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Smoaking of tobacco was not an ancient Astronomy is pursued and respected; but the practice in Japan, it was probably introduced natives are unable, without the aid of Chinese, by the Portuguese. The Japanefe have no and sometimes of Dutch almanacks, to form a other name for this plant ; both sexes (moke. true calendar, or calculate an eclipse of the sun The quantity consumed is all reared in the or moon within minutes and seconds. Medicountry, and is the common fort. It is divi- cine has never arrived, nor is it likely to arrive ded into filaments almoft as fine as hair. The at any degree of perfection. Anatomy is topipes are small, scarce more than fix inches tally unknown; the knowledge of diseases long; they are of varnished bamboos, with imperfect, intricate, and often fabulous. Bo. head and mouth-piece of copper : the head is tany and the knowledge of medicines consti. so small, that scarce the third of a
tute the whole of their skill. They use only can be put in, which is done with the finger. simples; and these generally in diuretic and A pipe is finished at a few draughts; it is then diaphoretic decoctions. They are unacquaintemptied of the athes, and filld again. The ed with compound medicines. Their phyfi. smoke is blown out thro' both the nostrils and cians always, indeed, feel the pulse; but they mouth. Persons of distinction use the follow- are very tedious, not quitting for a quarter of ing apparatus : An oblong box, nine inches an hour ; besides, they examine first one, and lo: 1g, fix broad, and three fingers high, is set then the other arm, as if the blood was not before every guest. In this are laid pipes and driven by the same heart to both pulses. Be. tobacco ; and three cups are set at the same fues those diseases which they have in com. time, all of which are used in smoaking. One mon with other countries or peculiar to them. of these cups, which are generally of thick selves, the venereal disease is very frequent, porcel zin, is filled with alhes, on which a live which they have only as yet understood how coal is placed to light the pipe : the second to alleviate hy decoctions, thought to purify serves to receive the ashes, which are ftruck the blood. Salivation, which their physiciatis oat of the pipe when it is finished; it is usu- have heard mentioned by the Dutch surgeons, al to extinguish them by spitting on them : the appears to them extremely formidable, both third cup is used as a spitcing-box. When vi. to conduct and to undergo ; but they receive sits are made, this apparatus is the first thing ed with gratitude and joy the method of cure which is presented. A box of this kind is by aqua mercurialis, which I had the satisfacsometimes provided with a cover, which is tion first to instruct them in. Different interfaftened on with a ribband, and carried by a preters used this method as early as the year servant, when they go to places where they 1775 or 1776, and perfectly restored, under do not expect to be treated with tobacco. The my direction, many, both in Nogasaki and out common people generally carry both pipes and of it. Jurisprudence is not an extensive study tobacco with them when they go out. The in Japan. No country has thinner law. books, pipe is put into a case, which is stuck in the or fewer judges. Explanations of the laws, girdle on the righi fide. The purses for hold. and advocates, are things altogether unknown ; ing tobacco are scarce a hand in length or but no where, perhaps, are the laws more cer .. breadth ; they are provided with a flap, which tainly put in force, without respect to persons, is fastened with an ivory hook. These purses without partiality or violence. They are very are suspended at the girdle by a filken itring, Itrict, and law-suits very short.
The Jac and a cornelian, or a piece of agate. They are panese know little more of physics or chy generally made of a peculiar sort of filk, with miltıy, than what they have learned of late interwoven flowers of gold and silver. years of the Europeans.
The sciences are very far from having ar. Manufactures are much practised through rived at the same height in Japan as in Europe. the whole country. In some cases they are The history of the country is, notwithstanding, inferior, in others they are superior, to the best. more authentic, perhaps, than that of any other wrought articles of European industry. They country; and it is studied, without distinction; work very well in copper and iron. Theie by all. Agriculture, which is considered as filks and cottuns equal, and sometimes exceed, the art most neceffary, and most conducive those wrought in India. Their varnished fo the support and prosperity of the kingdom, wood-ware, especially the old, exceed every is no where in the world brought to such per. thing of the kind wlich other countries have fection as here, where neither civil nor foreign produced. war, our emigration, diminishes population ; Agriculture is in the highest reputo. Not. and where a thought is never entertained, ei- withftanding the wildness of the mountains, ther of getting possession of other countries, or the fuil, even of the mountains themselves, as to import the useless, and often hurtful pro- well as the hills, is cultivated up to the very ductions of foreign lands; but where the ut- top. They need not their premiums and enmost care is taken chat no turf lies uncultiva. couragement ; fince in that country, the farted, and no produce of the earth unemployed. mer is considered as the most usefus citizen';
nor ishe oppressed by thofe numerous burdens and agreeable root. Several forts of beans which, in other countries, prevent, and at all and peas are planted in great quantities; as, times will prevent, the improvement of his also mustard, from the Iceds of which they art. He is subject to none of those various ser- express oil for lamps; its yellow flowers con. vices which in many countries of Europe con. Atitute the ornament of whole fields. sume so much of his time and labour. His Their computation of time takes its rise from whole obligation consists in the necessity of Mix-o, or 660 years before Christ. The cultivating his land. If a farmer does not, year is divided according to the changes of the every year, employ a certain part of his land, moon; to that some years consist of twelve, he loses it, and another, who is able, may others of thirteen months; and the beginning take it. Thus he may employ his whole of the year falls out in February or March. study and time in the care of his land, alifted They have no weeks confitting of seven days, in it by his wife and children. There are or of fix working days and a holiday ; but the no meadows in the whole country, but the first and fifteenth day of the mouth serve for, whole land is either ploughed or planted; a holiday. On these days no work is done, and, no space being loft in extensive meadows, On new-year's day they go round to with one for the support of cattle, nor in large and use- another a new year, with their whole familefs plantations of tobacco, nor iu rearing grain lies, clad in white and blue chequered, their of secondary use, the whole country is covered holiday dress; and they reft almost the whole with habitations and people, and is able to main- of the firft month. The day is divided only tain, in plenty, its innumerable inhabitants. into twelve hours; and in this divifion they In no part is manure collected with greater are directed the whole year by the rising and industry ; so that nothing, which can be em- setting of the sun. They reckon fix o'clock ployed for this purpose, is loft. The cattle at the rising, and fix likewife 2the are fed at home all the year, that every thing setting of the fun. Midday and midnight are which falls from them may remain in the yard ; always at nine. Time is not mealured by and horses upon the road are followed by old clocks, or hour glasses, but with burning men and children, for the sake of their dung; matches, whichare twitted together like ropes, nay, even urine itself, which so seldom is used and divided by knots. When the mach is to fertilize the fields of Europe, is carefully burnt to a knot, which indicates a certain por. collected in earthen pitchers, which are buri- tion of time elapsed, notice is given, during ed in the ground, not only in the villages, but the day, by striking the bells of the temples; here and there by the side of the high road, and in the night, by the watchmen ftriking The manure, thus scrupulously collected, is two boards against one another. A child is used in a manner very different from that of always reckoned a year old at the end of the any other country. The Japanese does not yer of his birth, whether this happen at the carry out his dunghill, either in winter or in beginning or the close. A few days after the Summer, into his fallows, to be dried by a burn- beginning of the year, is performed the boring sun, and to lose strength by the evaporation rid ceremony of trampling on images repreof the volatile salt and oils, but he submits to senting the cross, and the Virgin Mary with the disagreeable task of mixing various forts her child. The images are of melted copper, of dung, and the refuse of the kitchen, with and are said to be scarce a foot in height. urine and water, till it forms an uniform thin This ceremony is intended to impress every palte, which he carries out in two large buc. individual with hatred to the Christian doctrine, kets to his field, and waters the plant, now and the Portuguese, who attempted to introgrown to the height of a few inches, by means duce it there; and also to discover whether of a ladle, taking care that the moiture Mall there is any remnant of if left among the Ja. penetrate to the root. By this method of panese. It is performed in the places where manuring, and by alliduous weeding, the fields the Christians chicfly refided. In Nogaraki it are kept so perfectly free of weeds, that the lasts four days ; then the images are conveyed most Tharp-fighted will scarce be able to dir. to the circumjacent places, and afterwards are cover, in a journey of several days, a strange laid aside against me next year. Every person, plant among the crops. The pains taken by except the Japanese governor and his attenthe farmer to till even the parch'd fides of the dants, even the imallest child, must be present ; mountains, exceeds belief. Though the spot but it is not true, as fome bare pretended, that should not be above a yard square, he will the Dutch are also ubliged to trample on the raise a stone-wall in the declivity, fill it with. image. Overseers are appointed in every in with earth, and manure and low rice, or place, which affemble the people in companies, plant some vegetable.
in certain houtes, call over the name of every A thousand tuch beds adorn almost every one in his turn, and take care that every hill, and give iliom an appearance which sur. thing goes on properly. The children nut prises the spect.icor. Rice is the principal yet able to walk, have their feet placed upgrain. Buck. wheat, vye, barley, and wheat, are on it; older persons pass over it from one
LEAVES collected from the PIOZZIAN WREATH lately woven to adora
the Shrine of Dr. JOHNSON.
( Concluded from Page 252). SAMUEL Johnson was the son of Michael talents that might have made him conspicuous
Johnson, a bookseller at Litchfield, in Staf. in literature, and respectable in any profesfordshire, a very pious and worthy man, but fion he could have chosen. His cousu has wrong-headed, positive, and afflicted with me- mentioned him in the Lives of Fenton and of lancholy, as his son, from whom alone I had Broome ; and when he spoke of him to me, the information, once told me, His bufiness, it was always 'with tenderness, praising his achowever, leading him to be much on horse. quaintance with life and manners, and recol. back, contributed to the preservation of his lecting one piece of advice that no man surely bodily health, and mental sanity, which, when ever followed mure exactly : “ Obtain (says he staid long at home, would sometimes bé “ Foru) lome general principles of every sciabout to give way; and Mr. Johnson faid, that « ence. He who can talk only on one subject, when his work shop, a detached building, had or act only in ove department, is seldom fallen half down for want of money to repair “wanted, and perhaps never wished for ; is, his father was not less diligent to lock the " while the man of general knowledge can door every night, though he saw that any bo. “ often benefit, and always pleale." He used to dy might walk in at the back part, and knew relate, however, another story, less to the cre. that there was no security obtained by barring dit of his cousin's penetratio.., how Ford, on the front door. “ This (says his son) was mad- some occasion, said to him, “ You will make “ ness, you may see, and would have been dir.
your way the more easily in the world, I ** coverable in other instances of the preva. “ see, as you are contented to dispute no man's " lence of inagination, but that poverty pre- " claim to conversation excellence; they will, 4 vented it from playing such tricks as riches « therefore, more willingly allow your pre" and leisure encourage.” Michael was a s teusions as a writer.". man of Itill larger size and greater strength Dr. Johnson first learned to read of his mothan his son, who was reckoned very like him, ther and her old maid Catharine, in whose lap but did not delight in talking much of his fa. he well remembered ficting while she explain. mily—“ one has (says he) so little pleasure in eu to him the story of St. George and the * reciting the anecdotes of beggary.". Dragon. Such was his tenderness, and such
Michael Johnson was part fifty years old his gratitude, that he took a journey to Lichwhen he married his wife, who was upwards field, fifty-seven years afterwards, to support of forty ; yet I think her son told me that the and comfort her in her last illness. He had remained three years childless hefore he was enquired for his nurse, and she was dead.com born into the world, who fo greatly contri- At eight years old he went to school, for buted to improve it. In three years more his health would not permut him to be sent The brought another son, Nathaniel, who live sooner; and as the age of ten years his mind ed to be twenty-seven or twenty-eight years was disturbed by scruples of infidelity, which old, and of whose manly spirit I have heard preyed upon his spirits, and made him very his brother speak with pride and pleasure.. uneasy.-Their father, Michael, died of an inflammatory The remembrance of what had passed in fever, at the age of seventy-six, as Mr. John- his own childhood made Mr. Johnson very soíon told me ; their mother at eighty-nine, of licitous to preserve the felicity of children ; a gradual decay. She was Bight in her person, and when he had persuaded Dr. Sumoer to he said, andrather below than above the com- remic the talks usually given to fill up boys' mon úze.
time during the holidays, he rejoiced exceedMr. Johnson's mother was daughter to a ingly in the success of his negociation, and gentleman in the country, such as there were told me that he never ceated representing to many in those days, who, poffefling perhaps all the eminent schoolmatters in England the one or two hundred pounds a year in land, absurd tyranny of poisoning the hour of perlived on the profits, and fought not to increase mitted pleasure, by keeping future misery ben Cheir income. She was therefore inclined to fore the children's eyes, and tempting them think higher of herself than of her husband, by bribery or falsehood tv evade it." whole conduct in money matters being but At the age of eighteen Dr. Jolinson quitted indifferent, the had a trick of ceizing him about school, and escaped from the tuition of those it.-The lady's maiden name w:s Ford; and he hated or thore be despised. I have heard che parson who fets next to the punch-bowl in him relate very few college adventures. He Hogarth's Modern Midnight Conversation used to say that our best accounts of his behawas her brother's fon. This Ford was a man viour there would be gathered from Dr. Adams who chose to be eminent only for vice, with and Dr. Taylor, and that he was sure they would always tell the truth.-" Taylor,” said could he step out of doors to offer it for fale. he, " is better acquainted with my beart than Mr. Johnson, therefore, set away the boxtle, 6 any man or woman now alive ; and the his- and went to the bookseller, recommending " “tory of my Oxford exploits lies all between the performance, and defiring some immedia " him and Adans ; but Dr. James knows my ate relief ; which when he brought back to “ very early days better than he. After my the writer, he called the womad of the house « coming to London, co drive the world about directly to partake of the punch, and pass their
a little, you must all go to Jack Hawkes- time in merriment.--It was not cillien years « worth for anecdotes. I lived in great fa- after, I dare say, that something in Dr. Gold.
miliarity with him (though I think there smith's behaviour struck me with an idea that was not much affection) from the year 1753 he was the very man, and then Johnson con“t' till the time Mr. Thrale and you took nie fefled that he was so. The novel was the “ up. I intend, however, to disappoint the charming Vicar of Wakefield. There was a “rogues, and either make you write the life, Mr. Boyle too, of whosé ingenuity and distress «' with Taylor's in:elligence, or, which is bet. I have leard Dr. Johnson tell some curious “ter, do it myself, after outliving you all. anecdotes; particularly, when he was almost "'I am now (added be) keeping a diary, in perishing with hunger, and some money was « hopes of using it for that purpose some produced to purchase him a dinner, he got a "scime."
bit of roast beef, but could not eat it without
ketchup, and laid out the lait hall-guinea he The piety of Dr. Johnton was exemplary polletfeu in truftics and mushrooms, eating and edifying. The coldeft and most languid them in bed too, for want of cloths, or even bearer of the word must have felt themselves a shirt to fit up in." animated by his manner of reading the Holy
When lamentation was made of the ne. Scriptures; and to pray by his sick-bed required ftrength of body as well as of mind, philologist, as some one ventured to call him,
glect thewed to Jeremiah Markland, a great to vehement were his manners, and his tones
“ He is a scholar, undoubtedly, Sir (replied of voice so pathetic.—When we talked of con
“ Dr. Johnson); but remember that he vents, and the hardihips suffered in them,
" would run from the world, and that it is “ Remember always (laid he) that a convent • is an idle place, and where there is nothing
« not the world's business to run after him. s to be donc, something must be endured:
“ I hate a fellow whom pride, or cowardice, “ mustard has a bad talte per se, you may ob
“ or laziness, drives into a corner, and does
" nothing when he is there but fit and growl. “ serve, but very insipid loud cannot be caten « without it."
“ Let him come out, as I do, and bark."
When Davies printed the Fugitive Pieces Johnson encouraged parents to carry their without his knowledge or consent, “ How" daughters early and much into company ; (faid I) “ would Pope have raved, had he “ for what harm can be done before so many been served fo ?" . We should never (reply. “ witnesses ? Solitude is the surelt nurse of all ed he) have tieard the last on't, to be sure ; “ prurient passions ; and a girl, in the hurry “ but then Pope was a narrow mao. I wil " of preparation, or tumult of gaiety, has nei- " however (added he) (torm and bluster wyf “ther inclination nor leisure to let tender ex. “ a little this time;"-10 went to London 10
preslions loften or sink into her heart. The all the wrath he could mufter up. At his
bati, the show, are not che dangerous places. return I asked how the affair ended : “ Why “ No, 'tis the private friend, the kind confo- (taid he) I was a fierce fellow, and pretend“ ler, the companion of the ealy vacant hour,
“ ed to be very angry, and Thomas was a “ whose compliance with her opinions can "good-natured fellow, and pretended to be " flatter her vanity, and whose conversation can
“ very sorry; so. ibere the matter ended. “just footh, without ever stretching, her mind; " I believe the dog loves me dearly. Mr. " that is the lover to be feared. He who buz
“ Thrale (turning to my husband) what thail “zes in her ear at court or at the opera, muit “ you and I do that is good for Tom Davies? « be contented to buzz in vain.".
“ We will do something for him, to be 1 have forgotten the year, but it could scarce. " sure." lý, I think, be later than 1765 or 1766, that he was called abruptly from our house after We were talking of Richardson, who dimmer, and returning in about three hours, wrote Clarilla : " You think I love tartery faid, he had been with an enraged author, '! (says Dr. Johnson), and so I dò; but a lite whose landlady prefled him for payment within “tle too much always disguits me. That doors, while the bailiffs beret him without ; that “fellow Richardson, on the contrary, could he was drioking trimself drunk with Madeirato“ not be contented to fail quietly down the drowu care, and fretting over a novel, which, “ stream of reputacion without longing to taste when finished, was to be his whole fortune, " the froth from every stroke of the
Of GREAT MEN; and of Dr. SAMUEL JOHNSO N.
[ From “ Sylva; or, The Wood," lately published. ] GREAT man? says Voltaire. We musi by na molt important, is known to have held opinimeans be lavish of this title *.
ons, which are absolutely a disgrace to human indeed hardly ever apply it at all, if by great understanding. be meant univerfally lo; that is, omnibus nune- The President Monte quieu has said, chat ris abfo'ztus. Loru Bacon was a great man, a " the rank or place which potterity beltows, very great m:n ; yet only partially fo. He " is subject like all o:hers to the will and ca. had a great and conprehensive understanding,“ price of fortune || :" and our Wollastog perhaps the greatest that hath yet thone forth was so disgusted with the foulish and iniqui. among the fous of men : but it does not ap- tous judgments of men, that he betook himpear, that he would have been great in either self early in life to retirement,--propter inifield or cabinet; and for greatness of soul, as it qua bominum judicia, as he left to be inscribed is called, the poet who ftiles him the wife upon his tomb-ltone. If any thing could cure and the brightejt, brands him at the faine time a man's anxiety, and render him indifferent, for the meaneft of mankind.
about what is said or thought of him, now or Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, was a hereafter, it would be these blind, absurd, inivery great man: even Beling broke, whocer- ' quitous judgments of meo; who break riotCain'y was not prejudiced in his favour, allows oully forth into praise or cenfure, without rehim to have been the greatest general as gard to truth or justice, but jutt as pallion and “ well as the greatest minutter that our coun- prejudice impel! " try or perhaps any other has produced t." Dr Johnfun“ seems, Ingether with the Yet Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, was il- “ablett head, poffetred of the very best heart literate to an extreme ; of an understanding " at present existing,” says one writer. “Netotally uncultivatel; and in which, if you ver on eart did one mortal body encomcould have crepe under the glare of his exte- “ país such true greatness and such true good." rior, you would probably have discerned “ ne!s," says another f; who observes also, weaknesses equal to those of the weakest that his Lives of the Poets would alone have men.--- Julius Cæsar was a very gre.it general,
" been Yufficient to immortalize his name." and a very great statesman; but he was more. How able bis bead, or (as a third expresses it) Julius Cæsar was a man of letters, and a fine what fitupendous frengeb of underfinding hė writer ; had a most comprehensive as well as might have, cannot be precisely defined ; but it cultivated understanding ; and, withal, a moft is certain, that this flupendous underfunding was uncommon greatness of soul. Julius Cæsar is, not strong enough to force its way through the in my humble opinion, the greatest man upon meanest prejudices, with which it was once record.— Lewis XIV. like many other tyrants entangled. And for the very best beart, and furrounded by pimps and flatterers, had the fucb true goodness as one mortal body did never title of Great conferred upon him: but Lewis's before encompusi ---this is the la guige of jour. greatness was to real greatness, what the hum- nalists and periodical writers : let us hear the baft is to the sublime, or the simulacra of Epi teflimony of those, who have always known curus to real bodies.
bim personally, and intimately, The late Dr. Samuel Johnson was a man Bifhop Newton, speaking of the above of great parts, and was indisputably a great Lives of the Parlig fuys, that “ malevolence man, if great parts fimply can make “predominates in every part; and that though one 1 : but Dr. Johnson was the meanett of “ some poil ges are judicious and well wiitbigots, a dupe and save to the most con. “ ten, yet they make not sufficient compensatemptible prejudices Ø ; and, upon subjects the " tiou for so much spleen and ill-humour
• Grand homme ? Il ne faut pas prodiguer ce titre. Siecle de Louis, in Cat. Dourat. ^ Upon lloj cry, Letter viii.
He was probably learned ; but I do not reckon learning among the attributes of great men. Learning may be attained by little nien, who will apply: but learning without parts, or a capacity to use it, is merely dead unwieldy matter, capul mortuum, devoid of life or spirit. Like wealth or titles, it often serves only to make a blockhead conspicuous
One would think, from a passage in the Rambler, that he himself did a little suspect this : " the price of wit and knowledge,” says he, “ is often mortified by finding, that they can cooo " ler no security against the common errors, which mislead the weakest and meanest of man. of kindl." No. 6.
| Les places que la postérité donne sont sujettes, comme les autres, aux caprices de la fortune. Grand, des Rom. c. I.
g Gent.'s Magazine, for Dec, 1784. * Life by himself.