuing three months they retrenched their and killed by various devices, conitituted their venison meals to three days in the work, and whce variety of food. Ibifu were iem-deer, appeased their hunger as well as they could white bears and foxes. The Mesh they eat on the other four days upon tlie mouly frit. almeft raw, and without falt; using by way ters. At the approach of spring, they had of bread to it other fleih, dried hard in the the good fortune to kill leveral white bears, smoke. Their drink was running water in which proved excellent food; and together the summer, and melted ice and inow in the with wild fowl and foxes which they caught, winter, Their preservatives against the scurrendered it unnecessary any longer to stint vy were, swaliowing raw frozen meat bro. themselves to fo rigorous an allowance ; fo ken into bits, drinking the warm blood of that they eat two or three meals of frith meat rein-cleer juft killeu, eating scurvy grass when daily, and foon improved in Itrength and vi- they could meet with it, and using much gour. Their only drink during this whole exercise. By there means three of them time, was running water procured írom be. semained entirely free from this disease ncath the ice on the beach, till January; and during the whole of their abode. Tbe afterwards now witer melled by hot irons.
fourth died of it, after lingering on to The cold in the miutt of winter was extreme,
It is remarked, that this ic railed blitters in the fieth ; and when they person was of an indolent disposition, and went abroad they became fore all over, as if could not conquer bis auerfion to drinking beten. llen, en heinsiemeier, luck to the
the rem-deer's blood. The three survivors, tmpeti, let:&'!.me. Ilie mel. ncholy of after ren aiting lix years and three months on lives film obmers to the very fortaled by the absence thuis de olite and volit...vifond, were haprily
แ of the lur hon: sh korrizun, tium Octuber rescued by a hip suiven caually upon this
the sixth year,
craft, and returned home in safety. They “ that the Laplanders live without corn and were strong and healthy at their return; but wine, without falt, and every kind of artiby habit had contracted an inability of eating - ficial liquor, on water and flesh alone, and breal, or drinking spirituous liquors. food prepared from them; and yet are en
To the above relations, I shall add the tirely free from the curvy.” * following short quotations relative to the same Having thus stated the facts which have fubject.
fallen in my way relative to this subject, I In a note to the account of the four proceed to a comparison of their several cirRatlians, it is said, “ Councellor Muller cumstances, and some remarks on the gene1.75, the Russians ahoe Arehangel should be ral result. im ted; some of whom every year winter The scurvy appears to be the disease pecu. in Nova Zembla without ever contracting liarly dreaded, and fatal in all the above rethe feer. They follow the example of lated attempts to winter in extremely cold the Saruedes, by frequently drinking the climates. Whether the circumstance of cold warm blood of rein-deer just killed. The itself, or the want of proper food occasioned haoling cf these animals requires continual by it, principally conduces to the generation Exercise. None ever keep their huts during of this disease, is a point not clearly ascerthe day, unless stormy weather, or tained. From the preceding narrations, howgreat quantity of snow, hinders them from ever, no doubt can be entertained, that it is taking their usual exercise."
possible for persons to keep free from the lo a manuscript French account of the scurvy, in countries and seasons the most inDands lying between Kamschatka and Ame- tensely cold, provided their diet and manner 1.23, drawn up by that eminent naturalist of living be properly adapted to such fituaad geographer Mr. Pallas, I find it men- tions; and this without the aid of fresh ve. foged, that the Russians in their hunting getables, or any of those other preservatives vorages to these islands, (an expedition gene. which have of late been proposed by ingeninatiy !aiting three years) in order to save ex. Ouß writers. peace and room in purchasing and Gowing When we compare the histories above vegeuble provision, compose half their crew's recited, it is impoffible not to be immediately of tires of Kamchatka, because these peo). struck with these leading circumstances, that pie are able to preserve themselves from the those in whom the scurvy raged, fed upon fcarry with animal food only, by abstaining falt provisions, and drank spirituoss liquors; -= tác of it.”
whereas those who escaped it fed upon fresh Lastly, in the excellent oration of Lin- animal food, or, at least, preserved wielut tus, so the advarluges of travelling in one's fali, and drank water. Fix tuanbry, printed in tbe third volume of
[To be continued ] ÉS Azzatates diademice, it is asserted,
Quid fit turpe, quid utile, quid dulce, quid non. planting and Ornamental Gardening ; a Practical Treatise. 8vo. 8s. Boards. Dodney. 1785.
*HIS Practical Treatise opens with the " The intention of this Publication is to T'flowing Advertisement
bring into one point of view, and arrange in
* « In Lapplandia observabit homines absque Cerere & Baccho, absque sale & potu omni anificiali, aqua tantum & carne, & quæ ab his præparantur, contentos vivere.
Quare Norlandi, ut plurimum, scorbuto fint infecti; & cur Lappones, contra, hujus borbi prorsus expertes ?")
a compendious form, the Art of Planting &c. &c. the propagation of trees and shrub and Laying-out Plantations: an art which, adapted to the open air of this climate, form though in itself an unity, has hitherto been ing only a small portion of their respectiv treated of as two diftinct subjects. Books publications. upon Planting we have many; and those up- 66 Miller and Hanbury, however, are the on Ornamental Gardening are not less nn- only writers who could afford us the required merous ; but a Practical Treatise compre- atliftance; and we were led to a choice o hending the entire subject of conducting ru- the latter, as our chief authority, by three ral improvemenis upen the principles of mo- principal motives :-Hanbury wrote fince dern taste, bas not hitherto appeared in pub- Miller, and having made ample use of Mr. lic. This circumstance, however, is the lefs M.'s houk, his work contains in effect the to be wondered at, as the mau of business experience of both writers : Miller is in the and the man of taste are rarely united in the hands of most gentlemen ; Hanbury is known fame person. There are many Nurserymen to few; his book, either through a want of who are intimately acquainted with the va- method, a want of language, or through an rious methods of propagating trees and ill-judged plan of publishing on his own acThrubs; and many gentlemen whose natural count, has never fold : and lastly, Miller's talte, reading, and observation enable them botanical arrangement is become obsolete to form just ideas of rural emhellishment; Hanbury's is agreeable to the Linnean fyrbut where shall we find the Nursery man tem. who is capable of striking out the great de
" Since Mr. Hanbury's death, the public fign, or the Gentleman equal to the manage
have been favoured with a new and sumpment of every tree and thrub he may with tuous edition of Evelyn's Sylva ; with notes 10 assemble in his collection ? To proceed by Dr Hunter of York, consisting of botanione step farther, where is the Gentleman, cal descriptions, and the modern propagation or Nurseryman, who is sufficiently conver- of such trees as Evelyn has treated of. There sant in the after-treatment of Wood-lands, notes, however, contain little new informaHedges, and the more useful Plantations ? tion; the descriptions being principally copied In fine, where shall we look for the man from Miller, and the practical directions wlo in the same person unites the Nursery- from Hanbury. man, the Land. Steward, the Ornamentalist « Left unacknowledged aslistance, or affiland the Author ? We know no such man tance acknowledged indirectly, should be laid the reader therefore must not be disappointed to our charge, it is thought proper in this when he finds that, in treating of exotic trees place to particularize the several parts of this and shrubs, the works of preceding writers publication which are wrinen from those have been made use of.
wbich are copied. “ Cook is our first writer on Planting ; “ The INTRODUCTORY DISCOURSES, nevertheless EVELYN bas been styled the containing the Elements of Planting, and the Father of Planting in England. It is proba- Outline of tho Linnean System, are, as ruble that, in the early part of life, Evelyn diments, entirely new ; exceptiog the quotawas a practical planter upon his estate at
tions from Linnæus's work, w:rich quotaWotton in Surrey ; but his book was writ- tions are extracted from the Litchfield Transten in the wane of life, at Greenwich, Jur- lation of The Sysiema Vegetabilium of that ing a loug and painful fit of the gout. His great man. Sylva contains many practical rules, valua- “ The ALPHABET OF PLANTS, fo far ble, no doubt, in bis dəy, but now super- as it relates to TIMBER-TREES, and other seded by modern practice; and may be said Native Plants, as well as to some of to lie buried in a farrago of traditional tales the more USEFUL Exotics, is either wholly and learned digresions suited to the age he our own, or contains such additions as have lived in * Miller at length arose among resulted from our own observation and expe. a group of minor planters; and after him the rience : fo far as it relates to ORNAMENTAL indefatigable HANBURY, whofe iminense Exotics, it is en rely HANBURI's; exlabours are in a manner lost to the Public. cepting the qtiotations which are marked,
“ Cook and Evelyn treated profeffedly of and excepting the GENERAL ARRANCEFOREST-TREES, Miller and Hanbury in. MENT, which is entirely new. HANBURY clude ORNAMENTALS; but their works, has not less than six distinct classes for the which are voluminous and expensive, also plants here created of, namely, deciduous include kitchen-gardening, flou er-gardening, Forest-Trees, Aquatics, evergreen Foreltthe management of green-houses, stoves, Trees, deciduous Trees proper for ornament
* The first Edition was printed in the year 1664, having been previoudy read before the Royal Society in 1662.
and thade, evergreen-trees proper for orna- transplanting trees and shrubs in general. ment and Thade, and hardy climbing Plants. In this part of the work, the business of the The firft three classes are without any subordi- seminary, of the nursery, and of young p!annate arrangement ; in the last three the plants cations, are distinctly detailed, and the minuare arranged alphabetically, agreeably to their tiæ of each operation described in a compreFanera. This want of fimplicity in the ar- hensive manner. rangement readers the work extremely These general rules are followed by a full bessy and isklome to refer to ; and is pro- description, and the modern method of cultidative of much unnecessary repetition, or of vating each distinct plant adapted to the purtreiome refere:ices from one part of his on. puse of useful and ornamental planting, comwekdy work to another. His botanical syno- prehending every tree and shrub, whether bytns we have wholly thrown aside, as being native or exotic, which will bear the open burdensome, yet uninftructive; and in their air of this climate. The plants are arranged pizce we have annexed to each Species the alphabetically, agreeably to the generic names trivai or specific name of LINNEUS, which of Linneus, whose admirable system we in one word identifies the plant with a great- find here briefly explained. As a specimen e degree of certainty than a volume of of our author's method of arranging the leSyaodyma. Other retrenchments, and a veral species under their respective genera, maitiplicity of corrections have taken place : as well as to convey some idea of the manner however, where practical knowledge ap- in which this part of the work is executed, pears to arise incidentally out of our author's we shall lay before our readers an extract own experience, we have cautiously given it from the article Quereus. ia bis own words : likewise, where interes
" QUERCUS uing information lies entangled in a singularity of manner, from which it could not well be
" LINNEAN Class and Order, Monoccia extincated, we have marked the passages Polyandria : Male Aowers containing many whitening it, as literal quotations ;-io dif- ftamina, and female fowers containing one arguith them from others, which, having piltil, upon the same plans : There are bozd written in a manner more properly
thirteen SPECIES : duatic, or brought to that form by retrench- “ 1. QUERCUS Robur : The ENOLISH rent or correction, we consider as being Qak : a well-known tall deciduous tree; napore fully entitled to the places we have 27.
tive of England ; and is found in most paris fed them.
of Europe. * The articles TIMBER, HEDGES, and 2. QUERCUS Phellos: The WILLON, WOODLANDS, are altogether new , being
LEAVED OAK ; a deciduous free ; dative of stown from a considerable share of experi moft parts of North America. ence, and an extended observation.
3. QUERCUS Prinus : The CHESNUT* The article GROUNDS is likewise new, if
LEAVED OAK ; a deciduous free; native of 27 thing new can be offered on a subject upon mott parts of North America. Eshich io much has been already written. 4. QUERCUS Nigra: The BLACK Tate, however, is a subject upon which all Oak; a low deciduous srce; native of North Den vill think and write ditferently, even
America, though their sources of information may have 5. QUERCUS Rubra : The Red Oak; teen the same. WHEATLEY, Masox, and
a lati deciduous trees native of Virginia and SACRE, with some EXPERIENCE, and Carolina. Duch OBSERVATION, are the principal
1940. QUERCUS Aiba: The WHITE Forces from which this part of our work was Oak; a dcciduous free ; native of Virginia. drawan; if we add that it was planned, " 7. QUERCUS Efculus : The ITALIAN ed in part written, among the magnificent OAK; or the CUT. LEAVED ITALIAN OAK; scenes of nature in Monmouthshire, Here
a low deciduous free; native of Italy, Spain, ludfire, and Gloucestershire, where the and the South of France. nch and the romantic are happily blended, " 8. QUEROUS Ægilops : The SPANISH a a manner unparalleled in any other part of Oak, or OAK WITH LARGE Acorns and the land, we flatter ourselves no one will be PRICKLY. Cups; a iall deciduous free ; a nadeiza:sfied with the origin : of the production, tive of Spain. Let the Public Speak.”
9. QUERCUS Cerris: The AUSTRIAN To this Advertisement succeed such general Oax, or the OAK WITH PRICKLY Cups Tales for planting as are applicable to the AND SMALLER Acorns; native of Austria propagating, training-up, planting-out, and and Spain.
** Excepting fuch extrafts and quotations as are marked, and have their respective auCurities subjoined." Evrops Mac.
" 10. QUERE
« 10. QUERCUS Suber : The Cork. Bentley, was, at seven feet, thirty-four TREE ; an evergreen free; native of the There is a large excrescence ac five a southern parts of Europe.
seet that would render the measure « 11. QUERCUS llex: The Ilex, In 1778, this free was increased half an COMMON EVERGREEN OAK ; an evergreen: in nineteen years. It does not appear tree; native of Spain and Portugal.
hollow, but by the trifling increase I cor “ 12. QUERCUS Coccifera : The KERMES it not found.” Extraordinary, howev Oak; a tall evergreen jhrub; native of these dimensions may appear, they ar France and Spain.
ceeded by those of the BUDDINGTON ( “ 13. QUERCUS Molucca : The LIVE a tree which we believe does not appea Oak; an evergreer lice; native of America. where upon record, except it be allus
1. The ENGLISH (AK will grow lu in Mr. Evelyn's lift. This vak grow's great stature and live to a great age. Evelyn; piece of rich grass land, called the whose learning and industry are evident in O‘chard Ground, belonging to Boddi: every page of his elaborate work, fatigues Minor-Farm, lying near the turnpike us with a tedii us account of large trees, between Cheltenham and Tewksbury, is which either were growing in bis time, or Vile of Glocefter. The stem is remar which he found in the mouth of tradition, or collected and foug at the root, the sides in the pages of learning and history. We trunk being more upright than those of would rather however refer our readers to trees in general; nevertheless its circu. his detail ch in either copy or abridge it; rence at the ground, as near to it as one confining osrselves to a few individuals of walk, is twenty paces : measuring *: our own time, which now are (or were two-foot rule, it is somewhat more very lately) actually standing in this kingilom. eighteen yards. At three feet high it a The COWTHORP-Oak, now growing at fures forty-two feet, and at its smallest Cowthorp, near Wether by in Yorkshire, menfions, namely, from five to fix feet l. has been held out as the father of the foreito it is thirty-six feet. At about fix feet it Dr. Hunter of York, in bis brilliant edition gins to Twell out larger ; furming an en of Mr. Evelyn's book, bas favoured us with mous head, which licretofure has been an engraving of this tree; the dimentions of wilhed with huge, and in all probability which, as he justly observes, “ are almost tenfive arms. But age and ruffian u in red ble.' Within three feet of the surtice, have sobbed it of a principal part of the Doctor tells us, “ it meatures fixteen grandeur ; and the greatest extent of an yards, and close to the ground, twenty .1ix present (1783) is eight yarus from the 17 yards. les height in its present ruinous state From the ground to the wop of the crown (1776) is about eighty-five feet, and its prine the trunk is about twelve fiets and cipal limb extenus lixteen yards from the greatest height of the branches, hy estima: bule. Throughout the whole trte the fulmige forty-five feet. The item is quite hollo is extremely thin, so that the anatomy of the being, near this ground, a perfect the antient branches may be distinctly seen in the forming a capacious well-sized room ; uti height of summer. When compared to this, at the floor measures, one way, more th all other trees (the Doctor is pleated to lay) fixteen feet in diameter. The hollowne are but children of the forest." If indeed nowever, contracts upwards, and forms the above admeasurement might be taken as self into a natural dome, so that no light the dimension of the real siem, its fize would admitted except at the door, and it be truly enormous, and far exceed that of
aperture or window in the side. It is si any other Ock in the kingdom. But the perfectly alive and fruitful, having this ye Cowthurp Oik luas a short stem, as most a fine crop of acorns upon it. It is obies very large trees it is observable have, 1pread- able in this (as we believe it is in motto ing wide at the base, the roots rising above trees), that its leaves are remarksibly lin. the ground like lo inany butiretles to the not larger in general than the leaves of il trunk, which is not like that of a tall-item- Huwthorn. med sree, a cylinder, or nearly a cylinder, “ In contemplating these wonderful produ but the frustum of a cune. Mr. MAXSHAM tions of nature we are led to conjecture ili gives us a plain and accurile acount of this period of their existence : Mr. MARSHAA
He says, “ I found it in 1763, al in his Paper published in the First Volume v four feet, forty fee: fix inches ; at five feet, the Transactions of the Bath Agriculture So thirty-fix feet Gx inches ; and at fix feet, thira ciety, has given us some very ingenious cal ry-cwo feet one inch." Therefore in the prin- culations on the age of trees; and concludes cipal dimension,:befize of theflim, it is exceeded that the Tortworth Chesnut is not lefs theo by the BENTLEY Oak; of which the same eleven hundred years old. We have lowGandid observer gives the following account : ever thewn under the Article Cheinut, that u In 1759, the Oak in Holt-Forest, near Mr. MARSHAM is mistaken in the dimen