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JAPAN, an empire in Eastern Asia. The area is estimated at 150,000 square miles; the population at about 35,000,000. The conflict between the Mikado and Tycoon, in 1867 and 1868, resulted in the resumption of the administration of the empire by the Mikado, and in the total abolition of the Tycoonate. The following foreign powers were, in 1868, represented in Japan, by diplomatic agents: United States of America (Robert B. Van Valkenburgh minister), Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Italy, Netherlands, North-German Confederation, Austria, Portugal, Russia, Switzerland.


pations formed of it. The demand, such as it is, is almost entirely for American consumption. The import trade into Japan in 1867 was affected by the country being to some extent impoverished through the large payments made for sugar, rice, and arms, and the shipments from home having been excessive, prices declined greatly. Business in metals was unsat isfactory, but there appears to be a steadilyincreasing demand for cotton manufactures. The vessels sold at Nagasaki last year were 25 in number, the tonnage ranging from 83 to 540 tons. All but four were British vessels. In most instances they were sold at high prices, upon long credit. The Japanese work these vessels for their own business, plying between Nagasaki and the various ports of the adjacent provinces, but rarely carrying full cargoes. Coal is found in abundance for the supply of the large fleet of steamers now possessed by the Japanese, and is exported to Shanghai, where it finds a ready sale when English coal cannot be obtained. The British consul at Nagasaki reports that the natives are so anxious to learn, that not a single steamer enters the harbor but they are sure to visit it, and take minute copies of what they think of interest. They are able themselves to work all the steamers they have recently purchased.

The imports and exports in 1864 and 1865 were as follows (value in millions of dollars):

Official reports from the three ports of Japan open in 1867 (Kanagawa, Nagasaki, and Hakodadi) show that the exports in that year amounted to $12,123,674, and the imports to $18,476,330, to which must be added no less than $1,500,000 for the value of rice imported, duty-free, into Kanagawa, owing to the bad harvest of 1866, and $1,199,739, the value of steamers and sailing-vessels sold at Nagasaki, bringing the total value of the exports and imports of 1867 up to $33,099,743. This statement shows a large balance against Japan, and, although the difference is probably not so great as is thus represented, in consequence of the exports being under-estimated, it is known that large returns were received in the year by the foreign merchants in native coin, which was extensively imported as bullion. There has also been an unnatural expansion in that unfavorable feature of the commerce of Japan, the import trade in arms. No less than 102,333 stand of arms were imported into Kan- Under other foreign. agawa in 1867, and 64,367 stand into Nagasaki; and it is known that these figures do not represent the total quantity of arms brought into Japan. It has not been found possible to show the proportions in which the foreign trade with Japan above stated has been distributed between English and other foreign interests, but some indication is supplied by the tonnage returns. The total foreign tonnage entered at the three ports in 1867 was 297,851 tons, of which there were 138,126 tons British, and 159,725 tons of other foreign tonnage. Nearly 400 British merchant-vessels visited one or

other of the ports of Japan in 1867. American shipping shows a marked increase, owing to the opening of the Pacific mail line to San Francisco. The export of raw silk from Japan showed a marked decline in 1867, owing partly, it is probable, to an increased export of silkworm eggs, to make good the failures of the European silkworm, the native growers preferring to realize a profit from the eggs, without waiting the result of the tardy and more risky process of their conversion into silk.

Japanese tea has hardly fulfilled the antici


Under the British..


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The chief articles of export are: tea (1866'67, 7,000,000 pounds), silk (1866-'67, 13,537 balls), and cotton.

The following was the movement of shipping:





Vessels. Tonnage. Vessels. Tonnag 1867 175 99.784 179 97.092 1866 53 15,760 53 15.459 1865 202 69,059 187 63.975

CYCLOPÆDIA for 1867, that, at the close of the It has already been stated, in the ANNTAL full account of this event is given in the folyear 1867, the Tycoon resigned his office. A lowing extract from a letter of NomouraSooshti (a Japanese general, who seems to have played a conspicuous part in the revolution) to Count Charles de Montblanc, dated from Kioto, November 10, 1867:

of his Majesty the Mikado, is now free from every The Japanese Confederation, under the presidency illusion. The Tycoon has resigned his equivocal power into the hands of the Mikado. Japanese civ

ilization is triumphant. According to the French mode of dividing the year, it was at the beginning of November that all the preparations had been completed. On the 7th of that month the deputies of the Princes of Satsuma, Tosa, Geishion, and all the other members of the National party, whom you know, and which party reckons among its members some of the vassals and even a brother of the exTycoon (Stotsbashi), proceeded to Nidjo-no-Siro, the residence of the Princes of Yedo à Kioto. From the outset the Tycoon manifested his comprehension of the national movement, and showed an intelligent and unselfish attachment for the general interests of the country. Having explained that the Princes of Yedo (his predecessors) had thought it their duty to deal with the foreigners in their quality of Tycoon, he added that he did not intend to maintain, against the opinion of the Daimios, the exclusive position which he had inherited. Then he said: "The movement being made around me implies a blame which I accept; and, if the deputies think that I should resign the title in virtue of which the Princes of Yedo acted, I am ready to give in that resignation." The deputies briefly answered: "Act according to the dictates of your conscience, and do so promptly." The resignation of the Tycoon was at once drawn up, almost in identical terms with his declaration to the deputies. Next day, November 8th, the Shoshidai (official intermediary between the Mikado and the Tycoon), Matsdaira Estion-no-Kani, was summoned by the deputies. The act of resignation was then placed in his hand, with the usual ceremonial, to be transmitted by him to the Mikado. On the 9th his Excellency the Shoshidai brought the official answer of the Mikado, who had accepted the resignation of the Tycoon, and announced that his programme contained the following resolutions: His Majesty the Mikado will convoke at Kioto ali the Japanese Daimios, who will form a sovereign chamber. That chamber will decide all questions of a general interest. The foreign question is accepted in the Mikado's name upon the basis already existing in the states of Kuanto. The foreign alliance is to be extended to the other states, and to be framed on a more liberal basis. The Mikado will make public the resolutions of the Federal Chamber by decrees and proclamations. The Mikado's relations with public affairs will be conducted through two speaking ministers, the Denizo and the Guizo."

On January 1, 1868, the ministers of all the foreign treaty powers were at Osaca, supported by a large naval force, consisting of nineteen men-of-war. It had been announced that the opening of the port of Hiogo and the city of Osaca, which, according to agreement, was to take place on January 1st, was to be deferred to April 1st, and that the foreign ministers remained at Osaca, to urge the speedy opening. There was, however, no need for bringing a pressure to bear upon the Japanese Government, for Hiogo and Osaca were formally opened at the appointed time (January 1st), all the salutingships hoisting the Japanese flag, and giving it twenty-one guns; and then the guns in the Osaca forts saluted severally, at intervals of about twenty minutes, the flags of the treaty nations. The Japanese Government officials then paid visits of ceremony to the various foreign officials, which were returned, and the opening ceremonies were at an end. At noon the American and English consuls almost simultaneously ran up their national ensigns (no other consulates were ready), and then commenced the dealings with the natives. United

States Minister Van Valkenburgh issued a notification of the opening of the new ports, dated January 1st, and published sailing directions and regulations concerning lighters, towboats, etc.

After the resignation of Stotsbashi, the Tycoon, in November, 1867, a confederation of the Daimios (princes), from the south of the empire, determined to utterly crush him, and exclude him from all participation in the Government. The Tycoon was, on January 1st, at Osaca, assisting at the opening of that port and the neighboring port of Hiogo to foreigners, while the Mikado was at Kioto, not far distant. The person of the young Mikado about this time was seized by Satsuma, Chosin, Tosa, and others of the Tycoon's enemies, whereupon the Tycoon fled from Kioto to Osaca, where he took refuge in his strong castle there, and endeavored to collect his forces and those of other Daimios who sided with him. Meanwhile at Yeddo (the Tycoon's capital) the yashikis, or palaces of the Daimios, all of whom had been compelled in former years to maintain establishments there, were being dismantled and the effects being removed to the respective territories of the princes. The retainers of Prince Satsuma harbored in his halfdismantled yashiki a horde of Ranins (men of bad character, owning allegiance to no one). The depredations of these men, issuing forth from this stronghold, aroused the Tycoon's lieutenants to remonstrance. The answer denying authority was the decapitation of the messenger, and returning his head with abusive messages. The result was a battle, attended with frightful loss of life, and the escape of a portion of the force from the yashiki, who cut their way to a vessel of Satsuma's and ran out into the bay, being pursued and fought in front of Yokohama by one of the Tycoon's vessels, but making good their escape to Satsuma. January 28th, Satsuma sent to Osaca for supplies. The Tycoon refused to allow them to pass out. Satsuma placed himself at the head of his troops and marched out from Kioto to compel their delivery. The Tycoon, learning this, marched out to give battle. The forces of the Tycoon got between two columns of Satsuma's army (really composed of the troops of several of the southern Daimios besides Satsuma's own retainers), and the army of the Tycoon was beaten, Stotsbashi himself sought refuge on the United States steamer Iroquois, and thence transferred himself and officials to one of his own steamers and steamed away for Jeddo. Satsuma, on taking Osaca, burned the magnificent palace of the Tycoon to equalize matters, the Tycoon having burned one of Satsuma's at the same place. January 31st, the town of Kanagawa, lying between Yokohama and Jeddo, was burned by some of Satsuma's sympathizers. Upward of three miles along the Tocaida (the great government road running all through the empire) was burned, and thousands rendered homeless. Yokohama merchants raised a sub

scription, and the next day Dr. Hepburn and another missionary distributed rice and blankets to the sufferers on the scene of the conflagration.

The day following the abandonment of Osaca by the Tycoon, the Government officials called on all the consuls, and advised them to direct their subjects to take refuge on board their national vessels, as they could offer them no further assistance or protection, and intended to abandon the place to the insurgents and leave at once to join the Tycoon. Acting upon this suggestion, the consuls met, but did not instruct their people to leave; they simply informed them of the information they possessed, and left them to act as they thought best; at the same time arrangements were made with the men-of-war of all nations to be prepared, in case of an attack from the troops of the southern Daimios, for giving them a warm reception. The next day the ministers were compelled to fly from Osaca, as the place had been fired by Satsuma, and arrived at Hiogo (Kobe) the same day and took up their quarters in the abandoned Government house and custom-house.

On the 4th of February, some of the troops of Prince Bizen (one of the confederate Daimios opposed to Stotsbashi) entered Hiogo and attacked several foreigners. A French marine and an American sailor were wounded by shots. Sir H. Parkes, who was riding in their neighborhood, narrowly escaped, several shots being aimed at him. The detachments of the 9th British regiment were called out, and the Japanese troops were pursued and dispersed. A naval brigade was landed from the Ocean, and in a few hours Hiogo was again quiet. The confederate Daimios, however, claimed to be favorably disposed to foreigners, and did not indorse the outrages committed by the meb. The Mikado addressed a communication to Chosin and Satsuma, warning them to be particularly careful that no rudeness nor lawless conduct be observed toward foreigners by those passing through Hiogo. In consequence of the outrage committed at Hiogo by Prince Bizen's men, the foreign men-of-war seized, on the 5th of February, all the steamers owned by Japanese, anchored in the port of Hiogo. This was because, as stated in the declaration of the foreign ministers, the affair concerned not only the clan of Bizen, but all the clans throughout Japan. The Government of the Mikado deemed it necessary to punish the author of the outrages. Accordingly, Kenzaboro, the officer in command of Prince Bizen's troops, who ordered the firing on the foreigners, was executed by order of the Mikado in the presence of one foreigner from each European legation, together with an equal number of Japanese officials. The condemned, being of high rank, was permitted to commit harikari. Before his death he acknowledged the offence, admitted that his trial was fair and his sentence just, and he advised the Japanese to

hereafter treat foreigners with consideration. The foreign representatives requested the Government not to confiscate his estate according to the Japanese law, but permit it to descend to his family. The request was granted. Next day the the ministers received letters of apology from the Mikado Government.


On March 5th, the ministers, with each of their vessels, went to Osaca, intending to reoccupy their former legations. They found the British legations destroyed by fire, and the French legations torn to pieces. The American and other legations were untouched. March 8th, the French sailors surveying off Osaca were attacked by Prince Tosa's men; eleven Frenchmen were killed and five wounded. On learning the massacre, the English, Prussian, Dutch, Italian, and United States ministers met at the residence of the French minister at Osaca, and decided by common accord to leave Osaca, haul down their flags, and withdraw their consuls, until satisfaction should have been granted. On the following day the Japanese authorities came and declared the massacre to be inexcusable, and the murderers were placed at the disposal of the French minister. All the ministers of the other powers supported the French demand for reparation by energetic notes. The French minister demanded the execution of the men concerned in the murder, with an apology from Tosa and the Mikado's Government; also a money indemnity of $150,000. The demands were complied with, and twenty Japanese were beheaded.

On March 13th, the American minister left for Yokohama, taking with him the Italian and Prussian ministers and their suites, in the United States steamer Monocacy, with the intention of defending foreign interests, the Mikado having informed them that large bodies of troops were marching on Jeddo with the probable intention of fighting. On March 18th, the American minister went to Jeddo, remaining one week, and conferring with the Tycoon's officers, and then returned to Yokohama He was the last and only minister at Jeddo. The Mikado's troops were marching toward Jeddo, and straggled largely into Yokohama, apparently uncontrolled. Disturbances occurred, and the people became alarmed. The ministers conferred with the Government authorities of Yokohama, and decided to post the American, Prussian, French, and British soldiers and marines at the entrances of the settlement, and prohibit the entrance of armed Japanese from without. This insured tranquillity. The French, British, and Dutch ministers remained at Hiogo. After the settlement of the French indemnity, they were invited to an audience with the Mikado at Kioto.

The interview took place on the 21st of March, this being the first time that represent atives of the foreign powers have been admitted to the presence of the Mikado. The day fol

lowing these interviews, Sir Harry Parkes, the British minister, attended by an escort, was approaching the castle of the Mikado to pay his respects, when he was attacked by a band of desperadoes, who threw the escort into confusion and wounded with swords eight men. One account says that eight was the number of the attacking party, of whom two were killed, two wounded and captured, and four allowed to escape. The same account adds that the last six were "disposed of." One who was captured and executed was an officer of high rank of the Mikado's household. The Mikado issued another stringent order in reference to future attacks on foreigners. Samurai (officials and nobles) guilty of assaults hereafter will be degraded from their rank, and decapitated by the common executioner.

The Mikado's Government about this time addressed an ultimatum to the Tycoon (who is called in this document Yoshi-Hisa), of which the Japanese Times published the following synopsis:

It premises that the Tycoon, having proceeded to such an extreme as may properly be termed an insult to the whole empire, and having caused the deepest pain to the mind of the Emperor, both sea and land forces were sent to punish him. Having learned, however, that he is sincerely penitent and lives in retirement, the excess of the imperial compassion shall be exhausted, and the following commands be enjoined upon him, let him be respectfully obedient to them: A period of eleven days is granted him in which to comply with all these orders. As the period of eleven days is already a matter of clemency, upon no account will any request or complaint be listened to. The Emperor, having established both his authority and clemency, will not allow any claim of alliance to have influence with him. To be promptly obedient, and resort to no subterfuge.

The first article of the proclamation_rehearses how that the Tycoon, having insulted the Emperor by attacking the imperial city and firing upon the imperial flag, was guilty of a great crime. But since then he has manifested sincere contrition, and has shut himself up in retirement, suing for pardon. In consideration of the important services rendered the state by the Tokugawa family, in administering to the Government during the last 200 years, and more especially the accumulated meritorious services of the late father of Yoshi-Hisa, it is the imperial will that the following commands be given; if they are obeyed, the house of Tokugawa will remain established in their Daimaite-capital punishment will be remitted, but Yoshi-Hisa is commanded to go to the castle of Mito, and there to live shut up in retirement. Article second commands that the castle of the Shegoon, at Yeddo, be turned over to the Prince of Owari. Those living in the castle to move out and go into retirement also.

Then the third article requires all ships, arms, munitions of war, etc., etc., to be delivered up to the General Government, when a proportion will be returned to the Tokugawa Daimaite. The last article of the manifesto says that all who have aided YoshiHisa deserve death, but that penalty is remitted, and the imperial commission will decide upon other punishment for persons save those whose incomes are over 10,000 kokus (say $31,000 or $32,000) per annum.

In April, the Mikado issued a decree that, in consequence of the confusion into which public affairs had come, and that the sense of the people might be obtained, the princes should

meet with him at Miako as soon as it might be convenient. They should bring with them such counsellors as might be best qualified to propose improvements in the Government. The Daimios were enjoined to obtain the will of the people as to who these counsellors should be. The selection, in order to secure the greatest possible impartiality, should be conducted or superintended, not by the prince of a given province, but by the prince of the adjoining province. The counsellors thus chosen and all the Daimios of the empire should meet at Miako, and deliberate upon the affairs of the nation. Besides, the Mikado decreed that every man who had valuable suggestions to make in regard to political matters should have liberty to avow them openly, and should send them to the Congress or Parliament at Miako, where they would be considered.

The friendly attitude of the Mikado toward the foreign powers alienated for a time some of the most powerful southern Daimios, who had always been sworn enemies of the foreigners, such as Chosin and Tosa. The following is a translation of a portion of Chosin's remonstrance, dated May, 1868, and published in the Naigaispinko, a Japanese newspaper:

If the foreigners are invited to the imperial court, who will be the man, when the time for expulsion has come, to employ his energy for this purpose? Therefore it is not right that the foreigners are admitted to the Dairo (palace of the Mikado).

The High-Priest of Kioto issued a manifesto, warning the Mikado against interfering too much in the temporal affairs, and calling upon him to desist, on pain of being called upon by the priesthood to abdicate: 170,000 copies of the proclamation were reported to have been sold and distributed among the Japanese.

In May, the Tycoon, Stotsbashi, declared his readiness to accept the conditions of the Mikado, viz., to cede nearly half of his private territory, disband his army, surrender his navy, and himself to retire to Mito, for which place he left on the 12th of May. The Tycoon gave orders to his admiral to surrender the fleet, but that officer left Yeddo with all the vessels, and subsequently coöperated with Prince Aidsin.

This, however, did not end the war. A strong coalition was formed in the interest of the Tycoon, and the most powerful of the northern Daimios joined it. Aidsin attacked a body of the Mikado's troops on the 10th of May, 12 miles from Yeddo, routed them, and took possession of a castle recently surrendered by the Tycoon. On the 17th he attacked another army, killed 800 and captured 300, all of whom he beheaded. On the 22d of May another engagement took place only six miles from Yeddo, also ending disastrously to the Mikado's troops. Fourteen hundred were killed, and 800 captured.

On July 4th an attack was made by 20,000 southerners on the Takugawas (the family to which the Tycoon belonged) at Yeddo, who

were only about 1,500 strong. The southerners were repulsed. The attack was renewed the next day, and the Takugawas were entirely routed. Half of Yeddo, including two large temples, was burned.

At Tichino, about 18 miles south of Osaca, a terrible battle was fought between the forces of Aidsin and Satsuma, in which the latter was defeated with heavy loss. Satsuma and Chosin were deserted by several other Daimios, and subsequently Chosin himself declared his intention of withdrawing from the contest, and ordered his generals to return home and remain neutral.

In August, it was reported that the northern party had appointed a new Mikado, Oeeno Mia Sama, uncle of the other Mikado, and chief of the seven Mias or High-Priests of Japan, whose residence on the 5th of July had been attacked and burned, and who after that affair had fled in disguise to Prince Aidsin. A proclamation was issued by several northern princes, stating that they did not desire to supersede the other Mikado, but that the appointment was simply made to have a head for the northern party.

In September, an outrage was committed against M. von Brandt, the Prussian chargé d'affaires. As M. von Brandt was returning home in his carriage, from the Saibansho (Government-House), while passing the escort of Higashi Kusen no Chiojio, Minister of Foreign Affairs, the leading Yakunins of the escort attacked the carriage suddenly. M. von Brandt, in the most energetic manner, protested against this gross insult, and demanded the most complete reparation. The Government of the Mikado apologized, and made the demanded reparation.

On September 14th, the representatives of the foreign powers were officially notified, by a communication from the first minister of the Mikado, that the latter would at once establish his residence at Yeddo, which henceforth would be the second capital of the empire, and be called Tokei (the Eastern capital). At the same time an imperial decree placed in the hands of a new functionary the government of the thirteen provinces, most of which were still at war against the Mikado, and requested the Daimios of these provinces to send delegates to Yeddo, who were to receive there permanent employments.

The official gazette of Kioto published the draft of a constitution, providing for the concentration of the executive, legislative, and judiciary power in the hands of a political body to be called Daijokan.

On November 6th, the Mikado became of age. In honor of the event, the British troops in Yokohama attended a general parade, and a march past took place before two of the Mikado's representatives, Higashi Kuze and the Sanyo Oudaisho, governor of the northern provinces. Sir Harry Parkes was on the ground, and after the review the Japanese no

bles accompanied him to the British legation, where a sword, sent out by the British Government, was presented to an officer of the name of Nakai, as a mark of honor and reward for his gallantry on the occasion of Sir Harry Parkes's being attacked, on the 22d of March, at Kioto. On the same day, November 6th, Prince Aidsin concluded a capitulation, which, it was expected, would end the war. The Tycoon had retired to his private possessions with all the people who wished to follow him. Those who were willing to take employment under the new government were retained. In December, Prince Aidsin arrived at Yeddo, and was received by the Mikado and the Daimios with great honors. On the 6th of December Hakodadi was captured by a land force of the northern Daimios, which had not yet laid down their arms, and was cooperating with the fleet under the command of Ennomatto, the admiral of the late Tycoon, Stotsbashi. There seemed, however, to be a general desire to make peace. Stotsbashi himself was invited, by a council of the Daimios, to return to Yedda, and aid in the reorganization of the Government. On December 15th, the removal of the people of the Tycoon from Yeddo was com menced. Some thirteen thousand were to be sent to the Tycoon's new province of Shiraidizu. The ship King Philip was chartered. and made one trip to the province, carrying thirteen hundred and fifty passengers. The Japanese Government sent official notification to the representatives of the foreign powers, that Yeddo and Nagato would be opened to foreign commerce on January 1, 1869. This time the Government kept its word, and the opening took place on the appointed day. The Mikado, in December, issued an edict, ordering the decapitation of all the inmates of a dwelling in which a conflagration originates, wheth er accidentally or otherwise.

A proclamation from the Mikado announced that peace reigns throughout the empire. Aidsin justified his opposition to Satsuma and the southern princes. All seemed progressing favorably for the southern cause. The northern princes openly disavowed the conduct of Admiral Ennomatto in storming Hakodadi and seizing the vessels of the Mikado. No northern army was in the field at the close of the year, and the southerners were disbanding their troops. The attack and capture of Hakedadi was conducted by European officers, the southerners offering little resistance. Admiral Ennomatto had issued stringent orders to seize and confiscate foreign vessels carrying troops or stores. Many breaches of neutrality by foreign vessels had occurred.

The Tycoon's brother arrived from Paris on the 16th of December, and soon after had an interview with the Mikado. It was reported he had been intrusted with a mission of peace to his brother. The financial troubles of the Government of Japan were great, and paper currency was freely issued. The foreign mer

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