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The Annual of Scientific Discovery;

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Now Discovered and First Published from the Original Manuscript, with or, Year-Bcok of Facts in Science and Art.

an Inquiry into its Authority, and a History of the Colony, Exhibiting the most important Discoveries and Improvements in Mechanics, Useful Arts,

1624-1628. Roger Conant, Governor. Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Astronomy, Meteorology, Zoology, Botany, Mineral

BY JOHN WINGATE THORNTON. ogy, Geology, Geography, Antiquities, etc.; together with a list of recent Scientific Publications, a classified list of Patents, Obituaries of eminent Scientific Men, an In

Price $1 50. dex of Important Papers in Scientific Journals, Reports, etc. Edited by David A:

ET This volume proves that Massachusetts begins her bistory, not at Salem, nor
Wells, A. M. With an elegant likeness of Lieut. M. F. Maury, U.S. N. Price, $1 25 under the patronage of the organization which obtained the Charter of March, Anno 1627-8,
The vols, for 1850, 51, 52, 53, 54, can be supplied, uniform with this new issue. but in the spring of the year 1624, at CAPE ANNE, where the Colony was established

under the authority of This Her First Charter, the very initial of her annals-now first
presented to the public.

The North American Review says of the work-
“This monograph relates to a portion of the history of Massachusetts which has hith-
erto been somewhat obscure, and especially commemorates the worth and distinguished
services of Roger Conant, whose name ought to lead the list of the Governors of Massa-

chusetts, * * We rejoice that justice, though late, has been done to the venerable Or, Christianity Viewed in its Leading Aspects. man who, as founder and savior of the infant colony, may proffer a double title to a place

among the fathers of our commonwealth. The whole work does credit to Mr. Thornton's BY REV. A. L. R. FOOTE.

zeal as an antiquary, and credit as an historian."
Contents:-Christianity a Life-A Work-A Reward-A Calture—A Discipline- Gould & Lincoln have in press and will shortly publish,
A Fellowship

Price 50 cents.

Or, NEPTUNE'S LIGHT AS GREAT AS OURS. With various other hitherto un.

considered facts connected with the residence of moral agents in the worlds that sur-
round the stars. By T. C. Simon, author of "The Mission and Martyrdom of St.

,** " The Nature and Elements of the external World," &c., &c.
With copious Notes. By Julius CHARLES HARE. Notes translated for the American

LITERARY PAPERS. edition. 12mo. Cloth, $1 25.

By the late Prof. EDWARD FORBES, F. R. S. Selected from his writings in the "Literary

Gazette." “We hardly remember any treatise which so well calculated to be useful in general circulation among ministers, and the more educated laity, than this, which is rich in spir

VISITS TO EUROPEAN CELEBRITIES. ituality, strong and sound in theology, comprehensive in thought, vigorous and beautiful

By the Rev. Wm. B. SPRAGUE, D. D. in imagination, and affluent in learning."-Congregationalist.

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THE TEACHER'S LAST LESSON. exposition of some of the fundamental doctrines of our faith."- New York Recorder.

A Memoir of Martha Whiting, late of the Charlestown Female Seminary.

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Chiefly logical, selected and arranged for use. With Notes and Introduction by Richard

CHIENEVIX Teescu, M. A. Revised, with important additions, by the American editor.

Also, by the same author-
By FREDERICK DENISON MAURICE, A. M, Professor of Divinity in King's College, Lon-

EXPOSITION OF THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. don. 16mo. Cloth, 60 cents.

Drawn from the writings of St. Augustine, with Observations. “The effort we deem masterly, and, in any event, must prove highly interesting by the

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OF THE DOUBTER Exhibited in the Correspondence of two Friends. By FREDERIC MY FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF ENGLAND AND ITS PEOPLE. By Hugh Mil-
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This is a personal narrative of a deeply interesting and instructive character, concernPY It might naturally be expected that a work by authors so distinguished in the 'ing one of the most remarkable men of the age. No one who purchases this book will literary and re igious world would prove one of great interest and valuo. This expectation THE TWO RECORDS: the Mosaic and the Geological. A Lecture delivered before the will not be disappointed. It is preöminently a book for the times—full of interest and of

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16mo. Cloth, 25 cents.


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Agents for the sale of the books published by the authority Memoirs of distinguished Female Characters belonging to of the Hon. East India Company, bave just completed a MILLER, ORTON & MULLIGAN, the period of the Reformation in the Sixteenth Century, by Catalogue of ORIENTAL LITERATURE, containing all Publishers, Auburn and Buffalo,

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5-2 of any bookseller in the United States,

Norton's Literary Gazette. apparently a large per centage to assign to the Roman Catholic of the use of the version of

Saxon, but the author makes the distinction be. King James, as an important part of English

tween words “at rest” and “in motion,” there literature alone, giving the pupil the mastery of NEW YORK, MARCH 1, 1855. being more Latin words than the proportion of expression, of ideas, and forming a common

thirty per cent, but the Saxon being more ac- medium of communication with the best speak

tive and constantly on duty.' In the sixty ers, writers, and thinkers throughout the world. We sball issue with the number of Gazette for March 15th, words of the Lord's Prayer he finds but six “to A quotation from the Dublin Review would have a Supplement, containing a full report of the late Libel claim the rights of Latin citizenship,” and Saxon strengthened his argument. Case between E. H. Fletcher and the Publisher of this words might be substituted for them. They The adaptation of the Protestant version of paper. As we shall issue an extra quantity of 5,000, to be

are “trespasses "="sins;" “deliver "-"free;" the Bible in its full employment of words, both sent to editors and clergymen, it will afford a good oppor- power "-" might;" "glory "="brightness;" Saxon and Latin, as a mediating language betunity for advertisers. Terms as usual.

"temptation "="trials;" "trespass","sin.” tween the religions of the north and south of

Of the use or mission, to employ a rather Europe, is eloquently urged by Mr. Trench. MR. TRENCH’s New LECTURES ON THE ENGLISH exploded phrase, of the Saxon, he says:

The Norman conquest, Mr. Trench thinks, LANGUAGE. “ The Anglo-Saxon is not so much, as I have just called tices the Saxon humiliation with this curious

was "the making of England,” though he noIt is always a pleasure to hear from Mr. it, one element of the English language, as the foundation Trench in the range of those studies which he of it, the basis. All its joints, its whole articulation, its enumeration of words, which is perhaps more has made so peculiarly his own, and we have sinews and its ligaments, the great body of articles, pro- ingenious than convincing, since words do not now the satisfaction of welcoming a new series nun conjunctions, prepositions, numerals, auxiliary verbs

, always deteriorate from oppression and inferi

all smaller words which serve to knit together and bind the of Lectures on English, Past and Present, from larger Into sentences, these, not to speak of the grammatical

ority: his pen. He has done more in a simple, natu- structure of the language, are exclusively Saxon. The Latin

“We may trace, I think, a permanent record of this deral, easy way, to popularize the hitherto dry may contribute its tale of bricks, yes, of goodly and pol pression in the fact that a vast number of Teutonic words, and recondite study of philology, than any other with all that holds and binds these together, and constitutes guage of Germany, and evidently had once such in the

ished hewn stones to the spirltual building, bat the mortar, which bave a noble and angust sense in the kindred lanauthor. His books, rather than Horne Tooke's, them into a house, is Saxon throughout.”

Anglo-Saxon, baye forfeited this in whole or in part, have are the genuine Diversions of Purley. By connecting the study of words with morality and

He points out a demonstrative test of the two been contented to take a lower place, wbile, in most instan

ces, a word of the Latin moiety of the language has assumed history, he has enlarged the bounds and interest

constituent parts of the tongue. You can write the place which they have vacated. Thus ‘tapfer’ is valiant,

a sentence without Latin, but you cannot with courageous, but •dapper' is only spruce or smart; “prachof the lexicon, so that the old joke at the exout Saxon.

tig,' which means proud, magnificent, has dwindled into pense of the clown who found the stories in the Dictionary interesting enough, he said, but

Mr. Trench, it is well known, is a clergyman pretty; tausen,' being to baptize, only appears with us as of the English Church, and as such is an ad- "whining' with us; • dach' is any roof whatever, but

'to dip;' 'weinen' is honest weeping in German, it is only rather short, would no longer bold good. The mirer of the well-nigh miraculous authorized thatch' is only a straw roof for us ; - baum ' is a living tree, reader who seeks amusement, no less than the scholar, will find entertainment under the

version of the Scriptures. He is ready to prove while 'beam' is only a piece of dead timber; in ‘horn-beam, guidance of Mr. Trench, in the driest vocabu

his opinion by analysis and examination, but he one of our trees, bearn' still keeps its earlier use. ‘Haut' lays aside his own speculations for the moment to of a beast. "Stuhl,' a seat or chair, is degraded'into 'stool;

is skin, but its English representative is 'hide,' skin, that is, lary. As our readers are doubtless familiar with the quote the expression of a Roman Catholic, who while 'graben " is no longer to dig, but only to "grub. And

thinks the work heretical. It is a writer in the this list might be very largely increased." author's “Study of Words” and “Lessons in Proverbs,” which have gone through repeated Dublin Review, for June, 1853; perhaps-New

Mr. Trench brings up a rather neglected writer editions in England and this country, we may

in the old translator of the seventeenth century, say that the present work, the advance proof

"One of those who has forsaken the communion of the Philomon Holland, whose books he pronounces sheets of which are before us, is in the same

English Church has exprest himself in deeply touching
tones of lamentation over all which, in forsaking our trans-

a mine of genuine idiomatic English." Holland manner and spirit; subtle, ingenious, clear in lation, he feels himself to have forgotten and lost. These translated Plutarch, Livy, Suetonius, Ammianus statement, and tinctured by a sound moral, re- are his words: “Who will not say that the uncommon Marcellinus, and other authors. ligious tone. It is the production of a scholar, beauty and marvelous English of the Protestant Bible is not

Touching the rejected words which have been while it has not a particle of pedantry; but lives on the ear, like a music that can never be forgotten, attempted to be foisted on the language, Mr. these high qualities of Mr. Trench, which fit like the sound of church bells, which the convert bardly Trench thinks they have not been turned out bim so well to be a popular instructor, are well knows how he can forego. Its felicities often seem to be of good society without cause; and he brings a known.

almost things rather than mere words. It is part of the na terrible list of Latinized barbarians, ogres and English, Past and Present, which is in the tional mind, and the anchor of national seriousness. ... The

memory of the dead passes into it. The potent traditions giants, — "torve," "tetric," "immorigerous," press of Redfield, is divided into a series of Lec. of childhood are stereotyped in its verses. The power of " clancular,” “moliminously,” &c., out of Fuller, tures, addressed to a class in England, which all the griefs and trials of a man is hidden beneath its words. Jeremy Taylor, et als. His list of others which respectively treat of the composition of the It is the representative of his best moments, and all that have been polished and adopted is curious :language, and the leading changes which it has there has been abont him of soft and gentle, and pure and

penitent and good, speaks to him for ever out of his English “Thus 'pantomimi' (Lord Bacon) soon became 'pantoundergone and is undergoing, arranged under Bible..... It is bis sacred thing, which doubt has never mimes;" 'atomi' (Lord Brooke), “atoms;" 'epocha” (Dry. the classes of foreign words introduced; old dimmed, and controversy never soiled. In the length and den, and used as late as South) became 'epoch;' caricatura' words once in use, afterward lost or rejected; breadth of the land there is not 8 Protestant with one spark (Sir T. Brown), 'caricature ;' 'effigies' and 'statua' (both in words with altered meanings and variations in of religiousness about him, whose spiritual biography is not Shakespeare), “effigy' and 'statue;' not otherwise "pyramis'

in his Saxon Bible.'" orthography. His suggestions and elucidations

and pyramides,' which also are forms employed by him,

became "pyramid' and 'pyramids;' "colone' (Burton), of these points are curious, and, though not Not long since, in the State of Maine, suit was "clown;' 'apostata' (Massinger) became “apostate;" 'desalways to be accepted, are frequently profound. brought by a Catholic in one of the courts potata ’ (Foxe), 'despot;' * mummia' (Webster), “mummy;' To pick out a few of his points as matters for against the school commissioners for the injury synonyma (Milton, prose), 'synonyms; “galaxias' (Foxe), curious speculation for “Notes and Queries:”. sustained by his son in the loss of education, 'galaxy;' and 'heros' (H. More), ‘bero.? Nor can that

Dividing the English language into a hundred arising out of the fact that refusing to read the alight but widely extended change of innocency,' 'indolenparts, he makes “ a rough distribution” of sixty version of the Bible in use, he had been obliged lar termination, into 'innocence, 'indolence," "temperance, of them to the Saxon, thirty to the Latin-direct- to leave the school from his opposition to its and the like, be regarded otherwise than as part of the same ly and by way of the French, five to the Greek, regulations. The case came before the Supreme process. The same has gone on with words from other and the remaining five for the waifs and strays Court, and was argued for the free public languages, as from the Italian and the Spanish; thus • banwhich have reached us from the Hebrew, Ara- schools by Richard H. »Dana, Jr., who, among princess ;' scaramucha' (Dryden), scaramouch;" "cabic, Persian, Turkish, Indian, Dutch, &c. It is other points, insisted upon the benefit to the prichio' bocomes first “caprich' (Butler), then 'caprice ;,


ambuseado,' 'barricado,' 'repegado,' 'hurricano' (all in RECOLLECTIONS OF THE LIFE OF JOHN BINNs: shifting incidents of our own development in Shakespeare), 'brocado' (Hackluyt), drop their foreign ter

twenty-nine years in Europe and fifty-three America during the half century. Mr. Binng, minations, and severally become "ambuscade,' 'barricade,' in the United States. Written by himself, who was a member of the London Correspond*renegade,' 'hurricane,'' brocade. Other slight modifica

with Anecdotes, political, historical, and mistions of spelling, not in the termination, but in the body of a

cellaneous. Phila., Parry & McMillan.

ing Society, had his full share of injury and imword, will indicate in like manner its more entire incorpo

prisonment at the hands of the English Governration into the English language. Thus “restoration' was at first spelt 'restauration ;' and so long as 'vieinage' was spelt

We have had a number of autobiographies ment when he came to take refuge in America * voisinage,' as by Bishop Sanderson, or 'mirror,' 'mirotr,' as lately of different characters, by ladies and gen- with Priestley at Northumberland, in Pennsylby Fuller, they could scarcely be betaid to be those purely tlemen, clergymen and actors, philosophers and vania. Here he entered upon a new career, a English words which now they are."

showmen. Indeed, autobiography has been quite democrat, of course, publishing in the interior of An instance is given of a word in process of the rage, not only with writers, but, if we may the State the Republican Argus, and, coming to adoption, prestige, which is no longer written believe the booksellers, with the public,—the Philadelphia in 1807, in the days of Duane and in italics as a foreign word, and the pronuncia- advertisers hardly thinking it worth, while to the Aurora, to establish the Democratic Press. tion of which is fast settling on the first syllable tell us of any thing with a circulation much less In his political course, Mr. Binns was soon as an English one. To this he might have added than fifty thousand. The first page of the Tri- thrown upon the war scenes of 1812, and exertthe two words “envelope" and " depot,” which bune, resplendent with these announcements, ed himself with the zeal of a wronged gentleman are in the same transition state.

will be a literary curiosity hereafter. With from Ireland, against the iniquities of old England, of these new comers, “solidarity” is one of what a sudden and furious avidity will the which were then such as are not likely soon to the latest Kossuth helped it along here. future antiquarian say that the people of the be practiced upon our national rights and self

Ruskin, it seems, is authority for “ornamenta- United States were seized about the middle of respect again. In the Jackson campaign he was tion.” Jeremy Bentham coined a word now the nineteenth century for all sorts of biograph- opposed to that leader, and made his journal often employed on this side of the water, “in- ical knowledge, and upon what an extraordina- well known throughout the country by the ternational.” “Congregational is no older than ry intellectual banquet did they satisfy them. "coffin handbill” inscriptions which he printed, the Puritans of the days of the Commonwealth. selves. Collections will then be made of the levelled at Old Hickory for the alleged sacrifice “Educational” was considered very illiterate autobiographies, and shown to curious persons of the “six militia men.” The taste and prowhen it was first employed eighteen years ago from a select shelf.–Fanny Fern, Mrs. Mowatt, priety of such partisan warfare might admit of as an appendage to a magazine. Nuggets, it Greeley, Wikoff, Barnum, Caldwell, Bennett. question. We presume Mr. Binns, were he now turns out, is an old word.

It is a fashion of the day, just as the mania for called upon for an opinion, would admit that the

suicide has prevailed at intervals.—“Ay, this is contest might have been better carried on without “ Thus in North's Plutarch, p. 499: After the fire was quenched, they found in niggots of gold and silver mingled always the way at the theatre,” says Puff in the such expedients. In one of his editorial skirmishtogether , about a thousand talents;' and again

, p. 828: Critic, “give these fellows a good thing, and es Mr. Binns narrowly escaped “gouging,” and "There was brought a marvellous great mass of treasure in they never know when to have done with it." has given a vivid account of the affair. niggots of gold.""

There is a serious view to be taken of these

Valuable, however, as the book may be for Starvation is put down for America: matters, and we might be disposed to urge it if its political lessons, its chief interest to us is in “«Starvation' is another word of quite recent introduc- we were writing an essay; for the present we the occasional personal observations and anection, formed in like manner on the model of preceding for- must be content with the remark that we pro- dotes of things and persons passed away and bemations of a similar character-its first formers, indeed, not test against books like some of those which have come memorable. In his Dublin experiences observing that they were putting a Latin termination to a Saxon word. The word is an Americanism. 'Strange as it

pasged rapidly into vogue, being taken as any Mr. Binns fell in with the current which then may appear,' observes a writer in the Notes and Queries, profound indication of the public mind; and we flowed to the pulpit of the celebrated Dean Kir* It is nevertheless quite true that this word, now unhappily object decidedly to the interpretation being put wan, who has left after him a traditional repuso common on every tongue, is not to be found in our own upon them in England or elsewhere, as eviden- tation of the most successful charity sermon English dictionaries; neither in Todd's Johnson, published ces of national character. We are not a nation preacher of modern times. One or two new in-Smart's Walker Remodelled, published about the same of egotists, adventurers, or knaves. There is anecdotes of Kirwan are worth quoting.—He time as Richardson's. It is Webster who has the credit of some seriousness and earnest purpose left in the was expected to preach for his parish an annual importing it from his country into this, and in a supplement world yet. One year hence, where will most of charity sermon, which one year he declined, perissued a few years ago Mr. Smart adopted it as a trivial these volumes of so many editions be! Already haps tired for the moment of his vocation. "Do word, but in very common and at present good use.""

a man is a bore who names some of the best cir- you suppose," said he to the ladies who called Here is an old authority for the school-boy culated of them in an intelligent company. The upon him, “ that charity sermons spring up like colloquialism “ chouse."

fast books like the fast men soon exhaust their mushrooms! If you do, let me tell you that you "It has a singular origin. The word is, as I have men constitutions.

are very much mistaken.” The next year he tioned already, a Turkish one, and signifies 'interpreter.'

But whatever may be the sins of others, John made amends by a burst of eloquence which he Such an interpreter or "chiaous' (written chans" in Hakluyt, 'chians' in Massinger), being attached to the Turkish Binns, in his autobiography before us, has none built upon this very refusal, — pointing to the embassy in England, committed, in the year 1609, an enor- of the fashions of the day to answer for, since, children and asking God's forgiveness if he had mous fraud on the Turkish and Persian merchants resident venerable octagenarian as he is, he was urged wronged them. One of his figures, as given from in London. He succeeded in cheating them of a sum by personages no less than Dr. Priestley and Dr memory by Mr. Binns, is very happy, occurring amounting to £4,000–a sum very much greater at that day Cooper, more than fifty years ago, to write an in a charity sermon in times like the present than at the present. From the vast dimensions of the fraud, account of his life. He had then, at the age of with us: “Why,” he concluded a discourse, and the notoriety which attended it, any one who cheated or defrauded was said to chiaous,' "chause,' or 'chouse;' to thirty, a story to relate worth the telling, as be “should I anticipate a collection less liberal than do, that is, as this 'chiaous' had done."

came at the beginning of the century fresh from on former occasions! The times, melancholy “Emotional” is called an American word. the trials and persecutions of English sedition and distressing as they are, have not taken one Its use as a substitute for "evangelical" might laws levelled at Reformers, whose propositions ray from the sun of pleasure, why then should be commented upon in its reference to changes of have since that time either been granted or they snatch a pillar from the throne of mercy ?” modes of attack on established ideas.

would now be regarded as the common-places of Dr. Samuel Parr was one of the friends of Doing so much for other people's words, Mr. political agitation; and we may add that the Reform with whom our author became acTrench has the right, perhaps, to introduce one American sequel of the writer's experiences is quainted. There is nothing new presented about or two of his own. Thus he handsomely adopts perhaps of greater interest. We have heard him but this anecdote of the way in which the the so-called Americanism “lengthy,” and talks from many quarters the story of the wrongs of Doctor once helped himself to a shoulder of himself of a verb becoming "obsolescent." Ireland and of the men in England who sympa- mutton : Mrs. Toms, the lady at Warwick, with

On the completion of this work we may refer thized with those redoubtable leaders, Hardy and whom he was dining, asked him if he would to it again. It is full of valuable matter. Horne Tooke; but few have marked the rapidly take a slice of it. “If,” said the Doctor, “you

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