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An impartial acconnt (so it is called) of Dr. « the representation, of disease and poverty ; Jabnfox in the European Magazine t, faid to 6 and, in the hours of affluence, his purse was be written by the ingenious Miss Seward, " ever open to relieve them. He was a fu. fets forth, that he was indeed a man of very "rious Jacobite, wbile one hope for the Stuart great parts, and of many good qualities, which “ line remained ; and his politics, always leanit is far from our intent to deny or detract “ing towards despotism, were inimical to lifrom ; but that his character was a very mixed “herty, and the natural rights of mankind. and the might have added) a very imperfect“ He was punctual in his devotions ; but his

His writings are represented as excellent “ religious faith had much more of bigoc-fierceand fine, where not " disgraced as ju his cri- nefs, than of that gentleness which the gof. W ticisms, with the faults of his disposition. “ pel inculcates,” &c. " He had strong affections,” it is faid, “ where If this representation be in any degree jull, * literary envy did not interfere; but that en- and I have never heard of its being either dif

vy was of such deadly potency, as to load own'd or contradicted, what are we to think « his conversation, as it has loaded his biogra- of panegyrists, who ascribe to him fucb true «phic works, with the rancou' of party -viiso greatness and such true goodness, as were aloe « lence, with national averfion, bitter sarcasm, before encomposed by one mortal body ? 6 and unchristian-like invective. He turned We are far from meaning to depreciate “ from the compositions of rifing genius with Dr. Johnson ; our aim in this paper is only

a vifible horror, which proved too plainly, to disc 'untenance those extravagant eloges, lo « that envy was the bosom-serpent of this di- frequently and so blindly given to an ima “ terary despot. His pride was infinite ; yet, gined perfection, which human nature, when at amidit all the over bearing arrogance it pro. cultivated in the best and happiest manner, de duced, his heart melted at the fight, or at never was, nor ever will be, able to attain.

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To the PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY of LONDON.
GENTLEMES,

In 1785, Mr. Reichardt had several ophate fuperior excellence, and it is observed, portunities to display his mufical talents at the Hant thole who are mtt eger to censue Opera House and Panchcon. others, are least capable of judging.

The public papers having announced the These reflections have arisen from the pe- intended performance of so great a composer sodal of two volumes, written and publithed and suppos'd scientific critic, the profeffors of in German by the celebrated Mr. Reichardt, music natui ally expected compositions of fafrtt composer to the King of Prullia, and perlative excellence, where genius, art, and mufic.master of the Royal Chapel. The pre- science, were judiciously united. How were ceding work is called Musical Travels ; and they disappointed in hearing Mr. Reichardi's it would be naturally expected, that the rugal choruses ! Nothing appeared striking; no fue Dafter had chosen some great genius as mal. ges, either in fimple or double counterpoints, ter and conductor of his musical band : whe. or at least with one or (wo subjects. These ther this has been the case, will be fully ex. are the malter- pieces of great composers, and emplified by the succeeding observations. might reasonably be expected from the first

The author has treated our excellent mu- composer of so great a monarch. It seems, facal historian Dr. Purney with the greatest Mr. Reichardt is totally unacquainted with Dliberality; for instead of considering our the counterpoint ; for which purpose we regreat mufical luminary as a critic in the commend him to recommence his studies ; Hy kience of music, instead of animadverting on this means he may understand something more the Ductor's literary production, Mr. Reichardt of musical compositions, and the sublime ef. descends to perional scurrility and infamous fect of the counterpoint. abule. Sucb conduct merits no answer from In hearing Mr. Reichardt's five or fix a musical professor, fo universally esteemed hy choruffes exhibited publicly, it would have the first judges in Europe, and who, perhaps, been difficult to have determined, whether fuleudly (miles at the puerile malevolence of it was church, theatrical, convivial, or ele. such impotent malice. There scarce, indeed, gant domeftic music. The style, after the requires any stronger proof of Dr. Burney's ' most impartial criticism, seemed to be ille. Doble asid candid sentiments, than what has gitimate, the mere bastard offspring of a been reported, of his kind reception and pro- distempered brain ; where rath pallion broke teain of this Pruffian censurer, Many through the bounds of decency, and produced frienalty fervices it is well known Dr. Burney a monstrous birth, crude, immature, and dedemonstrated to Mr. Reichaidt, while he re. void of all harmonious refinement. It mut muined in Englando

be observed, that one idea was tolerable: this + For May, 1785.

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was the ketcle-drum crescensi, which would ment, it is feared he has lost his lahour; his have produced an excellent effect, had the peregrinations will prove useless to his counwhole band, under Mr. Reichardt's direction, cry, and degrading to his excellent monarch. performed in exact time. This part was frc- The Berlin music has been frequently and quently introduced, but always failed; per. juftly censured; because it was defective, dehaps more owing to the ill performance of the void of taste, and unharmonious. The only band, chan Mr. Reicharde's skill. While these composer who has received approbation is performances were proceeding for Mr. Salo Graun. Berlin music in general is only apmoa's benefit, one musical professor, with proved by Prullians in their own country; surprise, interrogated another, Whose compo. for one stupid person always finds another fition is this? Mr. Reichardt's, answered a more stupid to almire him. All the compothird. What the first composer to the King sers and musicians who have unfortunately of Prussia ? Yes. God defend our ears from lived in Berlin have their taste so much vitithe second composer, says the enquirer. ated by bad exainples, that they fail of Success

In Paris, at 11 Concerto spirituale, Mr. Rei. in all other countries. If folema gravity, chardt's performances received universal dif- felf-importance, pedantry, diftinguith men as approbation; his compositions gave general learned, they pusless the le qualities to the urdisgust; and that very polite people, ever rea- most degree ; but pedantry raiely poflefles dy to countenance and protect strangers, hil- genius or taste. It only extends to the rudj. sed his music off che stage.

ments of knowledge, and therefore fails in This composer not only wants knowledge real life, amongst polite and civilized luciety. of the grounds of the true principles of bar. School-boy knowledge is commonly pert, mony, but likewise genius ; without which vain, full of disputation, obstinacy, and ablurno musical composer can ever succeed. He dicy; which nothing but refinement and is advised, therefore, to confult fome able mal- comparative views o superior excellence will ters, who will frankly, and in a friendly man- eradicate from the mind. Rousseau has cruper, expose his defects; for inclinacion, howe ly represented French music with all its de. ever warm, is not sufficient to produce ori. fects: he was hung in effigy at Paris, at the ginal and scientific composition. It would be very time they performeu his opera : bis my. advis ble, in order to avoid appearing ridicu. fic was approved, and refined the French taste. lows, to withdraw his compofitions from the It is certainly no crime to write against the public ear, and not celebrate, or become the musical taste of nations ; it is a bappy circumherald of his own unfortunate vanity and fol. Itance, when improvement ensues from just ly, by what he calls his musical inventions ; censure. It is sincerely hoped this will he or racher whimsical indigested crudities; the care amongst the Pruflian composers, and which title is more applicable.

particularly with Mr. Reichardt. Critics and Mr. Reichardt was present at Westminster censurers, however impartial and scientific,are Abbey, and heard the grand compositions of commonly rewarded with ingratitude ; for the great, the immortal Handel. This circum- mankind enjoy the improvements, but hate fance, above all others, demonftrates his want the improvers. Instead of public thanks, they of taste, genius, skill, and even common sense ; commonly experience private malevolence for he presumed to produce in public his and calumny. One pretended friend facters quaint gingle of sounds to an audience whose another on his production, but leaves him ig. ears were refined by the harmony of Han- norant of his defects : this may be polite, but del and the greatest composers in Europe. nothing can be more unfriendly or infamous. How little mankind know themselves! If

Sir, Mr. Reichardt travelled for musical improve- A FRIEND to INJURED MERIT.

I amn,

SOME PARTICULARS CONCERNING the LIFE and CHARACTER of

CAPTAIN COOK. [By DAVID SAMW EIG, SURGEON to the Discovers.) APTAIN Cook was born at Marton, in ving in that neighbourhood, with whom the mall village, distant five miles south-east labourer in the fields. However, thugh from Stockton.' His name is found in the places in this humble ftation, he gave his fon parish register in the year 1729 (so that Cap. a common school education, and at an early tain King was mistaken, in placing the time age placed bim apprentice with ove Mr. of his birth in the year 1727). The costage Saunderson, a shopkeeper at Stailla, (always in which his father formerly lived, is now de. pronounced Steers) a small fishing town on cayed, but the spot where it stood is fill the Yorkshire coast, about nine miles to the fewn to strangers. A gent eman is now li nurthward of Whithy. The business is now Eg 07. MAG.

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carried on by the son of Mr. Sunderson, in survey that Inand and the coast of Labradore, the same shop, which I had the curiosity to and gave him the Grenville brig for that purvisit about a year and lialf ago. In that fitua- pose. How well he perfermed that service, tion young Cook did not continue long, before the charts he has published afford a fufficient he quitted it in disgust, and, as often happens testimony. In that employment he continu. in the like cases, betook himself to the sea. eu till the year 1767, when the well known Whitby being a neighbouring sea-port, readi- voyage to the South Sea, for observing the ly offered him an opportunity to pursue his in- transit of Venus, and making discoveries in clination ; and there we find be bound him that vast ocean, was planned. Lord Hawke, self apprentice, for nine years, in the coal who then presided at the Admiralty, was trade, to one Mr. John Walker, now living strongly solicited to give the command of that in South Whithy. In his employ he after expedition to Mr. Alexander Dalrymple; wards became mate of a ship; in which sta- but through the interest of his friend Sir Hugh cion having continued some time, he had the Palliser, Captain Cook gained the appointment, offer of being matter, which he refused, as it together with the rank of lieutenant. It was seems he baŭ at that time turned his :houghts ftipulated, that on his return he thould, if be towards the navy. Accordingly, at the break- chose it, again hold the place of surveyor in ing out of the war in 1755, he entered on Newfoundland, and that his family thould be board the Eagle, of fixty-four guns, and in a prorided for, in case of any accident to bimShort time after Sir Hugh Palliser was ap- self. pointed to the command of that ship, a cir. He sailed from England in the Endeavour, cumstance that must not be pailed unnoticed, in the year 1768, accompanied by Mr. Baoks as it proved the foundation of the future fame and Dr. Solander, and .eturned in 1971; and for: une of Captam Cook. His uncom. after having circumnavigated the globe, made mon merit did not long escape the observation several important discoveries in the South Sea, of that discerning officer, who promoted him and explored the islands of New Zealand, to the quarter-deck, and ever after patronized and great part of the coast of New Holland. him with such zeal and attention, as must re. The skill and ability with which he conduct. flect the highest honour upon his character. ed this expedition, ranked his name high as To Sir Hugh Pulliler is the world indebted, a navigator, and could not fail of recommer.de for having first noticed in an obscure situation, ing him to that great patron of naval merit, and aiterwards brought forward in life, the the Earl of Sandwich, who then presived at greateft nautical genius that ever any age or the board of Admiralty. He was promoted country has produced. In the year 1758, we to the rank of matter and commander, and a find him master of the Northumberland, then short time afterwards, appointed to conduct in America, under the command of Lord Col. another expedition to the Pacific Ocean, in ville. li was tijere, he has been heard to say, search of the supposed fouthern continent. that during a hard winter he first read Euclid, In this second voyage he circumnavigated the and applied himself to the study of astronomy globe, determined the non-existence of a and the mathematics, in which he made no fouthern continent, and added many valuable inconliderable progress, atlifted only by his discoveries to those he had before made in the own ingenuity and mdustry. As the time he South Sea, His own account of it is before thus found means to cultivate and improve his the public, and he is no leis admired for the mind, and to supply the deficiency of an ear- accuracy and extensive knowledge which be ty education, he was constantly eng ged' in the has displayed in that work, chan for his skill most bufy and active scenes of the war in and intrepidity in conducting the expedition. America. At the fiege of Quebec, Sir Hugh On his return, he was promoted to the rank Palliier made him known to Sir Charles Savn of post-captain), and appointed one of the cape ders, who committed to his charge the con- tains of Greenwich Hospital. In that retireducting of the boars to the attack of mount ment he did not continue long: for an active Morenci, and the embarkation that scaled the life best fuiting his difpofition, he offered his heights of Abraham. He was also employed services to conduct a third expedition to the to examine the passage of the river St. Lau. South Sea, which was then in agitation, in or. rence, and to lay buoys for the direction of the der to explore a northern paftige from Europe men of war. In short, in whatever related to to Afia: in this he unfortunately loft his life, the reduction of that place in the naval depart. but not till he had fully accomplished the obe ment, he had a principal fare, and conduct. ject of his voyage. ed himself to well cliroughout the whole, as The character of Captain Cook will be belt to recommend himself t the commander in exemplified by the services he has performed, chief. At the conclufion of the war, Sir . which are univerfally kilown, and have rank. Hught Palliser having the command of the ed his name above that of any navigator of Newfouadland Itation, he appointed him to ancient or of modern tinies. Nature banese

him with a mind vigorous and comprehensive, we placed in him was unremitting ; our adwhich in his riper years he had cultivated miration of his great calents unbounded ; our with care and industry. His general know- esteem for his good qualities affectionate and ledge was extensive and various : in that of sincere. his own profeffion he was unequalled. With . In exploring unknown countries, the dana clear judgment, strong masculine sense, and gers he had to encounter were various and the most determined resolution ; with a ge. uncommon. On such occasions, he always nius peculiarly turned for enterprize, be pur- displayed great presence of mind, and a steasued his object with unshaken perseverance : dy perseverance in pursuit of his object. The -vigilant and active in an eminent degree ;-- acquisition he has made to our knowledge of cool and intrepid among dangers; patient and the globe is immense, besides improving the firm under difficulties and distress; fertile in art of navigation, and eoriching the science of expedients ; great and original in all his de- natural philofophy. figas; active and resolved in carrying them He was remarkably distinguished for the into execution; these qualities rendered activity of his mind : it was that which enahim the animating spirit of the expedition : bled him to pay an unwearied attention to in every fituation, he stood unrivalled and every object of the service. The strict æcoalone ; on him all eyes were turned; he was nomy he observed in the expenditure of the our leading star, which at its setting left us ship's stores, and the unremitting care he eminvolved in darkness and despair.

ployed for the preservation of the healtts of His constitution was strong, his mode of his people, were the causes that enabled him living temperate : why Captain King should to prosecute discoveries in remote parts of the not suppose temperance as great a virtue in globe, for such a length of time as had been him as in any other man, I am unable to guess. deemed impracticable by former navigators. He had no repugnance to good living ; he al. The method he discovered for preserving the ways kept a good table, though he could bear health of seamen in long voyages, will transa. the reverse without murmuring. He was a mit his name to posterity as the friend and hemodest man, and rather bashful; of an agree- nefactor of mankind : the success which arable lively conversacion, sensible and intelli- tended it, afforded this truly great man more gent. In his temper he was somewhat haf. satisfaction, than the distinguished fame that ty, but of a disposition the most friendly, be- attended his discoveries. nevolent, and humane. His person was England has been unanimous in bér tribute above fix feet high, and though a good-look- of applause to his virtues, and all Europe has ing man, he was plain both in address and ap- borne testimony to his merit. There is liardpearance. His head was small ; his hair, ly a corner of the earth, however remote and which was of a dark brown, he wore tied savage, that will not long remember his bebehiod. His face was full of expression; his nevolence and humanity. The grateful 11a nore exceedingly well Thaped; his eyes, which dian, in time to come, pointing to the herds were small and of a brown caft, were quick grazing his fertile plains, will relate to his and piercing; his eye-brows prominent, children how the first llock of them was inwhich gave his countenance all together an air troduced into the country; and the name of of austerity.

Cock will be remembered among those beHe was beloved by his people, who look- nign spirits, whom they worship as the source ed up to him as to a father, and obeyed his of every good, and the fountain of every bleie commands with alacrity. The confidence fig.

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ESSAY on the RISE and PROGRESS of CHEMISTRY.

[ From Dr. Watson's “ CHEMICAL ESSATS."] THE beginnings of every arewhich tendo fent

, to pick up cafma information concerne either to , or ing the of bouies, investigate alleviate the more prelling inconveniences of by the strength of natural genius the various human life, were probably coeval with the relations of the objeats surrounding them; or first establishment of civil societies, and pre- were, in the very infancy of the world, superceded by many ages the invention of letters, naturally athited in the discovery of matters of hieroglyphics, and of every other mode of effential, as it should seem, to their existence transmitting to posterity the memory of past and well-being, must ever remain unknown transactions. In vain should we enquire who invented the first plough, baked the first bread, There can be little doubt that in the space Thaped the first pot, wove the first garment, of, at least, 1636 years, from the creation of or bollowed out the first canoe. Whether the world to the deluge, a great variety ! men were originally left, as they are at pre. æconomical arts must have been carried in a

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very confiderable degree of perfection. The the antediluvians. It is said, indeed, that knowledge of many of these perished, in all some tribes of Hottentots (who can have no likelihood, with the then inbabitants of the pretensions to be ranked amongst the cultiva. earth; it being scarcely potřible for that fin. tors of the arts) know how to melt both iron Ble family which escaped the general ruin to and copper ti but this knowledge of theirs, have either práctifej, or been even fuperfici. if they have not derived it from an intercourse ally acquainted with them all.

When men with the Europeans, is a very extraordinary have been long united in civil societies, and circumstance, fince the melting and manufachuman nature has been exalted by a recipro- turing of metals are justly considered, in genecal communication of knowledge, it does not ral, as indications of a more advanced state of often happen, that any uleful invention is in- civilization than the Hottentots have yet ar. tirely lost: but were all the pre!ent inhabi. rived at. But not to dwell upon this; Cain tants of the earth, except eight persons, to be we know buil: a city, and some would thence Jestroyed by one sudden calamity, who fees infer, that metals were in use before the time not that most of those serviceable and elegant of Tubal Cain, and that he is celebrated prin. arts, which at present conit.tute the employ. cipally for his ingenuity in fabricating them ment, and contribute to the happiness of the for domestic purposes. History seems to greatest part of the human race, would pro- support our pretenfions thus far. As to the bably be buried in long oblivion! Many cen- opinion of those who, tou zealously contend. turies might lip aw.y before the new inha- ing for the dignity of chemistry, make the dis. bitants of the glube would again become ac- covery of its mysteries to have been the pretiquainted with the nature of the compass, with um amoris which angels paid to the fair daugh. the arts of painting, printing, or dying, of ters of men, we in this age are more dispos. making porcelain, san-powder, steel, or brass. ed to apologize for it than to adopt it. We

The interval of time which elapsed from may fay of arts what Livy the Roman histo. the beginning of the world to the first deluge, rian has said of states-dasar hec venia anti. is reckoned by profane historians to be whol- quituri, ut, miscendo humana dizinis, primordia ly uncertain as to the events which liappened artion auguftiora facias. in il : it was antecedent, by many centuries, For many ages after the food we have no not only to the æra when they suppored his certain accounts of the state of chemitry. tory to commence, but to the most distant The art of making wine indeed was known, ages of heroim and fable.

The only ac

if not before soon after the deluge: this may count relative to it, which we can rely on, is be colle&ted from the intoxication of Noah , contuined in the first 11x chapters of the book there being no inebriating quality in the un. of Genesis ; three of which being employed fermented juice of the grape. The Egyptiin the history of the creation, and of the fall ans were killed in the manufacturing of me. vi man ;' and a fourth containing nothing but' tals, in medicinal chemistry, and in the art of a genealogical narration of the Patriarchs from embalming dead bodies, long before the time Adam to Noali; it cannot reasonably be ex- of Moses, as appears from the mention made pected, that the other two mould enable us to of Joseph's cup 5, and from the physicians be. iace the various steps by which the human ing ordered to embalm the body of Jacob 4. intellect adv.inced in the cultivation of arts They practised also the arts of dying and of miand sciences, or to atcertain, with much pre. king coloured glass at a very early period, as cijen, the time when any of them was first has been gathered not only from the testimaintroduced into the world. It was fome. 'ny of Siruto, but from the relics found evith viliat remark.ble, that from this account, their mummies, and from the glass beads with th:it as it is, the chemists shouid be authori- which their mummies are sometimes itulued. zed, with some propriety, to exalt the anti, But we cannot from these instances conclude quity of their art to the earliest times. Tusc' thac chemistry was then cultivated as a sepabil-cair is here mentioned as an instructor of rate branch of science, or diftinguuhed in 165

every artificer in copper and iron *. This application, from a variety of other arts which «urcumitance proves beyond dispute, that one muft have been exercised for the support and

part of metallurgic ciemistry was well known convenience of human life. All of these had at that time ; for copper and iron are, of all probably some dependence on chemical pride the nietals, moftdifficult to be extracted from ciples, but they were then, as they are al pre. their ores, and cannot, even in our days, be sent, practised by the several artists without rendere malieable without much kill or their having any theoretical knowledge of Liveble; and is proves also, that the arts in their respe&tive employments. Nor can we stateral were in an improved state amongit pay much attention in this inquiry to the ub

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