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of twelve months after either of the contracting parties shall have given notice to the other of such intention. ART. 6. The present convention shall be ratified by his Majesty the King of Prussia in the name of the North-German Confederation and by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Berlin within six months from the date hereof.

Mr. Bancroft concluded similar treaties with the Governments of Bavaria (May 26th), Wurtemberg (July 27th), Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt (August 1st).

In the budget for 1869, the receipts were estimated at 72,552,211 thalers, the expenditures at 77,701,135 thalers, the deficit at 5,148,924 thalers. The deficit was to be covered by a Federal loan (law of November 9, 1867).

The Parliament of the North-German Confederation was opened by the King of Prussia on the 23d of March. The King, in the speech from the throne, announced the further developments of the domestic institutions which had recently been founded, and mentioned the modification of the postal arrangements with several countries, and the conclusion of the

postal treaty with the United States of America. The King expressed his satisfaction at the manner in which the representatives of the North-German Confederation had been received at foreign courts, and in conclusion said he was convinced that the blessings of peace would rest upon the labors of the Parliament. The session, which for a short time was interrupted by the meeting of the Customs Union Parliament, was brought to a close on the 20th of June. In his closing speech the King of Prussia acknowledged the results of the parliamentary session, and especially alluded to the sanction of the loan for the development of the Federal navy, and for the completion of the coast defences under the control of Prussia. The speech_further mentioned the laws (passed by the Parliament as a supplement to the laws upon the freedom of domicile) removing the police restrictions upon the right of contracting marriage; the laws abolishing imprisonment for debt, and closing gambling-houses; the sanction of the different postal treaties, and of the pensions granted to the soldiers of the former Schleswig-Holstein army; the regulation of weights and measures; the equalization of the taxes, and the passage of the treaty article for the entry of Mecklenburg and Lubeck into the Zollverein.

III. THE SOUTII-GERMAN STATES.-Of the Governments of the South-German States, only one, that of Baden, showed itself favorable to a complete union between North and South Germany. The Governments of Bavaria, Wurtemberg, and Hesse-Darmstadt declared a determination to adhere faithfully to the military and commercial treaties which had been concluded with the North-German Confederation, but were unwilling to go beyond them. A more determined opposition to the ascendency

of Prussia was made by the radical "people's party" (Volkspartei) in the Southern States. On the 19th and 20th of September, a meeting of delegates of this party took place at Stuttgart. The meeting declared that the people's party acknowledge the three following principles:

1. The democratic principle of equality, and demands therefore the equal cooperation of all citizens in the forming and working of the constitution, the carrying out of the principle of the self-government of the people in the state.

2. In national as in international affairs, the people's party acknowledges the right of every clan Volkstamm) as well as of every people to determine unity. Only a federal state founded in freedom, and its own destiny. Only in this way does it strive after inclusive of German Austria, corresponds with our principles.

3. The people's party acknowledges that the constitutional and social questions are inseparable, and in particular that the economical liberation of the workin necessary coordination with each other. ing-classes and the realization of political liberty are

The following resolutions fully define the position of the party with regard to the unity question:

1. The people's party is a party of peace. It sees liberty, and does what lies in its power against the in every war a condemnable injury to the interests of present peril of war.

2. To the South Germans it recommends opposition to the process of Prussianizing, and, with a view to the reunion of the whole fatherland, the foundation of a liberty-loving Southern Confederation, which should be kept up by a common popular representation, and executive, and be protected by a militia system on the Swiss pattern.

3. Within the North-German Confederation, it supports every tendency or effort which looks to a greater independence of provincial or little state political life. It presses upon the lands annexed by Prussia the duty of keeping alive and strengthening the peculiarities of their traditional local life which have a democratic character.

liberty as a condition precedent and security for its 4. In German Austria, the development of internal reunion with Germany; the carrying through of a general reform in German Austria is as much a German as it is an Austrian interest. Only when German Austria takes a deep interest in the German na tional and liberal movement, only when a mutual aetion and reaction go on between German Austria and the rest of Germany, will Austria's reforming policy become firmly rooted in the soil.

5. In these endeavors the members of the people's party throughout all Germany have to lend each other


6. In the event of a war, the German people's party, mindful of its national duty, will take that side which offers security for the integrity of the soil of Germany. Even during war the people's party will not desist from working for the liberty and unity of the fatherland.

On the labor question the convention passed the following resolutions:

1. Permanent discussion of labor questions in the party organs and in the party clubs; promotion of the cooperative movement and trade-unions, and of the movement for procuring to the working-men a share in the net profits of their labor.

2. By means of the Legislature the following aims schools; establishment of technical schools, and are to be striven for: The elevation of the commen gratuitous instruction thereat; complete freedom to manufacture; unlimited right of settlement and

movement; abolition of all restrictions on workingclass marriages; abolition of monopolies; prohibition of child-labor in factories; limitation of the hours of labor; unlimited right of combination; reform of the law of partnership so as to render it favorable to the formation of cooperative associations; repeal of all indirect taxes, and the introduction of a single direct tax on a progressive scale; abolition of standing armies.

In July, Bavaria and Wurtemberg concluded a convention in reference to the future garrison of the South-German fortress of Ulm.

The following table shows the statistics of the universities of all Germany and of German Switzerland:

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GERMANY, THE PRESS OF, IN 1868. The number of political newspapers published in the states of the North-German Confederation, in the German states south of the Maine line, and in the German provinces of Austria, on the 1st of July, 1868, was fifteen hundred and seventy-nine, of which three hundred and fifteen were dailies, and the remainder tri-weeklies, semi-weeklies, and weeklies. The kingdom of Saxony possessed the largest number of political jourVOL. VIII.-21 A

nals in proportion to its population, namely, one to every four thousand five hundred inhabitants; the aggregate circulation of the newspapers published there is nearly twice as large as in any other German state or province containing the same population. The smallest number of newspapers in proportion to the of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, where there is but population was published in the grand-duchy one political journal to every thirty-three thousand inhabitants. In Prussia, there is one political journal to every fifteen thousand inhabitants; in Bavaria, one to every seventeen thousand three hundred and fifty; in Wurtemberg, one to every thirteen thousand eight hundred; in Hesse-Darmstadt, one to every fourteen thousand nine hundred; in Oldenburg, one to every twenty-eight thousand; in the Thuringian duchies and principalities, one to about every twenty-two thousand inhabitants. The largest circulation obtained by any daily German paper in the year 1868 was twenty-nine thousand (that of the Volkszeitung); and the largest circulation of any German weekly was three hundred and twenty thousand copies (that of the Leipsic Gartenlaube). The aggregate circulation of the daily papers published in Berlin, on the 1st of October, 1868, was one hundred and twenty-four thousand seven hundred copies, the Volkszeitung and the Vossische Zeitung heading the list with respectively twenty-nine thousand and fourteen thousand five hundred copies, and the Zukunft closing it with less than one thousand two hundred copies. The aggregate circulation of the dailies published at Munich was sixty-four thousand copies; at Hamburg, nineteen thousand copies; at Stuttgart, thirty-one thousand copies; at Cologne, thirty-one thousand; at Leipsic, twenty-nine thousand; at Dresden, forty-one thousand one hundred; at Hanover, thirty-two thousand; at Frankfort-on-the-Maine, thirtynine thousand; at Vienna, one hundred and seventy-nine thousand copies. The largest advertising patronage reported by any German daily was that of the Hamburger Nachrichten (Hamburg News), which, in the first nine months of the year 1868, paid taxes on 287,000 marks; next followed the Berlin Vossische Zeitung, with a little over a hundred thousand thalers, and the Kölnische Zeitung (Cologne Gazette), with ninety thousand thalers, in the same space of time. As regards both the circulation of the newspapers and their receipts for advertisements, there was a sensible falling off in nearly all parts of Germany, as compared to the results obtained in the year 1867, the absence of exciting and important political events and the general stagnation of business having injuriously affected the newspaper business. Only in Vienna, in consequence of the important political struggles which took place in Austria in the spring and summer of 1868, all the newspapers did a more profitable business than in the preceding year; their circu

lation having risen considerably. The Presse, * States, are no longer to be found in that of which in 1867 had only twelve thousand subscribers, never printed less than seventeen thousand copies in 1868, and on two occasions sold fifty thousand extra copies. The other Vienna dailies obtained a similar increase in their circulation.

One of the most important events in the history of the German press, during the year 1868, was the determined attempt made by a very large majority of the journeymen printers to put an end to type-setting and performing press-work on Sundays. A printers' congress held at Berlin in the latter part of the spring passed resolutions to this effect; and no sooner had the telegraph circulated the report of these resolutions in the various parts of the country than the journeymen printers and press-men, in the printing-offices of nearly every daily paper published in Germany, informed their employers that they would no longer work on Sundays. This step called forth the most strenuous resistance on the part of the newspaper publishers, inasmuch as most of them were issuing Monday editions, and their refusal to employ journeymen that refused to work on Sundays gave rise to an extensive strike among the compositors and press-men. In consequence of this strike, not a few of the most influential German newspapers were forced to suspend for several days, while others had to reduce their reading matter considerably. Appeals made to the authorities to intervene between the contending parties were unsuccessful. After a great deal of wrangling, an amicable arrangement was finally arrived at, and the result was that nearly all the German dailies discontinued their Monday editions.

The press laws in some of the German States underwent important alterations in the course of the year 1868. In the grandduchy of Baden the adoption of a new and liberal law, in which the oppressive features of the former press law, that had been dictated by the reactionary spirit engendered by the revolutionary events of 1848 and 1849, were omitted, placed the newspaper press of Baden on a more independent footing than that of any other German State. The number of prosecutions instituted in this grand-duchy in the year 1868, against editors and publishers for offences against the press laws, was only nine; most of these prosecutions were directed against the editors of ultramontane journals, opposing in a spirit of intense bitterness and hostility the friendly course which the Government of Baden was pursuing toward Prussia in regard to the German question.

In the kingdom of Saxony, the adoption of the new criminal code led likewise to the repeal of the most rigorous paragraphs of the press laws of 1849. "Offences against his Majesty, and against the other members of the royal house," which play such an important role in the press codes of most of the German

Saxony. The number of journalists prosecuted in that kingdom in the year 1868 for violations of the press laws was trifling. Most of the editors who were prosecuted were arraigned on charges of no great importance, and the courts acquitted nearly all of them.

In Wurtemberg, where the press is comparatively free, no changes of importance were made in the press laws. If the number of prosecutions of journalists for infractions of these laws was rather large in 1868, it was owing to the intense excitement to which the elections for the German Zoll-Parliament gave rise at the beginning of the year, and to the fact that Stuttgart, the capital of the kingdom, is the headquarters of the extreme wing of the South-German Democracy, whose most influential organ, the Beobachter, edited by Charles Mayer, is published there. The defiant boldness with which this journal attacked Prussia and the Wurtemberg Government, in nearly every issue, involved it in a large number of prosecutions, most of which terminated in sentences imposing fines and imprisonment on the accused editor.

In Bavaria the administration of Prince Hohenlohe inaugurated a decidedly liberal system in its treatment of the political press. During the year 1868 the Bavarian Government had only five papers prosecuted for polit ical offences; and all the articles designated were deemed objectionable, not because of the political principles they advocated, but on account of the personal attacks they contained. A commission, composed of several eminent jurists and statesmen, was organized in the autumn of 1868 for the purpose of subjecting the press laws of Bavaria to a thorough revision; but the results of their labors have not yet been submitted to the Bavarian Chambers.

In Prussia the changes made in regard to the taxes on newspapers, the reduction of the post-office tariff, and the measures adopted for adding to the efficiency of the mail service, were the only improvements by which the newspaper press of the kingdom profited in the year 1868. In every other respect its condition remained as unsatisfactory as ever. The appointment of Mr. Leonhard as Minister of Justice, in the place of Count Zur Lippe, who, during the whole of his administration, had pursued a proscriptive course toward the Liberal newspapers, had given rise to the hope that the number of press prosecutions, which in 1867 had been frightfully large, would considerably decrease in 1868; but this hope was only partially fulfilled. The public prosecutors pursued about the same course as before, and the number of press trials fell short but very little of that of 1867. In the newly-annexed provinces of the kingdom, Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, and Nassau, where grievous blunders committed by the adminis tration had created a great deal of dissatisfac tion among the inhabitants, the press, naturally

reflecting as it did this disaffection, and teeming with bitter complaints about the mismanagement of certain royal functionaries, was treated with the utmost severity, so that the SchleswigHolstein papers declared they had met with more lenity even during the most oppressive period of the Danish régime. Appeals made to the central Government in Berlin elicited only vague promises, to the effect that a more liberal course should be pursued in the future; and the earnest protests of the opposition members in the Prussian Parliament bore no immediate fruits. The whole number of prosecutions instituted for violations of the press laws in Prussia, from the 1st of January to the 1st of July, 1868, was ninety-seven. Owing to the heavy fines imposed by the courts upon their editors and printers, seven papers were compelled to suspend publication.

In Mecklenburg-Schwerin, where the condition of the political press was the effect of the oppressive laws adopted in the reactionary period succeeding the revolutionary events of 1848 and 1849, the editors and publishers of the daily papers called, in November, 1868, upon the grand-duke, and requested him to instruct his Minister of Justice to prepare a more liberal press code. They assured him that the press laws prevailing in the grand-duchy were even more oppressive than those of France, and hardly more liberal than those of Russia. No satisfactory response was made to this appeal.

In the German provinces of Austria, especially in Vienna, the press enjoys almost complete liberty, only four journals having been prosecuted for violations of the press laws in the course of 1868. In Bohemia, however, owing to the intense state of hostility prevailing between the Czechs and German Bohemians, the Austrian Government deemed it necessary to prosecute most of the extreme organs of the former with extraordinary vigor, and the courts, especially those of Prague, not only passed unusually severe sentences on a number of prominent Bohemian editors, but compelled several of the most influential Czech organs to suspend publication.

GIBSON, WILLIAM, M. D., LL. D., an eminent American surgeon and author, born in the city of Baltimore in 1788; died at Savannah, Ga., March 2, 1868. His classical education was obtained in St. John's College, Annapolis, and the college of New Jersey, at Princeton, and he graduated at the latter in 1806. He had already given some attention to the study of medicine, having entered the office of Dr. John Owen, of Baltimore. In 1806 he went abroad, and continued his medical and surgical studies in the University of Edinburgh, enjoying the special instruction of Sir Charles Bell. He received his medical diploma from the university in 1809, and soon after published the Latin thesis which he had defended on that occasion. On his return he settled in practice in Baltimore, and was one of the early professors of surgery in the University of

Maryland. In 1812 he took up the common iliac artery, and rendered essential service in the memorable Baltimore riots. He was fond of military surgery, and managed to be present at some very important battles in Europe, especially at Corunna and at Waterloo. At the latter he was slightly wounded. After his return from this second visit to Europe he was called to the chair of surgery in the University of Pennsylvania, and for more than thirty years filled that important post with great acceptance. He was a fine operator, and during his long practice in Philadelphia had the opportunity of performing repeatedly all, or nearly all, of the great operations of the profession. Among others of them he performed the Cæsarean section twice on the same woman, and both times with successful result to mother and children. He made frequent visits to Europe, and, having an ample fortune, indulged in his fondness for travel by visiting nearly every country of Europe, and considerable portions of Asia and Africa. After reaching the age of seventy he retired from practice, and removed to Newport, R. I., for a summer residence, usually spending his winters in Savannah or its vicinity. Dr. Gibson was the author of numerous works, mostly professional, of which his "Principles and Practice of Surgery" is the most widely known, having passed through many editions. He also published, in 1841, a volume of "Rambles in Europe in 1839," being sketches of prominent surgeons; and in 1841 a lecture, embracing a short account of eminent Belgian surgeons and physicians. He had kept a daily journal for over sixty years, and at the time of his death it included about one hundred and fifty volumes.

GILLESPIE, WILLIAM MITCHELL, LL. D., an American civil engineer, professor, and author, born in New York City in 1816; died there, January 1, 1868. He was a graduate of Columbia College, in the class of 1834, and after leaving college spent about ten years in Europe, partly in the further prosecution of his studies, and partly in extensive travel and observation. During his residence in Europe he was an occasional correspondent of some of the New York daily papers, and his letters were subsequently collected into a volume, with the title "Rome, as seen by a New-Yorker in 1843-'44." He returned to New York in 1845, an accomplished civil engineer, and his volume entitled "Roads and Railroads," published soon after his return, has become a work of standard authority, and has passed through numerous editions. He received and accepted the appointment, in 1845, of Professor of Civil Engineering in Union College, which he held till his death. He was very popular as a professor, and the care and research he bestowed in perfecting his lectures and instructions were never abated to the day of his death. In 1855 he published an admirable treatise on land-surveying, which passed through a half-dozen

editions in the next three years, and was pirated by another author, who subsequently, however, recanted the claims he had made to its authorship. In 1857 he published a translation of a portion of August Comte's writings, under the title of "Philosophy of Mathematics;" but it was less successful than his other books. An original, brilliant, and independent thinker, somewhat given to paradox, abhorring every thing like pretence, sham, or cant, he was sometimes a little too severe on those who did not possess his own intellectual vigor. His nature was, however, too genial and social to give his positive assertions an offensive tone. He died of disease of the lungs, from which he had been suffering for about a year. The last four months he had only been able to perform his college duties with great pain and difficulty; but, through the force of a powerful will, he had kept up, and on the day of his death deluded himself with the belief that he should return to his work in three or four days. In his department of science he has left behind him few equals and no superior.

GILMER, JOHN A., a Southern politician, born in Guilford County, N. C., November 4, 1805; died in Greensboro, N. C., May 14, 1868. He was of poor but respectable parentage, and of studious habits; and, having acquired a good English education at winter schools, he worked on a farm and in a shop during the summer seasons, and finally taught school till he obtained the means of taking a three years' course at the academy at Greensboro. Here he distinguished himself as a linguist and mathematician, and subsequently taught for three years in a grammar-school. Afterward he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1832. His practice and reputation slowly advanced, and in 1846 he was elected State Senator, and retained in the Senate by successive reëlections till 1856, when he was elected to the Thirty-fifth Congress, and served on the Committee on Elections. He was also a candidate of the Whig party for Governor in 1856, but was defeated. He was reelected to the Thirty-sixth Congress, and made chairman of the Committee on Elections, but before the expiration of his term withdrew, North Carolina having been forced into secession. During the war he remained quietly at home, until 1864, when he was chosen a member of the last Confederate Congress. After the war, he was a delegate to the Philadelphia "National Union Convention" in the summer of 1866.

GORTCHAKOFF, Prince PETER DMITRIEVITOH, a Russian general and military governor of remarkable administrative ability, born at Moscow, in 1789; died in that city, in April, 1868. Having received a military education at Dresden, he entered the artillery of the Imperial Guard in 1807; was engaged in the war with the Finns in 1809, and in the Turkish war, in Moldavia, in 1810, taking an active part in the battles of Rustschuk and Shumla. In

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1811 he was in St. Petersburg, assisting in the editing of the Military Journal; but in 1812-'14 he was again in the field, encountering all the vicissitudes of the war with Napoleon. After the restoration of peace in Western Europe, Prince Gortchakoff, now recognized as an officer of great courage and ability, was ordered to the Caucasus. Here, for some years, all was quiet; but, in 1820, Mingrelia, Imeritia, and Georgia rose simultaneously, and for a time it seemed as if the Russian power in that region would be blotted out forever. That it was not, was due largely to the skill and address, as well as the unflinching courage, of Prince Gortchakoff. He held the wavering tribes to their allegiance; by his rapid and skilful movements subjugated the district of Batchin, the principal seat of the insurrection, and adroitly secured the evidence of the plans of the insurgent leaders, and the complicity of several powerful chiefs who had professed to be friendly. For his great services he was rewarded with the rank of major-general and the governorship of Imeritia. For five years he governed this important province with remarkable ability, improving its communications, encouraging industry, but trampling out, with the iron heel, every attempt at revolt. In 1826, war again occurring between Russia and Turkey, he was appointed quartermaster general of the Second Army, and distinguished himself before Shumla, and in the campaign under Diebitsch in 1829. He subsequently returned to the Caucasus, but in 1836 was made Governor-General of Western Siberia, and for fifteen years managed the affairs of that vast region with wonderful success, transferring the seat of the government to Omsk, encouraging all the industries of the country, and largely developing its resources. health failing under his manifold labors, he returned to Moscow in 1851; but, having nearly recovered in 1854, he was summoned to take part in the Crimean War, was conspicuous for his daring at the Alma, heading in person the Vladimir regiment of foot, and had command of the entire land forces in the retreat upon Sebastopol, and subsequently was appointed general of the Sixth Corps of Infantry. In 1855 the prince quitted the service, and became a member of the Imperial Council. In 1857, on the fiftieth anniversary of his entering the army, he was made commander of the Vladimir regiment which he had led so bravely at the Alma, and held this honorary appointment to the end of his life. In 1863 he returned to Moscow, and remained there till his death.


GRANGER, FRANCIS, an active and distinguished politician of New York, born in Suffield, Conn., in 1787; died in Canandaigua, New York, August 28, 1868. He was the son of Gideon Granger, Postmaster-General of the United States from 1801 to 1814, and enjoyed excellent advantages of early education. He did not, however, enter Yale College until his twentieth year, and graduated in the class of

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