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de degrees. They ought to begin with the It is however necessary here to caution young temperate bath, and gradually use 1 cooler, men against too frequent bathing; as i have till at langth the coldest proves quite agree. known many fatal consequences result from able. Nature revolts againtt all great tranfi. the daily practice of plunging into rivers and tions ; and those who do violence to her continuing there too long. dictures, have often cause to repent of their The most proper time of the day for using temerity.
the cold bath is no doubt the morning, or im. Wherever cold bathing is practised, there mediately before dioner; and the best mòde, ought likewise to be tepid baths for the pur- that of immersion head foremost. As cold pole mentioned above. Indeed it is the prac bathing has a constant tendency to propel the tive of some countries to throw cold water blood and other humours towards the head, over the patient as soon as he comes out of it ought to be a rule always to wet that part the warm bath ; but though this may not in- first. By Jue attention to this circumstance, jare a Rullian peasant, we dare not recom- there is reason to believe, that violent headmend it to the inhabitants of this country. achs, and other complaints, which frequently The ancient Greeks and Romans, we are proceed from cold bathing, might be often told, when covered with sweat and dust, prevented. used to plunge into rivers, without receiving The cold bath, when continued too long, the imallest injury, Though they might of. not only occasions an excessive flux of hu. tea escape danger from this imprudent act, yet mours towards the head, but chills the blood, their conduct was certainly contrary to all the cramps the muscles, relaxes the nerves, and rules of medicine; as I have known many ro- wliolly defeats the intention of baching. bult men throw away their lives by such an Hence, hy not adverting to this circumstance, attempt. I would not however advise patients expert swimmers are often injured, and even to go into the cold water when the body fometimes lose their lives. All the benefici is chilly ; as much exercise, at least, ought al purposes of cold bathing are answered by to be taken as may excite a gentle glow all one single immersion ; and the patient ought over the body, but by no means so as to over. to be rubbed dry the moment he comes out beztit.
of the water, and thould continue to take To young people, and particularly to chil- exercise for some time after. dren, cold bathing is of the last importance. When cold bathing occasions chillness, loss Their lax fibres render its tonic powers pe- of appetite, liftlenets, pain of the breact or caliäly proper. It promotes their growth, bowels, a prostration of strength, or violent increases their strength, and prevents a vari. headacris, it ought to be discontinued. Ety of diseases incident to childhood. Were Though there hints are by no means innfants early accustomed to the cold bath, it tended to point out all the cases where cold would seldom disagree with them; and we bathing may be hurtful; nor to illustrate its fhould see fewer instances of the scrofula, extensive utility as a medicine; yet it is rickets, and other diseases, which prove fa- hoped, they may serve to guard people against tal to many, and make others miserable for some of those errors into which from mere life. Sometimes, indeed, these disorders ren- inattention they are apt to fall; and thereby der infants incapable of bearing the shock of no: only endanger their own lives, but bring cold water, but this is owing to their not hav- an excellent medicine into disrepute *. ing been early and regularly accustomed to it.
[To be continued.] * When I heard of the celebrated Mr. Colman's illness, and that it had happened at Margate, I immediately suspected the cause, and mentioned my fufpicion to some medical friends; but as none of them could inform me concerning the real circumitances of his case, i should have taken no notice of it, had not the following Letter in the London Chronicle ftruck my attention,
To the PRINT E R.
" Having seen in your own and other Loudon papers, serious accounts of Mr. Colman's illness, I, who have attended him during the whole time, think it but justice to him and his many friends, to give you a plain and true account of his case and prefent ficuation.
" Mr. Colman's disorder was a combination of the gout and pally, the last of which was occafioned by his unadvised!y bathing in the sea at an improper period, which struck in the FML; the consequences, as might be expected, soon became very serious, and his situation extremely dangerous, &c.
(Signed) JOHN SILVER, Surgeon.” MARGATE, Nov. 5, 1785.
On the DIFFERENT SCHOOLS of MUSIC.
Written by the late Dr. GOLDSMITH.
fignifies, that succession of artists that the music of every country is folemn, which has learned the principles of the art in proportion as the inhabitants are merry ; from some eminent malter, either by hear's or, in other words, the merrieft (prightlicit ing his lessons, or studying his works, and, nations are remarked for having the flowest consequently, who imitate his manner either music; and those whose character it is to be through design, or from habit. Muficimus melancholy, are pleased with the mout briik seem agreed in making only three principal and airy movements. Thus in France, Po. schools in music; namely, the school of land, Ireland, and Switzerland, the national Pergolese in Italy, of Lully in France, and music is Now, melancholy, and solemn : in of Handel in England: though some are for Italy, England, Spain, and Germany, it is making Rameau the founder of a new school, fatter, proportionably as the people are grave. different from those of the former, as he is Lully only changed a bad manner, which he the inventor of beauties peculiarly his own.
found, for a bad one of his own. His drowsy Without all doubt, Pergolese's music de- pieces are played still to the moft sprightly serves the first rank: tho excelling neither audience that can be conceived; and even in variety of movements, number of parts, though Rameau, who is at once a mufician or unexpected flights, yet he is universally and a philosopher, has shewn, both by proallowed to be the mufical Raphael of Italy. cept and example, what improvements
French music may fill admit of, yet his This great master's principal art consisted in knowing how to excite our passions by countrymen seem little convinced by his sounds, which seem frequently opposite to reasonings ; and the Pont-neuf taste, as it is the passion they would express : by now called, ftill prevails in their beft performfolenin sounds he is sometimes known to throw us into all the rage of battle ; and,
The English school was first planned by even by faster movements, he excites melan
Purcel : he attempted to unite the kalian choly in every heart that sounds are capable manner, that prevailed in his time, with of affecting. This is a talent which seems the ancient Celtic carol and the Scorch bal. born with the artift. We are unable to tell lad, which probably had also its origin in why fuch sounds affect us: they seem no
Italy : for some of the best Scotch ballads way imitative of the patlion they would ex.
(the Broom of Cowdenknows for instance) press, but operate upon us by an inexpres.
are still ascribed to David Rizzio. But he thle sympathy; the original of which is as
that as it will, his manner was something inscrutable as the secret springs of life itself. peculiar to the English ; and he might have
continued as head of the English school, had To this excellence he adds another, in which he is superior to every other artist of Handel. Handel, though originally a Gere
not his merits been entirely eclipsed by the profession, the happy transitions from ove paffion to another. No dramatic poet had long laboured to please by Italian com
man, yet adopted the Englith manner : be Better knows to prepare his incidents than position, but without fuccess; and though be : the audience are pleased, in those inter- his English oratorios are accounted inimitable, vals of passion, with the delicate, the simple yet his Italian operas are fallen into oblivior. hormony, if I may so express it, in which Pergolese excelled in paffionate fimplicity : the parts are all thrown into fugues, or, of Lully was remarkable for creating a new ten are barely unison. His melodies also, species of music, where all is elegant, but where no passion is expressed, give equal plea: nothing passionate or sublime : Handel's true Jure, from this delicate simplicity : and I
characteristic is sublimity : he has employed need only instance that song in the Serva
all the variety of sounds and parts in all his Padrona, which begins, Lo conosco a quel aselli, as one of the finett instances of excel. pieces: the performances of the reft may be
pleasing, tho' executed by few performers ; lence in the duo.
liis require the full band. The attention is The Italian artists, in general, have fol- awakened, the soul, is roufed up at his pieces ; lowed his nianner; yet scem fond of em. but distinct paflion is seldom exprelied. In bellishing the delicate fimplicity of the ori. this particular lie has seldom found friccess: ginal. Their stile in music seems somewhat
he has been obliged, in order to express to resemble that of Seneca in writing, where passion, to imitate words by founds, u hich there are some beautiful starts of thought; ibo' it gives the pleasure which imitationale but the whole is filled with Itudied elegance, ways proxluces, yet it fails of exciting those lite and unaffecting attestation.
ing affections, which it is in the power of fear es Lully, in France, first attempted the im. to produce. In a word, no man ever un. noiement of their music, which in general derstood harmony fo well as he ; but in me
A COMPARISON between LAUGHING and SENTIMENTAL COMEDY.
BY THE SAME.
THE Theatre, like all other amusements portenissenerea code in proportion to the beight
from whence he contrary when satiated with its excellence, mankind do not so strongly sympathize with one born bezin tu mistake change for improvement. in humbler circumstances, and encountering For some years, Tragedy was the reigning accidental distress : so that while we melt entertainment ; but of late it has entirely for Belisarius, we scarce give halfpence to given way to Comedy, and our best efforts the beggar who accosts us in the street. The are now exerted in these lighter kinds of one has our pity ; the other our contempt. composition. The pompous train, the swel- Distress, therefore, is the proper object of ling phrase, and the unnatural rant, are dis- Tragedy, since the great excite our pity by placed for that natural portrait of human their fall; but not equally so of Comedy, folly and frailty, of which all are judges, since the actors employed in it are originally because all have sat for the picture.
so mean, that they fuk but little by their But as in describing nature it is presented fall. with a double face, either of mirth or sad. Since the first origin of the Stage, Tragedy dels, our modern writers find themselves at and Comedy have run in distinct channels, a lofs which chiefly to copy from ; and it is and never till of late encroached upon the now debated, whether the exhibition of hu- provinces of each other. Terence, who man distress is likely to afford the mind seems to have made the nearest approaches, more entertainment than that of human ab- yet always judiciously stops short before he furday?
comes to the downright pathetic; and yet he Comedy is defined by Aristotle to be à is even reproached by Cælar for wanting the picture of the frailties of the lower part of vis comica. All the other Comic Writers of mankind, to distinguish it from Tragedy, antiquity aim only at rendering folly or vice which is an exhibition of the misfortunes of ridiculous, but never exalt their characters the great. When Comedy therefore ascends into buskined pomp, or make what Voltaire u produce the characters of princes or gene- humourously calls a Tradesman's Tragedy. saks upon the stage, it is out of its walk, Yet, notwithstanding this weight of aufince low life and middle life are entirely its thority, and the universal practice of former object. The principal question therefore is, ages, a new species of Dramatic compositioa whether in describing low or middle life, has been introduced under the name of Sentie an exhibition of its follies be not preferable mental Comedy, in which the virtues of prito a detail of its calamities? Or, in other vate life are exhibited, rather than the vices words, which deserves the preference, The exposed; and the distresses, rather than the Weeping Sentimental Comedy, so much in faults of mankind make our interest in the fafhon at present, or the Laughing and even piece. These Comedies have had of late low Comedy, which seems to have been last great success, perhaps from their novelty, exhibited by Vanburgh and Cibber? and also from their flattering every man in
If we apply to authorities, all the great his favourite foible. In these plays almost masters in the dramatic art have but one all the characters are good, and exceedingly opinion. Their rule is, that as Tragedy generous; they are lavish enough of their displays the calamities of the great ; fo Co- tin money, on the stage, and though they medy thould excite our laughter by ridi- want humour, have abundance of sentiment culously exhibiting the follies of the lower and feeling. If they happen to have faults part of mankind, Boileau, one of the best or foibles, the spectator is taught not only to modern critics, alferts, that Comedy will pardon, but to applaud them, in consideranot admit of tragic distress.
tion of the goodness of their hearts ; so that Le Comique, ennemi des foupirs et des pleurs, folly, instead of being ridiculed, is commended, N'admes foint dans ses vers de tragiques and the Comedy aims at touching our pardouleurs,
sions without the power of being truly patheNor is this rule without the strongest foun- tic : in this manner we are likely to lose one dation in nature, as the distresses of the great source of entertainment on the stage ; mean by no means affect us so strongly as
for while the Comic Poet is invading the the calamities of the great. When Tragedy province of the Tragic Muse, he leaves her exhibits to us some great man fallen from his lovely sister quite neglected. Of this, how. height, and struggling with want
and adver- ever, he is no way solicitous, as he measures fity, we feel his situation in the same manner
his fame by his profits, we suppose he himself must feel, and our
But it will be said, that the theatre is Europ. MAG
formed * O
formed to amuse mankind, and that it mat. and marked with fterility. If we are per ters little, if this end be answered, by what mitted to make Comedy weep, we have an means it is obtained. If mankind find de- equal right to make Tragedy laugh, and to light in weeping at Comedy, it would be set down in blank verse the jetts and recruel to abridge them in that or any other partees of all the attendants in a funeral innocent pleasure. If those pieces are de- procellion. nied the name of Comedies; yet call them But there is one argument in favons of hy any other name, and if they are delight. Sentimental Comedy which will keep it on ful, they are good. Their success, it will the Stage in spite of all that can be said be faid, is a mark of their merit, and it is against it. It is, 6! all others, the moft only abridging our happiness to deny us an easily written. Those abilities that can haminlet to amusement.
mer out a Novel, are fully sufficient for the These objections, however, are rather production of a Sentimental Comedy. It is specious than solid. It is true, that amuse- only sufficient to raise the characters a little, ment is a great object of the Theatre ; to deck out the hero with a ribbard, or give and it will be allowed, that these Sentimental the heroine a title; then to put an infipid pieces do often amuse us : but the question is, dialogue, without character or humour, into Whether the True Comedy would not amuse their mouths, give them mighty good hearts, us more? The question is, Whether a cha- very fine cloaths, furnish a new lett of scenes, racter supported throughout a piece with its make a pathetic scene or two, with a sprinkridicule still attending would not give us ling of tender melancholy conversation more delight than this species of bastard Tra. through the whole, and there is no doubi buz gedy, which only is applauded because it is all the ladies will cry, and all the gentlemen new ?
applau. A friend of mine who was sitting unmoved Humour at present scems to be departing at one of these Sentimental pieces, was aske from the Stage, and it will foon happen ed, how he could be so indifferent. “ Why, that our Comic players will have nothing “ truly," says he, as the hero is but a trades. left for it but a fine coat and a song. It de « man, it is indifferent to me whether he pends upon the audience whether they will “ be turned out of his Counting-house on actually drive those poor merry creatures 46 Fish-Atreet Hill, since he will fill have from the stage, or fit at a play as gloomy as “ enongh left tu orea (hop in St. Giles's.” at the tabernacle. It is not easy to recover
The other objection is as ill grounded; for an art when once luft; and it would be bus though we should give these pieces another a just punishment that when, by our being name, it will not mend their efficacy. It too fastidious, we have banished humour will continue a kind of mulijk production, from the Stage, we Mould ourselves be de. with all the defects of its opposite parents, prived of the art of laughing.
LITERARY JOURN A L.
Quid fit surpe, quid utile, quid dulce, quid non. The Struture and Phyfiology of Fishes explained and compared with those of Man, and
other Animals. By Alexander Monro, M. D. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, and of the Royal Society, and Profeflor of Phyfic, Anatomy, and Surgery in the University of Edinburgh. Illuttrated with Figures. Folio 2l. 25. Elliot, Edinburgh, and Re
binfons, Loulon, 1785. DOCTOR Monro, in a short introduction described by authors, he thought ar. account
to this curious and claborate work, informs of them would be equally acceptable to the the reader, that a variety of circumftances Phytician and the Naturalist, more especially having occurred to him in examining the as they relate to points of chief importance in structure of fishes, some of which had been the animal economy. Citirely overlouked, and others imperfectly After giving a definition of the generic
term of fishes, which comprehends the Nantes surface of the skin. The liquors secreted Prezati as well as the Pifces of Linnews, he into the cavities of the cranium, pericardium, begins with cracing the blood from the heart and abdomen, are next considered. Of those and its return to that organ: he next makes t'creted into the organs of digestion, the some curfory observations on the organs of Doctor remarks, that as these animals are fecretion, proceeds to give an account of cold, it is more evident than in man, that their absorbent system, and concludes with the gastric liquor acts as a menstruam upou fome observations on their brain, nerves, and their food." In all of them, he says, the the organs of their senses. The Doctor's liver is large, and of course the secretion of chief example among the Nantes Pinnali is bile copious ; in all, organs are found which the raia, or fcate ; among the Pifces of Lin- pour out liquors, similar, probably, in their reus, the gadus, or cod-filh, though he oc- exfects to those of our pancreatic liquor. In cationally throws further light on the subject the scate, the pancrcas is fimilar to the huby describing parts of other fishes.
m3n. In the sturgeon an organ is found, The firt chapter contains a description of resembling in its internal structure the inthe heart, veffels, and circulation of the blood teftinula ceci, which in the offeous fishes in fithes. In all the fishes the Doctor has fupply the place of the pancreas, the whole diliccted, he has, he says, found but one enclosed in a muscle, evidently intended to heart, amítting of one auricle, and one express its contents."
and that from the later one Speaking of the secretions of the male artery is fent out, which is entirely spent on organs of generation Doctor Mopro obferves, the zilis. That from the gills, therefore, that the ftructure of the milt in the offeous the returning blood passes to all the ot! icr fishes appears to be very simple; but that parts of the body, without the interventior. in some of the cartilaginous ones, as the of a fecond heart, as in man. The method scats, the apparatus appears more complex in which the Doctor has here expressed than in man ; for in place of the testicle, a komself is incorrect; as at first it seems to substance is observed, composed partly of fignify that man has two hearts: a trifling white matter like the milt, and partly of trasposition would have removed the diffi: small spherical bodies. From these culty,
epidydimis is produced, chiefly composed of After tracing the blood from the heart to convoluted tubes, terminating in a serpen. the gills, and from thence back to the heart, tine vas deferens; the under part of which the proceeds to draw several conclusions, of is greatly dilated, and forms, as in birds, a skich we shall only mention the following, considerable receptacle, or veficula seminiz. " That the circulation of the blood be. natis. my carried on in the cartilaginous fishes in the Contiguous to the outer side of the dilated' fame manner as in the olleous, or pifces of end of the vas deferens, he found a bag of Lrineus, and the whole mass of blood par. considerable tize filled with green liquor, fung through their gills, they miuft breathe which is discharged into the fame funnei regularly and uninterruptedly, to furnish blood with the femen, and probably at the same to the brain and other organs, or they cannot
time with it. pavlefs the pulmo arbitrarius, as is supposed by
The Doctor here takes occasion to confi. Lumneus ; so that there appears no just reason der the opinion of certaia anatomists, who far claffing them with the amphibia.” contend, that the organs commonly called
la the third chapter, which treats of the vesiculæ seminles, are not receptacles of the indoiar organs and secreted liquors of liquor secreted by the testes, but organs ca6.bes, the Doctor observes, that the surface pable of secreting from their inner surface a Tf Cines, especially such as live in the sea, is prolific liquor, which is mixed with that deberuled by a quantity of viscid lime, from the testis. To such the description of Pated out in ihe ofíeous fishes by the the vesicula abovementioned containing the branches of two ducts placed upon their fides, green liquor will probably, he thinks, apWich are continued upon the head and up. pear a full confirmation of their new doctrine, per jaw ; and others of a fimilar nature are founded on two observations. First, that on sed upon the vnder jaw. In the cate our examining the liquor of the vesiculæ seminales accurate anatomist discovered an elegant of a man immediately after death, it was berpentine canal between the skin and found different in its appearance from the lemuscles, at the sides of the five apertures men discharged by a living person. Secondo into the gills. From the principal part of ly, that a considerable time after caftration, this duct, in the belly of the fith, there are geldings and oxen had been found capable of ne shove fix or eight outlets; but from the generating. In answer to this, the Doctor upper part, near the eyes, 'there are upward observes, that although the liquor of the ve: Of je imall ducts sent off, opening on the siculæ seminales differs in colour from the se.