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this year, 16 less than the number reported in 1855. The location of the disease, in each case, has been specified with all possible accuracy.
Consumption. As usual, this disease appears as the grand destroyer. Its totality of victims in the present table, is seen to be 760, an increase of 25 over last year's record, and making nearly 17.87 per cent. of all the deaths. Although there were less deaths from Consumption in 1855 than in 1854, there was an increase in the percentage of mortality from that cause in the former year. The present table shows an increase in the number of deaths, but a relative decrease in the percentage. By the following statement, it will be seen, that of those dying from this disease, foreigners make 63.81 per cent. The same class furnished 69 per cent. of the victims of the previous year.
Of persons born in the United States, there died.
Other foreign countires, 6 Children of foreign parents,.
. 164 .196 .7
2 .3 13
As usual, those born in Ireland furnish more than half of the victims, being no less than 52.63 per cent. of the entire number. As in last year's record, the Irish males and females furnish about an equal number, varying only eight, while the American females exceed the American males by 53. By the census of 1855, the Irish population is given as 69,236. The above table shows that 1 in every 173 of this number dies of Con
sumption. The German population is stated to be 4,590, of which 1 in every 270 dies. The native population is given as 76,380, of which 1 in every 277.74 dies. When the employments, habits, and habitations of the class first named are considered, the fatality of this disease among them is not to be wondered at. The fact is significant, and is susceptible of but one inference.
The following table, giving the number of deaths from Consumption in each ward, and in the several public institutions, will prove interesting to all engaged in sanitary or mortuary matters :
To those who are not residents of the City, or who are unacquainted with the topographical and other characteristics of the several wards, a few remarks regarding them may not be unacceptable.
Ward 1, the most populous ward of the twelve, comprises the north end of the city, and is entirely circumscribed on the east, north and west, by the Charles River. Its population is largely made up of foreigners, and embraces a portion of a district similar in character to that of the “Five Points" of New York. The ground is low and flat on the east, north, and extreme west, thickly studded with dwellings, mostly of an inferior character. Other portions of the ward comprise elevated ground, and are occupied by dwellings of a respectable character. The deaths from Consumption in this ward make 16.24 per cent. of the entire mortality here.
Ward 2, or East Boston, is an island in the harbor, and ranks as the fourth ward in population. Portions of it are elevated ground, while others are low and marshy. The whole of it is fully exposed to the east winds which come from the sea. The deaths from Consumption in this ward make 16.80 per cent. of all the deaths here.
Ward 3 is the sixth in population, which is of a mixed character. Portions of it contain overcrowded tenements, presenting the usual characteristics of such a condition. The deaths from Consumption in this locality make 16.03 per cent. of all the deaths in this ward.
Ward 4 ranks twelfth in population. It embraces portions of North and Cross streets, and various populous lanes and alleys that intersect them. It was in this portion of the ward where no inconsiderable part of the mortality occurred. The deaths from Consumption make 14.28 per cent. of the mortality of the ward.
Ward 5 is at the west side of the city, with its western front on the Charles River. It is the tenth in population. The general condition of the streets is good, and the dwellings for the most part of a respectable character. The deaths from Consumption here make 17.70 per
cent. of the whole number of deaths in the ward. Ward 6, the ninth in population, adjoins ward 5, with the same western boundary, but occupies much more elevated ground. Its southern line is the Common, in
the vicinity of which are some of the most costly residences in the city. It is well to state, that it is in this ward that the great bulk of the colored population reside, of whom, however, only ten died of Consumption. The deaths from this disease here make 20.46 per cent. of the whole mortality in the ward.
Ward 7 is the second in population, and is largely made up of foreigners. It embraces the "Fort Hill” district, with its eastern boundary fronting on the water, in close proximity to which are numerous tenements, huddled so closely together as to admit of little or no ventilation, and scarcely allowing any approach to cleanliness. The deaths in this ward number 472, of which those from Consumption make 20.55 per cent.
Ward 8, the seventh in population, is largely made up of ground formed by filling up the wharves on its eastern boundary. This ward also contains a large foreign population, inhabiting overcrowded, ill-ventilated dwellings, the cellars of which are filled with water at the rising of the tide. Of the entire mortality of the ward, Consumption makes 21.34 per cent.
Ward 9 is the eleventh in population, and embraces that portion of the city in which the Common is situated. Although many of its streets are narrow, the dwellings generally are of a respectable character. The mortality from Consumption makes 21.22 per cent. of all the deaths in the ward.
Ward 10 ranks as the eighth in population. The remarks used in reference to ward 8 are applicable to a portion of this ward. Of the mortality, Consumption makes but 15.80 per cent.
Ward 11, the fifth in population, comprises the southern part of the city, known as the “Neck," a narrow strip of about a mile in length, and about half a mile in width. Its entire eastern line borders on South Boston Bay, while its western boundary is the Basin formed by the Mill Dam, the waters of which formerly overflowed a considerable portion of the “ Neck.” The streets of this ward mostly intersect each other at right angles, and are being rapidly filled up with dwellings of a superior character. The deaths from Consumption in this ward amount to but 13.78 per cent. of the mortality of the ward.
Ward 12, or South Boston, is a peninsula, and is the third in population, a large proportion of which are foreign-born. Its situation is elevated, with most of its streets laid out at right angles and filled up, with but few exceptions, with houses of a respectable character. The deaths from Consumption in this ward make but 13.54 per cent. of the mortality from all causes.
The deaths from Consumption in the various Public Institutions amount to 74, being 24.74 per cent. of the whole mortality in those places.
By the foregoing, it will be seen that of the twelve wards, the percentage of deaths from Consumption is greatest in ward 8, and the least in ward 12.
The subjoined statement, showing the occupations of all the males who died from Consumption, may be interesting as a matter of reference: