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Tahiti and Moorea, Society Islands.

New Caledonia

Saigon and its dependencies..

The statistics of Denmark are not quite so full, nor to quite so late a date, being for January, 1866. In the nineteen Danish provinces the total area of land was 14,553 English square miles, and the population 1,717,802; a gain of 109,707 since 1860. In the towns, including Copenhagen, the number of inhabitants was 386,206, in the country 1,331,596, indicating the agricultural character of the population. Copenhagen had a population of 162,042; Odense, 15,705; Aarhuus, 12,142; Aalburg, 11,104.

The principality of Servia also published, in 1868, its statistics to the close of 1866. Its area is, in round numbers, 12,600 square miles, and the population 1,192,086, of whom 20,000 were gypsies, about 2,000 Jews, and 2,500 German settlers. There were seventeen districts, exclusive of the, city of Belgrade, the capital. Belgrade has 20,133 inhabitants.

Turning to the vast continent of ASIA, we find that the explorations in Palestine, and especially at Jerusalem and its vicinity, commenced by the Palestine Exploration Society, in continuation of those of Wilson and Anderssen, under the superintendence of Lieutenant Warren, were continued through most of the year (they have now been suspended), and that they have resulted in an almost complete unsettling of former opinions in regard to the localities of the great events of the Scripture narratives. Lieutenant Warren has demonstrated that the Jerusalem of to-day is from thirty to a hundred feet above the Jerusalem of the commencement of the Christian era, and that, to ascertain with much accuracy the location of any of the buildings of the ancient Jerusalem, a vast and extensive excavation is necessary, too vast to be permitted by the present authorities, and involving expenses too great for private enterprise. His explorations and those of Wilson and Anderssen, elsewhere in the Holy Land, were attended with more positive results. The sites of Capernaum and

* Of these, 235,570 were Europeans.

Chorazin were ascertained with almost absolute certainty, and that of the ancient Gergesa, the city of the Gergesenes. The ruins at TellHum, and Kerazah, were thoroughly excavated, and the capitals which crowned the columns of the ancient synagogues proved to contain devices which could only have had significance to the Jews of the period of the Christian era.

A new exploration under English auspices, of the Sinaitic peninsula, commenced by the earnest efforts of the late Rev. Pierce Butler, is now in course of prosecution by Rev. George Williams and Rev. F. W. Holland, and a party of officers and men of the Royal Engineers, who entered upon their work in October, 1868. Mr. Holland had previously made three journeys in Sinai, and explored much of its territory on foot. The explorers have found good reasons for doubting whether the mountain now known as Sinai is the Mount Sinai of Moses's time; they regard Jebel Um Alowee, another mountain a few miles northeast of the present Mount Sinai, as meeting much more satisfactorily the requirements of the Biblical narrative.

We have from Russian sources some statistics of Tashkend, the capital of Independent Turkestan. The population, according to a census taken in the winter of 1867-68, by General Heinz, was 64,416, and there were 9,483 dwelling-houses. The following ranges of temperature were observed in the city in December, 1867, and January, February, March, and April, 1868, by Carl W. Struve:

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caravans coming thither from all quarters to buy and sell. The goods sold in the eighteen caravansaries of the city, in 1867, amounted to 2,585,000 rubles ($1,938,750). This was exclusive of the large quantities sent out from the city by the merchants and artisans.

The Russian Baron von Osten-Sacken, during the year 1867, accompanied by a scientific party, explored with great thoroughness the Thian-Shan chain of mountains, and in 1868, as a result of his labors, published a map of the chain between Naryn and the Chinese boundary, on a scale of five versts (about four miles) to the inch, and comprising a territory of about 12,000 square versts in extent; he also deposited in the museum at St. Petersburg a collection of the mammals and birds of the region, and about 500 plants, mostly belonging to the mountain flora, and full botanical descriptions of the habitat of these, and other plants of the Thian-Shan range.

M. A. Krapotkin, a Russian officer in Irkutsk, furnishes to Petermann's Mittheilungen full statistics of Siberia, mostly of 1862 and 1863, but these are so much later than any thing heretofore received that they are of great value. The area of Siberia, including Russian Turkestan, added to it in 1866, is 5,315,786 square miles. Without this, it was 5,031,916 square miles. The population in 1862 and 1863, of the three governments into which it was then divided, was: Irkutsk Government, 365,240, of whom 192,900 were males, and 172,340 females; Tobolsk Government, 1,105,647, of whom 544,876 were males, and 560,771 females; the Yakutsk Government, 227,907, of whom 116,671 were males, and 111,236 females. Total for the three governments, 1,698,794; of whom 853,447 were males, and 844,347 females. In the Irkutsk Government, 34,159 were inhabitants of towns, and 331,081 of the country; in Tobolsk, 82,923 were inhabitants of towns and cities, and 1,022,724 of the country; in Yakutsk, there were 6,891 only of the town population, and 221,016 of the country. The mass of the population are, at least nominally, connected with the Orthodox Greek Church, its adherents numbering 1,492,583, or about of the entire population; next in order are the dissenting sects of that church, of whom there are 44,179: of the Roman Catholics, there are 3,719; of Protestants, 3,139; of the Armenian Church, 13; of Jews, 871; of Mohammedans, 2,857; of Buddhists, 15,794; of the followers of Schaman, 77,904, and of the Karaim, 8. The number of births in 1863 was 73,080; of deaths the same year, 53,654; and of marriages, 13,632. In the Irkutsk Government, the crop of spring wheat and grain was 2,932,227 bushels; of fall-sown grain, 5,622,124; and of potatoes, 1,162,668 bushels. There were no returns of these crops from the Tobolsk Government, and that of Yakutsk yielded but about 150,000 bushels of grain, and a little more than 8,300 bushels of potatoes.

The manufactures of Siberia are mostly elementary and simple, consisting of tallow, candles, soap, coarse cloths, cheap paper, oils, brandy, tobacco and cigars, leather, iron, bells, coarse glass, porcelain and pottery, salt, lime, potash, chamois-leather, beer, molasses, meal, spirits of turpentine, etc. About 6,600 men are employed in these manufactures, and the annual product is a little more than five million dollars.

The nomadic tribes rear considerable herds of cattle. The number of horses reported in 1863 was 990,878; of neat-cattle, 1,168,944; of sheep, 1,055,529, besides 644 fine-wool sheep; of swine, 295,010; of goats, 101,508; of camels, 694 (evidently far below the truth); of reindeer, 259,659; of sledge-dogs, 2,675. The Chinese are emigrating into that part of Siberia which borders on the Amoor River. In November, 1867, a census of them, taken by the Russian authorities, showed that there were 44 Chinese villages, having 1,274 houses, and 10,583 inhabitants. Many thousands of them have also emigrated into the provinces of Russian Turkestan, and the policy of the Russian Government is not now, as formerly, to drive them out.

The progress of Russia in Central Asia has attracted much attention during the last three or four years. In that period she has, partly by diplomacy and partly by conquest, annexed to her dominions the whole of Independent Turkestan, a tract of nearly 800,000 square miles in extent, and with a population of about 7,500,000 inhabitants, and she is still sweeping eastward, with the evident design of absorbing all the semi-independent chieftaincies of Soongaria, or, as it is now called, Chinese Turkestan. Her past victories include the country of the Kirghiz Tartars, the khanates of Khiva and Khokand, and lastly, in the spring of 1868, the khanate of Bokhara, and the cities of Bokhara and Samarcand. The Emir of Bokhara, a fierce and warlike chief, had been their most formidable enemy; but, in a pitched battle, in April, 1868, he was slain, and his entire khanate fell into their hands. The Russians have a genius for the government and control of these Tartar tribes, and their sway has always been popular with them. Russia's next step forward, whether it be southward, into Cabool, and to take possession of Herât, or southeastward, to Ladakh, or Leh, and thus to the Thibet frontier, will bring her into immediate contact with the British Government, in India; and her presence at either point must be a perpetual menace to the British Government, whose hold upon the affections of the tribes of Hindostan has never been strong, and is weaker now than in the past. Neither the Hindoo Coosh nor the Himalaya Mountains will prove an effectual barrier between nations whose views, policies, and purposes are so diverse from each other.

The Russian Government, not satisfied with its progress toward the Chinese empire, from the West, has also, by its diplomacy, acquired

an extensive territory, and two fine seaports on the eastern coast. This territory forms a part of the coast and eastern portion of Mantchooria, extending from N. latitude 53° to 42°, and their ports, Possiette Bay and Vladivostrock, are open the entire year. The Oussoori River forms the western boundary of the territory, which is about 150 miles in width. Mantehooria proper, a region lying between 39° and 49° Ñ. latitude, about 800 miles in length, from northeast to southwest, and about 500 in breadth, is a country of fine climate, though somewhat rigorous in winter, and, with a fertile soil, supporting a population of about 15,000,000. Rev. Alexander Williamson, an English clergyman, and an agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society, explored it very thoroughly in 1868, and has communicated to the Royal Geographical Society an extended account of its geography and people. There are considerable mountain-ranges which traverse the country from north to south, the highest being the Shan-Alin range, in the east, whose peaks rise to a height of 12,000 feet, and are covered with perpetual snow. The Mantchoos, the native inhabitants, are of the same race with the reigning family in China, but the tide of immigration from China is fast obliterating their language, habits, and manners, and, in a few years, they will become, to all intents and purposes, Chinese. The country is rich in minerals, the eastern range of mountains having extensive veins of gold-bearing quartz, which are now largely worked. Its soil produces in abundance all the crops of temperate climates, and the southern portion cotton, tobacco, indigo, and silk.

The Himalayas, Thibet, and the southern portion of Chinese Turkestan, have been made known to many of our people the past year through the admirable lectures of Robert von Schlagentweit, one of the heroic brothers who spent several years in the exploration of that forbidding region, and in which Adolph, another brother, lost his life. His graphic descriptions of this hitherto almost unknown region have excited great interest in it. During the past two years the attention of explorers has been turned in an increasing degree to this region. Captain Montgomerie, the Superintendent of the Surveys of the Himalaya Mountains for the British Government, dispatched two Hindoo pundits (one of whom, however, failed to make his way through) from the Nepaul frontier to Lhassa, the capital of Thibet, a distance of 800 miles. The narrative of his adventures is replete with interest. He managed to take observations, and to ascertain both the latitude and longitude and the height of most of the important points, though surrounded by a jealous and inquisitive people, and liable to be put to death if his real errand were discovered.

The routes over the Himalaya from India have risen to sudden importance from the great demand which has recently sprung up

in Chinese or Eastern Turkestan for British goods, which, owing to the war of the native chiefs with China, can no longer be procured from that country. The route by Peshawur and Cabool and Bokhara is safe, but very indirect and long; the recent conquest of Bokhara by the Russians may also create difficulties in this traffic. A route which is obtaining the preference of late is that from Umritsür to Leh in Ladakh, which is far more direct, though over a pass 15,000 feet high. From Leh there are routes to Ilchi, formerly called Khotan, northeast of Leh, and to Yarkand, northwest of that town. Both require the traders to cross the Karakorum Pass, 18,200 feet high. Another route from Leh to Ilchi, still farther east, crosses the Himalaya at an ele vation of 19,000 feet above the sea-level. Two other routes are spoken of, but neither has been as yet traversed by Europeans, one from Leh round the end of the Kuen Lün Mountains, the other from Jellalabad up the Chitral Valley, and over the Hindoo Coosh into the valley of the Oxus. Both are said to be liable to incursions from fierce and hostile tribes.

The great table-land of Pamir, from which radiate the Hindoo Coosh, the Kuen Lün, and the Bieler Dagh, the three great mountainchains which trend northward from the Himalaya, and which in the expressive language of the Orientals is called the "Roof of the World," is now being explored by native surveyors under the direction of Colonel Walker, Chief of the Board of Survey in India.

In turning to China, we have not as yet the record of the interesting tour of exploration of our countryman, Professor Bickmore, whose communication to the Royal Geographical Society gives the only account of his journeyings in that country which has yet appeared, though it is understood that he is soon to publish a full description of his discoveries. Mr. Bickmore's travels in China were very extensive and he probably saw more of the interior of that great empire than any other American, or perhaps European traveller. He ascended the Yang-tse and its affluent the Siang as far as the populous city of Kweilin, in latitude 25° N., and thence by interior routes went northward along the borders of the great plain to Moukden, the capital of Mantchooria, in latitude 43° N., a distance of fully 1,300 miles; thence he visited Japan, and reached Europe by way of Siberia.

Mr. T. T. Cooper, an enterprising and intel ligent English gentleman, in the winter of 1867'68, undertook to ascend the Yang-tse-kiang to the extreme western border of China, and explore thence a route for a railway or a prac ticable pass into Assam, with a view to open a route for trade in that direction. On the 26th of April, 1868, he had reached Tai-tsien-lü, on the extreme western border of China, and was in some peril, by whichever route, whether down the Salwen or through Thibet, he might attempt to reach British territory. He finally,

we believe, descended the Salwen and Irrawaddy, and reached British Burmah in safety; but was satisfied that a railroad in that direction was impracticable. But Mr. F. A. Goodenough, an old resident of British Burmah, thinks differently, and in a letter to Major-General Sir A. S. Waugh points out two routes, one from Hookong, the other from Bhamo, through which, by passes in the Sing-phoo country, the route is practicable.

Mr. Bickmore, as we have already said, spent some time in Japan, and while there found in the island of Yesso a tribe of aborigines, whom he described as the Ainos, or hairy men, and whom he believed the original inhabitants of that island, Saghalien, and the Kurile Islands. He describes them as stout and strong, but only averaging 5 feet 2 inches in height; but their great peculiarity consists in the extraordinary development of their hair, not only on the head and face but on the entire body. Their hair is coarse and jet black, and they wear it long, falling over the shoulders, and the men as long or longer than the women. These people evidently belong to the Aryan race; their eyelids are horizontal and open widely, not oblique and partially closed, as in the Mongolian family, and their cheekbones are not prominent. They are not Buddhists like the Japanese, but fire-worshippers, and all their social, domestic, and religious customs are entirely different from those of the Japand their mental characteristics are equally distinct. The Japanese testimony concerning them is, that when they conquered Yesso, 660 years B. C., they found the Ainos there and subjugated them. The fact that they have maintained their existence, though a subjugated race, for 2,500 years, is a strong evidence of their vitality. Their language is peculiar, and unlike that of the Japanese or neighboring nations in the roots of its words, though they have adopted to some extent the Japanese forms of conjugation. It is not improbable that the ancient Japanese alphabet of fourteen letters, recently discovered by Rev. Mr. Goble, a missionary in Japan, and which is evidently Aryan in its origin, may be the alphabet of the Ainos.


The discovery of coal in large quantities and of excellent quality at Ivanei, about 150 miles from Hakodadi, on the island of Yesso, and at a distance of only four miles from the coast and from a good harbor, is an event which will prove of material advantage to the communication by steam between Japan and the ports of India and Western America.

The last scientific work of the late John Crawfurd, an eminent English geographer, who died May 11, 1868, was the preparation of a paper for the Royal Geographical Society on British Burmah. In this he demonstrated very conclusively the great advantages which had accrued to that country from the substitution of the wise and equable government of it by British officers for the tyrannical and op

pressive native rule. The population of the country had risen, in the five years ending in 1867, from 1,897,807 to 2,320,453, or more than 23 per cent., and this increase was largely due to the immigration of the Burmese from the native kingdom of Burmah, which the Burmese king sought in vain to prevent.

The great and small islands which, with the peninsula of Malacca, form the vast East Indian or Malay Archipelago, have within the past few years been very thoroughly explored in the interests of science. Two works devoted to the description of these explorations have recently appeared in England, and both have been republished in this country. The first, in point of time of exploration, was "The Malay Archipelago; the Land of the OrangUtan and the Bird of Paradise," by Alfred Russel Wallace, a well-known English naturalist, whose previous "Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro," etc., had won him reputation as a careful and patient observer. His present work, republished here by Harper & Brothers, is a valuable and beautiful addition to our knowledge of the fauna and flora of the Malay Archipelago, and gives, in connection with these, considerable information concerning the geology, physical geography, philology, and ethnology of the different groups of islands. Mr. Wallace spent eight years (1854-'62) on these islands, mainly engaged in the collection of the birds, insects, and most remarkable mammals of the region, but his general geographical observations are of great value. The other work to which we have referred is "Travels in the East-Indian Archipelago," by Professor Albert S. Bickmore, published here by D. Appleton & Co. Professor Bickmore's expedition, like that of Mr. Wallace, was specially in the interests of natural science, his primary object being to collect the shells figured by Rumphius (in which he was more than successful), but he gave a large measure of attention also to general zoology, physical geography, and ethnology. His tour was performed in 1865 and 1866, and was replete with adventures. He succeeded in obtaining photographs of representative men of the different races of the islands that he visited, which comprised most of the larger and some of the smaller islands of the Archipelago. He says of his journeyings, very modestly:

From Batavia I went to Sourabaya, Macassar, the capital of Celebes, thence to Coupang in the Island of Timor, to Dilly and the Banda Islands, and Amboyna, where I remained two months collecting the

shells I had come so far to seek. Fortune favored me in securing the rarest species. The governor of these islands takes much interest in geology. I went with him in his steam-yacht to various interesting places, otherwise inaccessible. From Amboyna I went to Booru and Ternate, thence to the northern end of Celebes, to study the hot springs and volcanoes with which that country abounds, thence by the eastern shore of Celebes to Macassar, and back to Batavia, thence to Padang, making a long journey among the mountains, until I passed some distance into a country inhabited by true cannibals.

Our review of Geographical Discoveries in Africa must necessarily be brief. The physical geography and ethnology of Abyssinia were fully developed in the reports and narrations of Mr. Clement Markham, and other scientific explorers, who accompanied the British Army in its invasion of that country, and many new facts ascertained. Mr. Gerhard Rohlfs penetrated into Western Abyssinia, and is now endeavoring to find an entrance through Darfur into Wadai. Lieutenant Prideaux, an English officer, who was one of Theodore's captors, has given, in Illustrated Travels, a very interesting account of his journeyings and explorations in the Abyssinian Soudan.

Dr. Livingstone has been heard from during the past year, and was exploring Lake Tanganyika and its vicinity at the close of 1867. A recent report represents him as on his way to Zanzibar, from whence he expected to reach the Nile by a route akin to that of Sir S. W. Baker; but this is of doubtful authenticity, and it is quite as probable, if he has not already fallen a victim to the ferocity of the Mazitu or the still more formidable Niam-Niams, that he is endeavoring to make his way westward in the vicinity of the 8th or 10th parallel of south latitude, and may at any time be heard from on the west coast. There is supposed to be another large lake northwest of Lake Tanganyika which may be, as Tanganyika probably is not, the ultimate source of the Nile, or quite as possibly, the source either of the Gabün or of the Congo or Zaire.

The Niam-Niam country has been partially explored, and the existence of this lake ascertained, by three adventurous explorers, the brothers Poncet, Jesuit missionaries, who penetrated into that barbarous region in 1863, and remained there three years, one of them losing his life by the cruelties and tortures inflicted on them by the Niam-Niams; and by C. Piaggia, an Italian geographer, who in 1865 penetrated into the same country. We have as yet but brief notes of their adventures and discoveries, and await with some impatience more full details. The Niam-Niams are said be cannibals, and there is unquestionably some truth in the statement that the os coccygis is in their case prolonged so as to produce a caudal appendage of two or three inches in length.

Galla-Land, the region west of Zanzibar, in which Baron von der Decken lost his life, has been explored during the past year by Richard Brenner, a German geographer, who has penetrated fearlessly among the savage and ferocious tribes of that region.

Passing southward, we come to the region lying between the Zambesi and the Limpopo Rivers, which during the past year has excited so much attention from the discovery there of extensive gold-fields, by the German geologist and geographer, Carl Mauch. In the ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for 1867, some account was given of the previous exploring tours of Herr Mauch. The possibility of the existence of gold-veins in

the mountains forming the water-shed between the two rivers had occurred to him, and indeed he had been informed of the existence of abandoned diggings by his friend Hartley, the elephant-hunter. On a subsequent journey, he found, on the river Thuti, or Tuti, an affluent of the Limpopo, in S. lat. 20° 40' and E. long. about 28° 35', an extensive gold-field, extending over a considerable district, and giving evidence of having been formerly worked, and abandoned from the influx of water. Proceeding northward, he discovered a second tract, in which the precious metal was abundant, on this same elevated plateau, about 7,000 feet above the sea-level, and 120 miles or more from the southern field. Still farther north, on the Tete, an affluent of the Zambesi, about 40 miles south of the Kraal of Tete, was a third goldfield of still greater extent, and about 250 miles from the one first discovered. He returned to Potchefström, the capital of the Transvaal Republic, with his specimens, and subsequently went from thence to Natal and Cape Town, arriving at the latter place in March, 1868. His announcement of his discovery led to an immediate stampede for the new gold regions, which at the latest dates was still continuing. In July, 1868, Mr. St. Vincent Erskine, son of the Colonial Secretary of Natal, set out from Leydenberg in the Transvaal Republic, and marched for the junction of the Oliphant river with the Limpopo, and thence descended that river to its mouth, a feat which, though often attempted, had not before been accomplished in modern times. He reached the mouth of the river on the 5th of September, and found it coinciding with that laid down on the maps as the Inhampura, in about lat. 25° 5' south. This was wholly unexpected, as it was generally believed to be at least 200 miles farther north. On the west coast, Mr. Josephat Hahn has continued his articles on the geography, geology, ethnology, etc., of Ova Herero Land, in the Zeitschrift für Erdkunde, and the description of this singular and interesting people derives an additional melancholy interest from the death of the traveller, Anderssen, which we have already noticed.

In AUSTRALIA there is little new or of special interest. Two or three large salt lakes in the interior basin, heretofore known to exist, have been more fully explored, and a grand expedi tion has been projected by Dr. Neumayer, from Port Denison, near the Burdekin (20° S. lat. and 148° E. long. from Greenwich), across the continent, a distance of 1,569 miles, to Swan River (lat. 31° 30' S., and long. 116° 45′ E.).

The Sandwich Islands have been visited dur ing the past year with earthquakes, and in March there was a terrific eruption of the great volcano Mauna Loa, the floor of the crater Kelauea sinking some hundreds of feet, and a new crater opening, the lava from which has proved very destructive to the finest part of the island of East Maui. The shores of this island are said to be sinking slowly.

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