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proper season is effective. During my investigations in the outlying infected districts I am more than confirmed in this opinion. In Springfield, City Forester Gale, who has treated the trees of that city for the past five or six years for the elm-leaf beetle, and has been successful in his treatment, uses the spray in the early spring, and has found that one spraying kills the larvae and is usually effective. It is made when the leaves have just formed, early in May. In Worcester, City Forester Greenleaf employs the same method with success. The cost of this work, however, is considerable, being stated by Mr. Gale at $5.00 per tree. This, however, should not discourage efforts at extermination, for the more promptly measures are taken the less number of trees there will be to treat. To show the efficiency of Mr. Gale's treatment, I would state that while the street trees treated by him are now in full and healthy foliage, elm trees of the same kind growing on private lands, and whose branches nearly touch them, are entirely stripped of their foliage by the elm-leaf beetle. And this fact, too, should, I think, teach us the wisdom of the city undertaking the treatment not only of the city trees but of those on private grounds which are infected by the destructive insect in question. This is the only effective way in which the pest can be fought and exterminated. It would never do to clear the city trees of the pest and allow those on private grounds to become the breeding places of new swarms, as in that case the treatment would have to be repeated from year to year at great expense. Besides spraying the trees in the spring there is another method that would materially aid in exterminating the pest. Take good Canada hardwood ashes, with about eight or nine per cent. of potash in them, and spread around the root of the tree to a radius of about six feet. This layer of ashes should not be less than one-eighth of an inch in thickness, and it would do no harm if it were half an inch thick, but would rather do good by furnishing to the tree nutriment which it readily assimilates and thrives on. When the layer of ashes is spread around the trees it should be well soaked with water, to leach out the potash. At the same time the caustic alkali will kill all grubs, larvae, etc., that are in the ground, and will arrest those which descend the trunks and which may be destroyed by spraying. Now, in regard to spraying, I see that the arsenate of lead is highly recommended, to be used at the rate of 5 to 10 pounds to 150 gallons of water. This mixture I have no doubt would prove effective, but I would prefer one of the following composition: To one gallon of boiling water add one pound of whale oil soap strong in potash. Dissolve the soap thoroughly, and then add one gallon of kerosene oil and one pint of ninety-five per cent. solution of carbolic acid. Then agitate the whole mass until an emulsion is secured, and for use in the sprayer take one portion of the solution to five of water. This mixture used on the trunks and limbs of the trees, before the leaves develop, and in conjunction with the arsenate of lead, should prove an effective remedy for the pest. And this leads me to the consideration of spraying outfits. They should be acquired in such numbers as would enable my Department to treat the trees in different sections of the City at the right time for such treatment, and not allow the work to drag over until in many cases it may be too late to treat successfully by spraying. One of the best spraying machines that I know of is the one invented by Mr. E. C. Ware, of Walpole, Mass. This machine is described by Mr. E. H. Forbush under the title of “Improvements in Spraying Machinery.” I have estimated that at least twelve of these machines should be acquired by the City of Boston, and that the total cost of these and their equipments, including spray poles, spray nozzles, hose, tanks, etc., would be from $1,200 to $1,500. From what I have here briefly outlined it would seem : First, that the elm-leaf beetle is closing in upon the City, and, to protect our noble elms and save them from destruction, it will be necessary to not only treat the trees belonging to the City but those on private grounds. Secondly, that the liberal use of ashes around the trees, and spraying their trunks and limbs will exterminate the beetle and with it other pests, such as the brown tail, tussock, and other parasitic insects. Thirdly, that, while it will be absolutely necessary to make the work of extermination thorough and effectual, it is going to cost the City a considerable sum of money. Fourthly, that in order to prosecute this work a considerable special appropriation will be needed. If this is forthcoming, I can promise that the work will be prosecuted with vigor. If not, and the pest assumes more threatening proportions, as it now threatens to do, this Department will be powerless to cope with it. In conclusion, I would respectfully urge that immediate action be taken in this matter, as it will be necessary to give the order for construction of the spraying apparatus this fall,

in order to have them in readiness for the work in the spring, as they are not on the market and are only produced to order.



IN BoARD of ALDERMEN, August 5, 1901. Ordered to be printed, and sent down. - JAMES H. DOYLE, Chairman.

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MAYOR'S OFFICE, BosTON, MASS., 2 August, 1901.

To the Honorable the City Council :

GENTLEMEN, - I transmit here with a study of our City finances, by Frederic H. Fay, of our Engineering Department. Originally these studies were undertaken to show the annual rate of increase in population, valuation, income and debt from 1885 to 1900. Mr. Fay extended the inquiry somewhat, and the result should be published, not, perhaps, as a finality, but to indicate the proper direction and method of such work. I consider this scientific study of City affairs both useful and honorable, and request that Mr. Fay's essay be printed as a City Document, and that the author receive a hundred copies for his own use.



IN BOARD OF ALDERMEN, August 5, 1901.

Ordered to be printed, and sent down.

JAMES H. DOYLE, * Chairman.

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