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ally in greator quantity or much larger than my of the Jepiakligs, or ink fish, which by thofe (of animals living in air : the eye of the most authors has been ranked among th: cod being very nearly of the fame weight and fishes, by Linnæus placed among the worms depih, and its axis of the same length as the but may, in Dr. Monro's opinion, mo: eye of the ox.

juftly be considered as a link betwixt theís After repeatedly comparing the specific two claires of animals. gravity of the aqueous, the crystalline, and “ In this animal the ink-bag is situated on vitreous humours of the ox and cod, by weigh- the fore side of the liver, between it and the ing them in air and water, our accurate obser- rectum, to both which it is tied. It is of ver found their proporti nal weighit us follows: a conical shape, and of confiderable fize.

Parts The duct from it runs up between the Spring Water


liver and rectum, parallel with the latter, iaAqueous humour

1,000 to which, very near the anus, it discharges The vitreous humour of the ox

1,016 itself. of the cod


“ As I did not observe any other bladder The whole crystalline lens of the ox 1,104 connected with the liver, I suppose that the

of the cod 1,165 ink is the gall of the animal ; yet while ! The outer part of the crystalline was detaching the ink.bag and its duct from lens of the ox


the liver, I did not observe that any gall-ducts The outer part of the crystalline were cut ; nor could I perceive, on squeezus Jens' of the cod


the liver or ink-bag, that any gall or ink The nucleus of the crystalline lens was effused. Still, however, considering of the ox

1,219 the situation and connection of the ink-bas, The nucleus of the crystalline lens this is perhaps not an improbablc conjecture. of the cod

1,200 If so, we are led a step farther. I mean, this From these and other observations, the as in this animal the bile does not ferve muy Doctor, upon the whole, concludes, that of the purposes commonly assigned to it, but the primary use of the almost completely is thrown out merely to aflift the animal in fpherical figure of the crystalline lens of its escape, there is some reason to suspel, fithes, or great convexity, especially of the that one principal use of the liver may be anterior part of their iens, which he finds to drain off from the constitution fone mater projects in the cod about seven-foteihs of that is burtful to it, or that the bile is an exan inch beyond the iris, is to take in a large crementitious liquor.” field of the objects round them; which was The description of the anatomy of the chest particularly neceffary, as the motion of their nus marines, or sea egs, is the last article in neck is inconfiderable.

this volume, and was read to the Philoioptı. He adds, "to enable them with the same cal Society of Edinburgh in the year 1761. length of the axis of the eye, as in the qua- This article is so curious, that though it wil druped, to collect into a focus on thc retina be difficult, we cannot heir allempting to the rays of liglits coming from the denfe abridge it. medium of water, four chier circumstances The shell of the echinus, the Doctor says,

os is covered with a skin, and has many thou. “ In the first place we observe, that fand thorns articulated with ic by means of their cryftalline lens is more convex, or muscular ligaments. Hence the thorns serve composed of portions of smaller spheres, chan in the place of feet; and are so tenacious of in land-animads.

their powers, that I have seen the pieces of “ In the next place, we have found that a broken shell walk off in different directheir crystalline lens is, in corresponding tions. Yet there is no appearance of any parts, much more dense than in animals orgau like to the brain. which live in air.

" It does not however follow that they “ Thirdly, that the lens in fishes por. are deftitute of nerves ; fioce these nudy exi? seffes power of refracting light far beyond irelependent of the brain, and be lo incalls what have been calculated by authors, who to escape observation. have proceeded on the supposition that there " In the interstices of the thorns there powers were proportioned nearly to its 1peci- are three different kinds of bodies, soft a fic gravity.

the ends, fupported on calcareous tiks « In the last place, the vitreous bumour of inclosed in a membrane, and articulated with fithes being lighter clian that of land- niinals, the shell by means of muscular membranes; noi the rays of light issuing from their lens will only the roots, but the points of these bous, be refracted in a greater degree, or brought which are shorter than the thorns, are in coofooner to a focus.”

tinual motion, pofiefling the powers of peoThe next object of enquiry is the anato- ing and Mailing, like the fingers of the band.


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These bodies somewhat resemble the an- mouths of the external absorbent vefsels, I teanz of insects, and probably supply the place found that it filled and diftended compleatsy of the organs of the senses in the more per the internal leaves. fect animals.

« When after this injection I applied a " The mouth is furnished with five teeth, magnifying glass, I could distinctly observe with large Sockets tied to the Thell by a very the ducts by which the quick-silver entered Atrong membrane, around which there is pla- the doubled membrane : each leaf receives ced on the inner side of the shell, an irregu. at least two hundred branches from different Iar strong circle of cretaceous matter, from external absorbents. which a pair of muscles is extended to each “ The external absorbent vessel has not couth, and other muscles join the rockets of only the appearance of being muscular, but the teeth to each other."

contracts suddenly when couched with seaAfter describing the oesophagus the Doco falt; and like an earth-worm, or the protor proceeds to the rue, which, with the boscis of an elephant, poffelses motion in all inteftinal cube, he says, are the chief parts directions; and particularly the animal por. which present within the shell, and to which fesses the power of ftretching it to the length that part of the structure which is by far the of an inch and a half, and upwards. most interesting to the Physiologilt, may be “ When elongated it becomes smaller, considered as subservient. Of this he gives and the flat plate at its end is pushed into a the following account.

conical form, the hole becoming much (maller. “ Between the inner side of the shell, and " The internal double membrane is likethe intestinal tube and roe, a large quantity wise evidently muscular, altering its shape of watery liquor is lodged, which tastes like and situation, on being touched rudely with fea-water, and is secreted from the sea-water a knife or probe, or when fea-Salt is sprinkby means of the following very beautiful led on it. structure.

“ There are no valves within these vessels : “ The shell of the echinus is pierced with for, from the internal trunk the doubled upwards of 4,000 holes, disposed in five membrane and the external absorbent may pairs of rows or phalanges, extending from be filled with injection. near the outward sides of the teeth co near " No communication of the internal ducts ebe anus.

and plexus with the cavity within the * These holes are disposed on the outer shell, is discoverable by the injection of quickfide of the shell in pairs, and with each pair filver. an absorbent vessel corresponds.

“ On reviewing the structure of these « This absorbent velfel in its collapsed state ducts, there can be no doubt that the seaafter the death of the animal is upwards of water is absorbed by the external openhalf an inch in length. Its end is covered mouthed vessels, and conveyed from them, by a fiat plate, in the middle of which is a

through the Tell into the plexus of the inhole visible to the naked eye, about the 12th ternal doubled pembranes, from which a part of an inch in diameter.

secretion of part of it is made by invisible veso " From the outer edge of this plate a sels into the cavity of the thell, while the renumber of teeth project, like the teeth on mainder passes into the five large internal ducts, the wheel of a watch.

and from them thro' the receptacles at the “ The Aas plate is very rough, contains routs of the sockets of the teeth, to be disa fome cretaceous particles, and when pressed charged into the sea, by ten apertures at between the fore ceeth feels almost like a plate their fides. of talc.

“ No other individual of the animal king* The duct from this plate to the hell is dom seems to afford such an opportunity of composed of pale.coloured circular or trans. investigating the doctrine of an absorbent verfe fibres, in fasciculi or bundles, and two velfel, and of observing how is performs its small bands of such coloured longitudinal fie' office, bres are observable on opposite fides of the " While the tube is elongated, and while tube.

the place at its end preserves the conical “ These fibres, which have the appearance figure, 1 have never been able to observe any and action of muscular fibres, are lined with motion of the sides of the hole, resembling a membrane.

the motion of the lips or mouth of an animal. " When we trace the two holes which “ As the tubes are thick coated, and the pierce the thell, we find they diverge to op- sea-water has little colour, I could not per. pofite fides of the row of holes, and lead to ceive it entering into the tubes, or moving leaves or doubled membranes not unlike the within them, so as to be able, from ocular subdivisions of the gills of a skate.

demonstration, to determine the motions the u When I injected quick-silver into the tubes perform at the time they absorb. Expo2: Mac

" In


“ In a few experiments, I coloured the are forry to observe, that the engravers have sea-water with milk, indigo, and madder, by no means done justice to the industry and but have not yet seen thefe colours enter the attention displayed by the author, in such a absorbent. I am, however, far from des- variety of laborious dissections. If in bis pairing of success in such experiments.” remarks he lias not displayed the greatest per

This work is accompanied by fifty plates, netration, he is at lealt in general perspicuintended to illustrate the whole. But we ous, and ever accurate.

Melvyn Dale : A Novel. In a Series of Letters. By a Lady. 2 Vols. 1 2 mo, Lane. TH HIS novel bears the usual characteristics; will in general hold good, and they will find

hacknied characters, common place that the observance of it will prove more sentiments, and the customary conclufion. profitable, without diminishing their reputaIt has been remarked, with great justice, tion. The best advice that can be given that the needle is a much fitter instrument them is to be to be wielded by the major part of Ladies, “ In constant labours of the loom einthan the pep. Though this rule, like most

ploy'd." others, may admit of some exceptions, it

Legal Attempt to enforce the Practice of Infant Baptism; being a genuine Copy of a Petition to Parliament, by the Nurses and Chambermaids of the Cities of Lendon, Weste minter, and the Borough of Southwark, against the Anabiptists. To which is added, a Counter Petition, by the Wives of the Anabaptists ; and a Letter to the Rev. John Horsley, by Amy Caudle. 12mo. Buckland. THE title-page led us to iimagine that the fome publi:ations written with a view to

book was written by some way, wbo, discountenance infant baptism. The Counter if he did not mean to turn religion in general Petition is also signed by a Secretary, a Mrs. inco ridicule, intended at least to excite a ISABEL Dipper, in the name of the wives laugh in his readers, at the expence of some of the Baptists, who consider the Petition as particular sect. Upon perusing it, however, an attempt to encroach on their religious biit turns out to be intended as a serious bufi. berty. The letter of thanks to the Rev. Johan ness, and is evidently the production of a Horsley, from the Nurses, &c. for his reaBaptist, whose zeal has gotten the better fonable effort in support of their common of his judgment.

cause, is an humble attempt at irony. Upon The petition is signed by AMY CAUDLE, the whole, we have no great opinion of Secretary to the Nurses and Chanibermaids, Mrs. Caudle's meis ; it is ionipd water. in behalf of the noble Sisterhood, who think gruel, wachuut even a tea spoonful of jperis their perquisites in danger, in consequence of in it,

A Poetical Review of the Literary and Moral Character of the late Samuel Johnson, LL.D.

with Notes, by John Courtenay, Esq. Dilly.' 1786. THIS Poetica! Review pofleffes great merit. On Scotland's

Kirk he vents a bigat's gall, The peculiarities and foibles of Dr. Tho' her yowg Chieftains prophesy like Johnson are painted in strong colours by a

SAUL. masterly hand; but, in return, his virtues On Tetty's itate tis frighted fancy runs, and abilities are candidly acknowledged, and And Heav'n's appeased by crofs unbutter'd placed in their proper light. We shall fe.

buns : lect an instance of each :

He Neeps and fasts, pens on himself a libel, A sceptic once, he taught the letter'd throng

And Itill believes--but never reads the

Bible.” To doubt th' existence of fam'd Oslian's song; Yet by the eye of faith, in reason's spite, The severe justice of the above lines is Saw ghosts and witches, 'preach'd up second amply compensated for by the following wellfight :

bestowed and merited eulogy : For o'er his soul sad Superstition threw “ How few distinguish'd of the studiowa Her gloom, and ting'd his genius with her hue.

train On popish ground he takes his High Church At the gay board their empire can mainstation,

tain ! To found mysterious tenets through the na- In their own books intomb'd their wisdom sions


lics y

Too doll for talk, their flow conceptions tor's merits, and censured his faults, Mr. rise :

Courtenay sums up the whole in the followYet the mute author, of his writings proud, ing lines, which Itrongly mark the characFor wit unshewn claims homage from the ter of the work : crowd ;

“ Thus fings the Muse, to Johuson's memory As thread-bare misers, by mean avarice

jult, school'd,

And scatters praise and cenfure o'er his dust; Expect obeisance from their hidden gold. In converse quick impetuous Johnson press’d Tou fad a proof, tiow great, how weak is

For thro' each checquer'd scene a contrast ran, His weighty logic, or sarcastic jeft.

man ! Strong in the chiace, and nimble in the turns,

Though o'er his passions conscience held the For victory still his fervid fpirit burns ;

rein, Subtle when wrong, invincible when right,

He shook at dismal phantoms of the brain, Arm'd at all points, and glorying in his

A boundless faith that noble mind debas'd, might,

By piercing wit, energic reason grac'd., he traverses the field,

Ev'n fhades like these, to brilliancy allied, And strength and skill compel the foe to

May comfort fools, and curb the sage's pride. yield"Nor is the Poet less animated in praise of To latest time mall fondly view his urn ;

Yet learning's sons, who o'er bis foibles mourn, the Doctor's miljer virtues, when he says,

And wond'ring praise, to human frailties * Soft-ey'd Compassion, with a look benign,

blind, His fervent vows he offer'd at thy shrine ; Talents and virtues of the brightest kind. To guilt, to woe, the facred debt was paid, The sculptured 'trophy, and imperial bust, And helpless females bleft his pious aid ; That proudly rise around his hallow'd dust, Snatch'd from disease, and want's abandon'd Shall mould’ring fall, by Time's flow hand crew,

decay'd, Despair and anguish from their victims Rew :

But the bright meed of virtue ne'er shall Hope's Toothing balm into their bosoms stole,

fade. Aud tears of penitence restur'd the soul.”

Exulting genius stamps his sacred name, Having alternately commended the Doc. Enrolld for ever in the dome of fame." The Life of Hyder Ally, with an Account of his Usurpation of My-fore, and other conti

guous Provinces : to which is annexed, a genuine Narrative of the Sufferings of the Brio tith Prisoners of War, taken by his Son Tippu Saib, by Francis Robson, Esq. London,

4. S. Hooper. 1786. WE some months back took notice of a opinion, that to men of sense and liberality they

publication, translated from the French, must be disgusting, and appear as proofs of the bearing the above title, said to have been writ- extreme partiality and narrow prejudices of ten hy the person who was formerly comman. the author. Though we readily agree with Mr• der in chief of Hyder Ally's artillery. In this Robson in the above remarks, and think him work, Mr. Robson says, many inaccuracies oc- highly deserving of praise for his endeavours cur, and many facts are partially misrepresents to do justice to all parties, we cannot help ed; these he undertakes to confute, and place thinking, that his zeal has sometimes carried in a true point of view. The many illiberal re- him too far, and hurried him almost into flections upon the English nation contained in what he fo juftly condemns in others. We that production, our Author confiders as the are apt to discover motes in the eyes of our effufions of envy, the dictates of national pre- neighbours, while objects of greater magni. judice, and as marks of a vulgar mind; and is of tude in our own escape unobserved. Confiderations on the Neceflity of lowering the exorbitant Freight of Ships employed in the

Service of the East India Company. By Anthony Brough. 8vo. price is. Robinson.

1786. FROM the facts stated in this sensible and the other relates to the burden of the Thips.

spirited pamphlet it appears, that an im- Both these objections Mr. Brough has refuted mediate saving of 150,000l. per annum in the most satisfactory manner, particularly might be made on the freight of tea imported the latter. We Tould therefore hope the Diinto this kingdom, and that in a short time, rectors, whose duty as well as interest it is to if a plan delivered to the board by the author promote the benefit of the Company, will be enforced, the saving might be extended not hesitate to adopt a plan fu evidently beto 260,000l. per annum. Two objections neficial, that the rejecting it would expose have been started against the proposed plan, theme to suspicions highly injurious to their one of which is in favour of the ship-owners integrity. who have hitherto supplied the Company ;



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twelve Judges, he always confidered that Tingue e Mutiny.bin having been HE question for the second read- gentlemen of the class alluded to were subject

to military law. put,

The Duke of Manchester in a pointed Lord Carlisle rose, and hoped that some manner expressed his disapprobation of the of the noblc Lords belonging to adminiftra- clause in question. He was convinced that lion would explain that part of the bill so officers of the description mentioned ought far as related to subjc&ing brevet officers to to be accountable io their country; and martial law. He apprehended that it was opposed the hypothesis of the noble Earl an innovation, and therefore thought it ex. respecting the trivial matter of officers alluceedingly necessary that the reason for adopt- ming military tiles for the purpose of traing the alteration should be sufficiently men- velling. His Grace had himself travelled as tioned. He would not move an amendment, an enligm, and he believed ftill retained his as he thought this would be better in the rank in the army. There were many instances Committee.

of'a similar nature. He was convinced that Lord Sidney was of opinion, that as the there was no necessity for the alteration Bow. law at present stood, many difficulties oc- proposed. It was founded on principles curred. The meaning therefore of the alte- which he entirely dilapproved. It iended ration was, that all similar inconveniencies, to a very important innovation, and theremight in future be avoided. In mentioning fore he thought that every, gentleman in the case of Gen. Siuart in the East-Indics, Parliament ought to oppose it with viour. his Lordship said, that it was intended 10 Lord Carlific rose to explain. extend the law to every officer acting by Lord Sidney begged leave to observe, that brevet. There were numbers of respectable the Mutiny bill was properly a Money b II, characters in this predicament, whocertainly and that the House of Commons being jea deserved to be treated with more liberality. lous of their privileges, if it were altered, it There were many governors of distant pro- would be throwu out altogether, when revinces, and others of a description who would turned to the other House. This was a sc. be comprehended in the alteration.

rious consideration; the alteration proposed Lord Stormont declared, that officers a&t. did not affect half-pay officers at ail; which ing by brevet must be in possession of a Com- at least was a circumstance in its favour. million from his Majesty's Ministers, and, if Lord Stormoni did not adınit this princithey were to be tried, should produce and ple of the nolle Lord who had juft sat down, bring what were called Letters of service that their Lordships could not alter a Money He was certain gentlemen of the army would bill. coincide with him in his opinion; otherwise, Lord Thurlow was of the same opinion, if he spoke erroneously, he hoped that some and contended with much zeal that their noble person more conversant in the business Lordships potsessed a right of altering any would rise up and correct him. He then bill, and returning it is that thape to the adverted to a very common cafe, of young other House. men of fortune assuming military titles for Lord Hopetown threw out a few observathe convenience of travelling, and recom- tions in so low a tone as not to be heard ; mended it to their Lordships' attention. He after which the motion on the second read. remarked, that it would be exceedingly ing was put and carried. hard that gentlemen of that description should

MARCH 21. be subjected to martial law.

The House resolved itselt into a Committee Lord Effingham observed, that the words on the Mutiny bill, Lord Scarsdale in the in the cmmission obviated the last no- chair, when ble Iord's observations ; for it was an Lord Slotmont, in a speech of consideraorder from his Majesty, enforcing a rigid ble length, objected to the clause which subobservance of military ei quetie, by making jeeted brevet officers to the jurisdi&tion of posons in subordinate ftuations to obey the courts-martial. He could not produce a precommands of their superiors. There could cedeni, and he challenged any noble Peer no, in his opinion, any danger result from present to adduce an instance, by which breyoung xentlemen frequently, for the conve- vet officers were under the jurisdi&tion of nine or travelling, assuming the title of courts-martial. He therefore confidered the Ca la n. He then argued upon the case of alteration intended in the Mutiny bill as cou. an invason, and said, that if brevet officers trary to the principles of the conftitution. were ex«mpted from maitial law, it would As it tended io an ex:ension of military law upon an emergency be urged as a realon for beyond the limits always prescribed in this depriving the country of their services. Till country, he hoped that their Lordships would he had lately examined an opinion of the resift the innovation. Belides, there was an


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