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(1) be responsible for loss and/or damage incurred
(2) handle all subsequent movement of the goods;
(4) pay the cost of hoisting goods into vessel where
7. The seller may desire to quote a price covering delivery of the goods alongside overseas vessel and within reach of its loading tackle. In this case, the proper term is: "F. A. S. vessel (named port)."
Under this quotation:
(1) transport goods to seaboard;
(2) store goods in warehouse or on wharf if necessary, unless buyer's obligation includes provision of shipping facilities;
(3) place goods alongside vessel either in a lighter
(4) provide the usual dock or ship's receipt;
(1) be responsible for loss and/or damage thereafter, and for insurance;
(2) handle all subsequent movement of the goods; (3) pay cost of hoisting goods into vessel where weight of goods is too great for ship's tackle. 8. The seller may desire to quote a price covering all expenses up to and including delivery of the goods upon the overseas vessel at a named port. In this case, the proper term is:
"F. O. B. vessel (named port)"
Under this quotation:
(1) meet all charges incurred in placing goods actually on board the vessel;
(2) provide the usual dock or ship's receipt; (3) be responsible for all loss and/or damage until goods have been placed on board the vessel. B-Buyer must
(1) be responsible for loss and/or damage thereafter;
(2) handle all subsequent movement of the goods.
9. The seller may be ready to go farther than the delivery of his goods upon the overseas vessel and be willing to pay transportation to a foreign point of delivery. In this case, the proper term is:
"C. & F. (named foreign port)."
Under this quotation
(1) make freight contract and pay transportation charges sufficient to carry goods to agreed destination;
(2) deliver to buyer or his agent clean bills of lading to the agreed destination;
(3) be responsible for loss and/or damage until goods have been delivered alongside the ship and clean ocean bill of lading obtained (seller is not responsible for delivery of goods at destination).
(1) be responsbile for loss and/or damage there-
charges, if any.
10. The seller may desire to quote a price covering the cost of goods, the marine insurance on the goods, and all transportation charges to the foreign point of delivery. In this case, the proper term is:
"C. I. F. (named foreign port)."
Under this quotation:
(1) make freight contract and pay freight charges
(3) deliver to buyer or his agent clean bills of lading
(4) be responsible for loss and/or damage until goods have been delivered alongside the ship, and clean ocean bill of lading and insurance policy and/or negotiable insurance certificate have been delivered to the buyer, or his agent. (Seller is not responsible for the delivery of goods at destination, nor for payment by the underwriters of insurance claims);
(5) provide war risk insurance, where necessary, for buyer's account.
(1) be responsbile for loss and/or damage thereafter, and must make all claims to which he may be entitled under the insurance directly on the underwriters;
(2) take delivery and pay costs of discharge, light-
(3) pay foreign customs duties and wharfage charges, if any.
In reaching the conclusions set forth in this statement the Conference considered the fact that there are, in more or less common use by manufacturers in different parts of the United States, numerous variations of these abbreviations,
practically all of which are employed to convey meanings substantially synonymous with those here defined. For instance, there are manufacturers who quote "F. O. B. Cars," "F. O. B. Works,” “F. O. B. Mill" or "F. O. B. Factory," meaning that the seller and buyer have the same responsibilities as those set forth in section 1. The Conference considered all those variations and determined to recommend the use of "F. O. B. (named point)," as "F. O. B. Detroit," "F. O. B. Pittsburgh," etc. Of the considerable number of these abbreviations which are used in the United States, the Conference felt that the form "F. O. B. (named point)" is most widely used and understood, and therefore should be adopted as the standard of practice.
The chief purpose of the Conference is to simplify and standardize American practice, and to that end it urges manufacturers and exporters to cease the use of synonymous abbreviations and quote habitually in the terms here recommended, just as far as these terms will cover the price conditions which it is desired to arrange with the buyer.
Variations of the abbreviations recommended in other sections also are in more or less common use throughout the. United States. The recommendations of the Conference set forth above apply to them with the same force as to those cited under section 1.
Manufacturers and exporters are urged to bear in mind that the confusion and controversies which have arisen have sprung in part from the use of an excessive number of abbreviated forms with substantially similar meanings, as well as from the use of abbreviations in a sense different from their original meanings, or in an application not originally given them and different from the sense or application understood by foreign buyers.
In simplified and standardized practice lies the best hope of reducing confusion and avoiding controversy.
The Conference urges upon manufacturers and exporters the very great importance at all times of making their intention in whatever quotations they employ so thoroughly clear as to be impossible of misunderstanding or misinterpretation. It is much better to take the time and space at the outset to make the quotation clearly understood, than to be compelled in the end to go through vexa
tious controversy or litigation, which costs not only time and expense but customers as well. Misunderstandings can best be avoided if the seller will formulate a written statement of the general conditions under which his sales are to be made, and will see that the foreign buyer possesses these terms of sale when considering a quotation. The items which may be included in such a statement deal with: delivery, delays, partial shipments, shipping instructions, inspection, claims, damage, and payment. If all contingencies are thus covered by carefully considered conditions of sale, disputes will largely be prevented.
The quotation "F. O. B. (named port)" as "F. O. B. New York," "F. O. B. New Orleans," "F. O. B. San Francisco," is often used by inland producers and distributors to mean merely delivery of the goods at railway terminal at the port named. This abbreviation originated as an export quotation and had no application to inland shipments. It was used only to mean delivery of the goods upon an overseas vessel at the port named. That, in fact, is the meaning universally given to the phrase among foreigners, and is the meaning which the best practice among exporters requires it invariably to have. But because of the confusion which has arisen through the use of that form with a different meaning by inland producers and distributors, and in the interest of unmistakable clarity, the Conference most strongly urges the invariable use by American manufacturers and exporters of the form "F. O. B. Vessel (named port.)" This adds only one word to the abbreviated form and has the great advantage that it cannot be misunderstood. It also avoids the difficulty which might arise among foreigners not always well versed in American geography, through confusing an inland forwarding point with a shipping port at seaboard.
The Conference calls attention to the fact that in selling "F. A. S. Vessel" manufacturers and exporters should be careful to have their agreements with buyers cover explicitly the question of responsibility for loss after goods have been delivered on the wharf or alongside the vessel and before they are actually loaded on the ship. There is no generally established practice on this point. The recommendations of the Conference in the definitiions of responsibility under