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de degrees. They ought to begin with the It is however necessary here to caution young temperate bath, and gradually ule couler, men against too frequent bathing; as I have till at langth the coldest proves quite agree- known many fatal consequences result from able. Nature revolts againtt all great transi- the daily practice of plunging into rivers and tions; and those who do violence to her continuing there too long. dictures, have often cause to repent of their The most proper time of the day for using temerity.
the cold bath is no doubt the morning, or imWherever cold bathing is practised, there mediately before dinner ; and the best mode, oogte likewise to be tepid baths for the pure that of immersion head foremost. As cold pole mentioned above. Indeed it is ihe prac. bathing has a constant tendency to propel the tice of some countries to throw cold water blood and other humours towards the head, over the patient as soon as he comes out of it ought to be a rule always to wet chat part the warm bath ; but though this may not in- first. By Jue attention to this circumstance, jure a Russian peasant, we dare not recom- there is reason to believe, that violent headmend it to the inhabitants of this country. achs, and other complaints, which frequently The ancient Greeks and Romans, we are proceed from cold bathing, might be often fold, when covered with sweat and dust, prevented. used to plunge into rivers, without receiving The cold bath, when continued too long, the smallest injury. Though they might of. not only occasions an excessive Aux of hu. len escape danger from this imprudent act, yet mours towards the head, but chills the blood, their conduct was certainly contrary to all the cramps the muscles, relaxes the nerves, and rules of medicine ; as I have known many ro- wholly defeats the intention of bathing. bust men throw away their lives by such an Hence, hy not adverting to this circumstance, zempt. I would not however advise patients expert swimmers are often injured, and even to go into the cold water when the body fometimes lose their lives. All the beneficiis chilly; as much exercise, at least, ought al purposes of cold bathing are answered by to be taken as may excite a gentle glow all one single immersion; and the patient ought Gver the body, but by no means so as to over- to be rubbed dry the moment he comes out bextit.
of the water, and should continue to take To young people, and particularly to chil, exercise for some time after. dren, cold bathing is of the last importance. When cold bathing occasions chillness, loss Their lax fibres render its tonic powers pe- of appetite, littleilnefs, pain of the breact or culiarly proper. It promotes their growth, bowels, a prostration of strength, or violent increases their strength, and prevents a vari. headachis, it ought to be discontinued. Ety of diseases incident to childhood. Were Though there hints are by no means innfants early accustomed to the cold bath, it tended to point out all the cases where cold would seldom disagree with them; and we bathing may be hurtful; nor to illustrate its fbould see fewer ioftances of the scrofula, extensive utility as a medicine ; yet it is Tickets, and other diseases, which prove fa- hoped, they may serve to guird people against tal to many, and make others miserable for some of those errors into which from mere life. Sometimes, indeed, these disorders ren- inattention they are apt to fall; and thereby der infants incapable of bearing the shock of no: only endanger their own lives, but bring cold water, but this is owing to their not hav- an excellent medicine into disrepute *. ing been early and regularly accustomed to it.
[To be continued.] * When I heard of the celebrated Mr. Colman's illness, and that it had happened at Margate, I immediately suspected the cause, and mentioned my fuspicion to some medical friends; but as none of them could inform me concerning the real circumitances of his case, i fhould have taken no notice of it, had not the following Letter in the London Chronicle attention,
TO the PRINTE R. "SIR, “ Having seen in your own and other Loudon papers, serious accounts of Mr. Colman's illness, I, who have attended him during the whole time, think it but justice to him and liis many friends, to give you a plain and true account of his case and prefent ficuation.
“ Mr. Colman's disorder was a combination of the gout and pally, the last of which was occafwned by his unadvisedly bathing in the sea at an improper period, which struck in the four; the consequences, as might be expested, soon became very serious, and his situation extremely dangerous, &c.
(Signed) JOHN SILVER, Surgeon." MARCATE, Nov. 5, 1785.
On the DIFFERENT SCHOOLS of MUSIC.
Written by the late Dr. GOLDSMITH.
fignifies, that succession of artills that the music of every country is folemn, which has learned the principles of the ait in proportion as the inhabitants are merry ; from some eminent matter, either by hears or, in other words, the merrieft (prightlicit ing his lessons, or studying his works, and, nations are remarked for having the flowest consequently, who imitate his manner either music; and those whose character it is to be through design, or from habit. Muficiaus melancholy, are pleased with the mou briik seem agreed in making only three principal and airy movements. Thus in France, Po. schools in music ; namely, the school of land, Ireland, and Switzerland, the national Pergolese in Italy, of Lully in France, and music is Now, melancholy, and solemn : in of Handel in England: though some are for Italy, England, Spain, and Germany, it is making Rameau the founder of a new school, faiter, proportionably as the people are grave. different from those of the former, as he is Lully only changed a bad manner, which he the inventor of beauties peculiarly his own.
found, for a bad one of his own. His drowsy Without all doubt, Pergolese's music de pieces are played still to the most sprightly serves the first rank: tho' excelling neither audience that can be conceived; and even in variety of movements, number of parts, though Rameau, who is at once a musician or unexpected flights, yet he is universally and a philosopher, has Mewn, both by proallowed to be the mufical Raphael of Italy. cept and example, what improvements This great master's principal art consisted in
French music may still admit of, yet his knowing how to excite our passions by countrymen seem little convinced by his sounds, which seem frequently opposite to reasonings ; and the Pont-neuf taste, as it is the passion they would express : by Now called, still prevails in their best performfolemn sounds he is sometimes known to throw us into all the rage of battle ; and,
The English school was first planned by even by faster movements, he excites melan- Purcel : he attempted to unite the kalian choly in every heart that sounds are capable manner, that prevailed in his time, with of affecting. This is a talent which seems the ancient Celtic carol and the Scotch balborn with the artist. We are unable to tell lad, which probab!y had also its origin in why fuch Sounds affect us: they seem no Italy : for some of the bett Scotch ballads way imitative of the pallion they would ex.
(the Broom of Cowdenknows for instance) press, but operate upon us by an inexpref
are still afcribed to David Rizzio. But he tible sympathy; the original of which is as
that as it will, bis manner was something inscrutable as the secret springs of life itself. peculiar to the English ; and he might have To this excellence he adds another, in continued as head of the English school, had
not his merits been entirely eclipsed by which he is superior to every other artist of Handel. Handel, though originally a Gere the profession, the happy transitions from one passion to another. No dramatic poet had long laboured to please by Italian com
man, yet adopted the English manner : be better knows to prepare his incidents than be : the audience are pleased, in those inter position, but without success; and though vals of paffion, with the delicate, the fimple yet his Italian operas are fallen into oblivior.
his English oratorios are accounted inimitable, hormony, if I may so express it, in which Pergolele excelled in pasionate fimplicity : the parts are all thrown into fugues, or, of
Lully was remarkable for creating a new ten are barely unison. His melodies also, species of music, where all is elegant, but where no panion is expressed, give equal plea: nothing pafliunate or sublime : Handel's true Sure, from this delicate fimplicity: and I
characteristic is sublimity: he has employed need only instance that song in the Serva all the variety of founds and parts in all bis Padrona, which begins, Lo conosco a quel pieces: the performances of the rest may be accelli, as one of the finest instances of excel.
pleasing, thu' executed by few performers ; lence in the duo.
his require the full band. The attention is The Italian artists, in general, have fol- awakened, the soul, is roused up at his pieces ; lowed his manner; yet scem fond of em. but diftinct paflion is seldom exprefled. In bellishing the delicate fimplicity of the ori. this particular he has seldom found fuccefs : ginal. Their stile in mutic seems somewhat he has been obliged, in order to express to resemble that of Seneca in writing, where paflion, to imitate words by founds, which there are some beautiful starts of thought; ino' it gives the pleasure which imitation ale but the whole is filled with Itudied elegance, ways prouluces, yet it fails of exciting those lite and unaffecting attectation).
ingoffections, which it is in the power of fourds Lully, in France, first attempted the iin- to produce. In a word, no man ever un.
wont of their music, which in general derstood barmony lo well as he ; but in me
À COMPARISON between LAUGHING and SENTIMENTAL COMEDY.
BY THE SAME.
THE Theatre, like all other amusements, pity is encreased in proportion to the height
when faciated with its excellence, mankind do not so strongly sympathize with one born begin to mistake change for improvement. in humbler circumstances, and encountering For some years, Tragedy was the reigning accidental distress: so that while we melt entertainment; but of late it has entirely for Belisarius, we scarce give halfpence to given way to Comedy, and our best efforts the beggar who accosts us in the street. The are now exerted in these lighter kinds of one has our pity ; the other our contempt. compositions. The pompous train, the swel- Distress, therefore, is the proper object of lng phrase, and the unnatural rant, are dis- Tragedy, since the great excite our pity by placed for that natural portrait of human their fall; but not equally fo of Comedy, folly and fruilty, of which all are judges, since the actors employed in it are originally because all have fat for the picture.
so mean, that they fiuk but little by their But as in describing nature it is presented fall. with a double face, either of mirth or rad. Since the first origin of the Stage, Tragedy nefs, our modern writers find themselves at and Comedy have run in distinct channels, a lofs which chiefly to copy from; and it is and never till of late encroached upon the now debated, whether the exhibition of hu- provinces of each other. Terence, who man distress is likely to afford the mind seems to have made the nearest approaches, more entertainment than that of human ab- yet always judiciously stops Thort before he fordity ?
comes to the downright pathetic; and yet he Comedy is defined by Aristotle to be a is even reproached by Cæfar for wanting the picture of the frailties of the lower part of vis comica. All the other Comic Writers of mankind, to distinguish it from Tragedy, antiquity aim only at rendering folly or vice which is an exhibition of the misfortunes of ridiculous, but never exalt their characters the great. When Comedy therefore ascends into buskined pomp, or make what Voltaire to produce the characters of princes or gene- humourously calls a Tradesman's Tragedy. rals upon the stage, it is out of its walk, Yet, notwithstanding this weight of aulince low life and middle life are entirely its thority, and the universal praciice of former object. The principal question therefore is, ages, a new species of Dramatic composition whether in describing low or middle life, has been introduced under the name of Sentia an exhibition of its follies be not preferable mental Comedy, in which the virtues of prito a detail of its calamities? Or, in other vate life are exhibited, rather than the vices words, which deserves the preference, The exposed; and the distresses, rather than the Weeping Sentimental Comedy, so much in faults of mankind make our interest in the fanion at present, or the Laughing and even piece. These Comedies have had of late bow Comedy, which seems to have been last great success, perhaps from their novelty, exhibited by Vanburgh and Cibber? and also from their flattering every man in
If we apply to authorities, all the great his favourite foible. In these plays almost matters in the dramatic art have but one all the characters are good, and exceedingly opinion. Their rule is, that as Tragedy generous; they are lavish enough of their displays the calamities of the great ; lo Co- iin money on the stage, and though they medy fhould excite our laughter by ridi- want humour, have abundance of sentiment culously exhibiting the follies of the lower and feeling. If they happen to have faults part of mankind. Boileau, one of the best or foibles, the spectator is taught not only to modern critics, allerts, that Comedy will pardon, but to applaud them, in consideranot admit of tragic distress.
tion of the goodness of their hearts ; so that Le Comique, ennemi des foupirs et des pleurs, folly, instead of being ridiculed, is commended, N’admci point dans ses vers de tragiques and the Comedy aims at touching our pardouleurs,
fions without the power of being truly patheNor is this rule without the strongest foun- tic: in this manner we are likely to lose onc dation in nature, as the distresses of the great source of entertainment on the stage ; mean by no means affect us so strongly as
for while the Comic Poet is invading the the calamities of the great. When Tragedy province of the Tragic Muse, he leaves her exhibits to us some great man fallen from his lovely fifter quite neglected. Of this, how. height, and struggling with want and adver- ever, he is no way solicitous, as he measures fity, we feel his situation in the same manner his fame by his profits, * we suppose he himself muft feel, and our
But it will be said, that the theatre is EuZOP. MAG
formed formed to amuse mankind, and that it mat. and marked with fterility. If we are per ters little, if this end be answered, by whit mitted to make Comedy weep, we have an means it is obtained. If mankind find de- equal right to make Tragedy laugh, and to light in weeping at Comedy, it would be set down in blank verse the jeits and recruel to abridge them in that or any other partees of all the attendants in a funeral innocent pleasure. If those pieces are de- procellion. nied the name of Comedies ; yet call them But there is one argument in favour of hy any other name, and if they are delight- Sentimental Comedy which will keep it on ful, they are good. Their success, it will the Stage in spite of all that can be said be faid, is a mark of their merit, and it is against it. It is, (! all others, the most only abridging our happiness to deny us an easily written. Those abilities that can haminlet to amusement.
mer out a Novel, are fully fufficient for the These objections, however, are rather production of a Sentimental Comedy. It is specious than solid. It is true, that amuse- only sufficient to raise the characters a little, ment is a great object of the Theatre ; to deck out the hero with a ribbard, or give and it will be allowed, that these Sentimental the heroine a title; then to put an inú pid pieces do often amuse us : but the question is, dialogue, without character or humour, into Whether the True Comedy would not amuse their mouths, give them mighty good hearts, us more? The question is, whether a cha- very fine cloaths, furnish a new lett of scenes, racter supported throughout a piece with its make a pathetic scene or two, with a sprinkridicule Itill attending would not give us ling of
tender melancholy conversation more delight than this species of baftard Tra. through the whole, and there is no doubt bux gedy, which only is applauded because it is all the ladies will cry, and all the gentlemen new?
applau!. A friend of mine who was fitting unmoved Humour at present scems to be departing at one of these Sentimental pieces, was aske from the Stage, and it will soon happen ed, how he could be so indifferent. “Why, that our Comic players will have nothing “ truly," says he, as the hero is but a trades. left for it but a fine coat and a song. It de.
man, it is indifferent to me whether he pends upon the audience whether they will " be turned out of his Counting-house on actually drive those poor merry creatures * Fish-ftreet Hill, fince he will fill have from the itage, or fit at a play as gloomy as “ enough left tu orea (hop in St. Giles's." at the tabernacle. It is not easy to recover
The other objection is as ill grounded; for an art when once loft; and it would be bus though we should give these pieces another a just punishment that when, by our being name, it will not mend their efficacy. It too fastidious, we have banished humour will continue a kind of mulijk production, from the Stage, we Mhould ourselves be de. with all the defects of its opposite parents, prived of the art of laughing.
Quid fit turpe, quid utils, quid dulce, quid non. The Structure and Phyfiology of Fishes explained and compared with those of Man, and
other Animals. By Alexander Monro, M. D. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, and of the Royal Society, and Profeflor of Phyfic, Anatomy, and Surgery in the Univerfity of Edinburgh. Illuttrated with Figures. Folio 2l. 28. Elliot, Edinburgh, and Rebinfons, London, 1785. OCTOR Monro, in a fhort introduction described by authors, he thought arı account
to this curious and claborate work, informs of thein would be equally acceptable to the the reader, that a variety of circumstances Phytician and the Naturalitt, more especially having occurred to him in examining the as they relate to points of chief importance in Itructure of fishes, some of which had been the animal economy. Citirely overlocked, and others imperfectly After giving a definition of the generic
ferm of fishes, which comprehends the Nantes surface of the skin. The liquors secreted Pienati as well as the Pifces of Linneus, be into the cavities of the cranium, pericardium, begins with cracing the blood from the heart and abdomen, are next considered. Of those and its retum to that organ: he next makes t'creted into the organs of digestion, the some curfory observations on the organs of Doctor remarks, that as these animals are fecretion, proceeds to give an account of cold, it is more evident than in man, that their absorbene system, and concludes with the gastric liquor acts as a menstruam upou fome observations on their brain, nerves, and their food. “ In all of them, he says, the the organs of their senses. The Doctor's liver is large, and of course the secretion of chief example among the Nantes Pinnali is bile copious; in all, organs are found which the raia, or fcate ; among the Pifces of Lin- pour out liquors, similar, probably, in their Deus, the gadus, or cod-fith, though he oc- effects to those of our pancreatic liquor. In catwonally throws further light on the subject the scate, the pancreas is fimilar to the huby deicribing parts of other fishes.
m3n). In the sturgeon an organ is found, The first chapter contains a description of resembling in its internal structure the inthe heart, vefsels, and circulation of the blood testinula cxci, which in the offeous fishes in fithes. In all the fishes the Doctor has fupply the place of the pancreas, the whole dfiected, he has, he fays, found but one enclosed in a muscle, evidently intended to heart, anffting of one auricle, and one express its contents." ventricle; and that from the latter one Speaking of the fecretions of the male artery is sent out, which is entirely spent on organs of generation Doctor Monro obferves, the gills. That from the gills, therefore, that the Itructure of the milt in the offeous the returning blood paffes to all the oulier fishes appears to be very simple; but that parts of the body, without the intervention iu some of the cartilaginous ones, as the ufa fecond heart, as in man.--The method [cate, the apparatus appears more complex in which the Doctor has here expressed than in man ; for in place of the testicle, a hamieli is incorrect; as at first it seems to fubstance is observed, composed partly of fignify that man has two hearts: a trifling white matter like the milt, and partly of Edasposition would have removed the diffis small spherical bodies. From these culty,
epidydimis is produced, chiefly composed of After tracing the blood from the heart to convoluted tubes, terminating in a serpen. the gills, and from thence back to the heart, tine vas deferens; the under part of which he proceeds to draw several conclufions, of is greatly dilated, and forms, as in birds, a #kich we shall only mention the following, considerable receptacle, or veficula semiPiz. " That the circulation of the blood be. natis. ng carried on in the cartilaginous fishes in the Contiguous to the outer side of the dilated' me manger as in the ofreous, or pifces of end of the vas Jeferens, he found a bag of Lineus, and the whole mass of blood par. confiderable tize filled with green liquor, bing through their gills, they must breathe which is discharged into the fame funnel regularly and uninterruptedly, to furnish blood with the semen, and probably at the same to the brain and other organs, or they cannot
time with it. puters the palmo arbitrarius, as is supposed by
The Doctor here takes occasion to confi. Linneus; so that there appears no jult reason der the opinion of certain anatomists, who far ciaffing them with the amphibia.” contend, that the organs commonly called
In the third chapter, which treats of the vesiculæ femin.les, are not receptacles of the indular organs and secreted liquors of liquor secreted by the testes, but organs cathes, the Doctor observes, that the surface pable of secreting from their inner surface a ** Ches, especially such as live in the sea, is prolific liquor, which is mixed with that defended by a quantity of viscid lime, from the testis. To such the description of uued out in the ofseous fishes by the the vesicula abovementioned containing the branches of two duets placed upon their sides, green liquor will probably, he thinks, apo wirich are continued upon the head and up- pear a full confirmation of their new doctrine, per jaw; and others of a similar nature are founded on two observations. First, that on nded upon the under jaw. In the cate our examining the liquor of the vesiculæ seminales accurate anatomist discovered an elegant of a man immediately after death, it was Serpentine canal between the skin and found different in its appearance from the remuscles, at the sides of the five apertures men discharged by a living person. Secondinto the gills. From the principal part of ly, that a considerable time after caftration, this duct, in the belly of the fith, there are geldings and oxen had been found capable of nece above fix or eight outlets; but from the generating. Iu answer to this, the Doctoç upper part, near the eyes, there are upward observes, that although the liquor of the ve, o jo imall ducts sent off, opening on the siculæ seminales differs in colour from the se: